tr. R.F. Larcher, O.P.
Petri de Scala
11 μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμῶν [ψευδόμενοι] ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ: 12 χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς: οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν. 11. Blessed are ye when they shall revile you, and persecute you, and speak all that is evil against you, untruly, for my sake: 12. Be glad and rejoice for your reward is very great in heaven. For so they persecuted the prophets that were before you. Beati estis, cum maledixerint vobis homines et cetera. Supra ab illo loco beati pauperes spiritu etc. instruxit generaliter ea quae erant perfectionis, hic sermonem ad discipulos dirigit. Ubi primo monet eos ad passionum tolerantiam, quod opus perfectum habet, Iac. I, 4; secundo ad executionem sui officii diligentem, ibi vos estis sal terrae. Blessed are you, when men revile you... Above, from the first beatitude on he instructed all in general about matters of perfection; here he directs his sermon to the disciples. First, he admonishes them to endure sufferings, "which has a perfect work" (Jas 1:4); secondly, to perform their office diligently (v. 13). Insuper prima in tres. Primo monet ad persecutionum patientiam considerando causam propter quam patiuntur; secundo considerando praemium, quod ex passionibus consequuntur, ibi gaudete et exultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis; tertio, exemplo prophetarum quos sic patientes imitantur, ibi sic enim persecuti sunt prophetas. In regard to the first he does three things: first, he admonishes them to suffer persecution by considering the cause on account of which they are suffering; secondly, by considering the reward they obtain from their suffering (v. 123); thirdly, by the example of the prophets, whom they imitate by suffering in this way (v. 12:b). Tria autem monet sustinenda; duo in praesentia, scilicet contumelias in verbis, et iniurias in factis; et unum in absentia, scilicet detractiones, sive morsiones ex odio cordis. He advises that there are three things to be endured: two in their presence, namely, contumely in words and injury in deed; and one in their absence, namely, detraction and calumny springing from hatred in the heart. Dicit ergo beati estis, idest causa assumendae beatitudinis adest vobis, cum maledixerint vobis homines, idest peccatores. Glossa: ex odio cordis in faciem contumelias dixerint. Hieronymus: ubi Christus in causa est, optanda est maledictio. I Petr. IV, v. 14: si exprobramini in nomine Christi, beati. Et persecuti vos fuerint, vim inferendo, vel iniuriando, secundum Glossam. Et dixerint omne malum adversum vos, scilicet famam vestram laedendo in absentia per omnia genera verborum malorum. Et sic est triplex persecutio, scilicet cordis, operis et oris. Mentientes, hoc dicit quia non est gloria, de quo vere mala dicuntur; propter me, idest occasione mei cui inhaeretis. Chrysostomus: qui mendaciter blasphematur, et propter Deum, beatus est; sed si alterum deest, non est merces beatitudinis. Gaudete et exultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis. (11) He says, therefore, Blessed are you, i.e., the cause of obtaining beatitude is present to you, when men, i.e., sinners, revile you. A Gloss: "From hatred in their heart they spoke insults to your face." Jerome: "Where Christ is concerned, one should choose to be reviled" ; (1 Pt 4:14): "If you are reproached for the name of Christ, you are blessed." And persecute you by applying force or injuring, according to a Gloss. And utter all kinds of evil against you, i.e., by harming your reputation with all kinds of evil words in your absence. Accordingly, the persecution is threefold: in the heart, in deed and in word. Falsely. He says this, because there is no glory for a person about whom evils are truthfully said; on my account, i.e., by reason of me, in whom you inhere. Chrysostom: One falsely blasphemed on account of God is blessed; but if one of these conditions is lacking, there is no reward of the beatitude. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven. Ecce secundum, scilicet consideratio praemii, quod consequuntur; unde dicit gaudete, Glossa: mente, et exultate, corde, in illa die, scilicet quando sustinueritis illa. Rabanus: nescio quis nostrum hoc possit implere, ut laceretur opprobriis fama nostra, et exultemus in domino. Hoc qui vanam sectatur gloriam, implere non potest: eleganter enim in quodam volumine legimus, quod si non quaeras gloriam, non dolebis cum inglorius fueris. Chrysostomus: quantum quisque de laude hominum laetatur, tantum de opprobrio tristatur; et infra: qui quaerit tantum gloriam apud Deum, non timet confundi in conspectu hominum. Behold the second, namely, the consideration of the reward they obtain; hence he says, rejoice in mind and be glad in heart on that day, namely, when you have suffered these things. Rabanus: "I do not know which of us can endure having our good name torn by reproaches and then rejoicing in the Lord. One who seeks vainglory cannot do it. For we read in a certain book that if you do not seek glory, you will not be sad when you are inglorious." Chrysostom: "To the extent that one rejoices in human praise, to that extent he is saddened by reproach"; and later: "One who seeks glory before God only, does not fear being confused in the sight of men." Sed est hic quaestio. Quare huiusmodi additur persuasio, dicens gaudete et exultate etc., et in praecedentibus beatitudinibus non? Responsio. Haec beatitudo est circa tolerantiam passionum, quod est difficillimum in comparatione ad alia supra posita: propter quod indiget persuasione. Vel hoc addit ne apostolos quasi novitios cito terreat, quos alloquitur, cum dicit beati estis et cetera. Quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis, scilicet Deus in se; Gen. XV, 1: ego merces tua magna nimis. Item copiosa respective; ad Rom. VIII, 18: non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam quae revelabitur in nobis; II Cor. IV, v. 17: id quod in praesenti momentaneum est et leve tribulationis nostrae, supra modum in sublimitate aeternum gloriae pondus operatur in nobis. Copiosa est, quia secundum numerum tribulationum erit et numerus consolationum; Ps. XCIII, 19: secundum multitudinem dolorum meorum consolationes tuae laetificaverunt animam meam; II Cor. I, 5: sicut abundant passiones Christi in vobis, ita et per Christum abundat consolatio vestra. Lucas dicit: multa est in caelo. Et dicit in caelis, pluraliter, propter multitudinem gaudiorum. Glossa: in superioribus partibus mundi. But there is a question here. Why is such an exhortation added here, rejoice and be glad, and not in the preceding beatitudes? The answer is that this beatitude deals with enduring suffering, which is most difficult as compared with others mentioned above; consequently, it calls for an exhortation. Or he adds this, so as not to alarm the apostles, to whom he is speaking, when he says, Blessed are you, because your reward is great in heaven, namely, God in himself: "I am your reward exceedingly great" (Gen 15:1). Also great comparatively: "The sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory that is to be revealed in us" (Rom 8:18); "This slight momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison" (2 Cor 4:17). It is great, because according to the number of tribulations will also be the number of consolations: "When the cares of my heart are many, you consolation cheer my soul" (Ps 94:19); "As we share abundantly in Christ's sufferings, so through Christ we share abundantly in comfort too" (2 Cor 1:5). He says, in heaven in the plural [in the Latin text] on account of the multitude of joys. A Gloss: "In the higher regions of the world." Contra dicit Beda: caelos non hic dici puto superiores partes aeris. Responsio. Mundus hic dicitur caelum Empyreum cum tota machina mundiali, et non tantum id quod includitur per primum mobile, ut volebant philosophi; unde superiores partes mundi dicuntur, quia est supra mundum istum. On the other hand, Bede says: "I do not think that 'heaven' here means the higher regions of the air." The answer is that 'world' here includes the empyrean heaven along with the world-system, and not only that which is called the first mobile by the philosopher; hence, they are called the higher parts of the world, because it is above that world. Sic enim persecuti sunt prophetas. Hic ponitur tertium, quod scilicet debent sufferre passiones exemplo prophetarum; unde: sic, idest per contumelias, iniurias et verba maligna, persecuti sunt prophetas; Iac. v. 10: exemplum accipite, fratres, exitus mali et longanimitatis, laboris et patientiae, prophetas qui locuti sunt in nomine domini. Qui fuerunt ante vos, et ideo exempla eorum vos invitant. Gregorius: si facta praecedentium recolamus, gravia non sunt quae sustinemus. Hebr. penult., 1: itaque habentes tantam nubem testium, deponentes omne pondus, et circumstans nos peccatum, per patientiam curramus ad propositum nobis certamen. For so men persecuted the prophets... Here is presented the third admonition, namely, that they should endure sufferings after the example of the prophets; hence so, i.e., by contumely, injuries and evil words, they persecuted the prophets: "As an example of suffering and patience take the prophets, who spoke in the name of the Lord" (Jas 5:10). Who were before you and, therefore, invite you to follow their example. Gregory: "If we recall the deeds of our predecessors, the things we endure are not grievous"; (Heb 12:1): "Since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with perseverance the race set before us."
Petri de Scala
13 ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς: ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ, ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται; εἰς οὐδὲν ἰσχύει ἔτι εἰ μὴ βληθὲν ἔξω καταπατεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 14 ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου. 13. You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is good for nothing anymore but to be cast out, and to be trodden on by men. 14. You are the light of the world. Vos estis sal terrae et cetera. Haec est secunda pars, ubi monet diligentiam habere in executione sui officii. Et primo in forma exequendi, quae sub ratione exempli informantis eis ostenditur; secundo in modo docendi, qui eis praescribitur, ibi sic luceat lux vestra. Exemplum informans designatur in varietate similitudinum, quarum duae sunt per affirmationem, ubi ostenditur ad quod debent esse, quia ad condiendum exemplo vitae, ibi vos estis sal terrae; secundo ad lucendum, vel illuminandum verbo doctrinae, ibi vos estis lux mundi. (13) You are the salt of the earth. This is the second part, where he advises diligence in the execution of their office: first, in the manner of executing, which is shown to them under the aspect of example that persuades; secondly, in the manner of teaching (v. 16). The persuasive example is designated in a variety of comparisons, two of which are presented in an affirmative way. First, they are shown their purpose, which is to season by the example of their lives; secondly, to give light or to illumine by the word of doctrine (v. 14). Inter condimenta nihil sale utilius: inter visibilia nihil luce clarius. Duae autem aliae dicuntur per negationem, in quibus ostenditur, ad quod debent non esse; quia nec in absconsione vitae, vel personae: unde dicit non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita, neque in occultatione doctrinae, vel gratiae; unde dicit neque accendunt lucernam et ponunt eam sub modio. Inter praesidia nihil civitate manifestius; inter utensilia nihil lucerna convenientius. Ergo debent esse sal in vita et moribus; lux in doctrinis et praedicationibus; civitas in praesidiis et defensionibus; lucerna in accensionibus. Beda docet ut sale condiant animas ad incorruptionis sanitatem, ut illuminent ad veritatis intelligentiam, ut acquisitos ab hostibus defendant, defensos ad amorem deitatis accendant. Dicit ergo vos estis, idest esse debetis, sal terrae. Glossa: sal optimum condiens terrenos exemplo vitae. Hieronymus: sal appellantur apostoli, quia per ipsos universum hominum genus conditur. Notantur autem hic tria. Primo eorum, et omnium apostolicorum virorum officium cum dicit vos estis sal terrae; secundo eorum periculum cum dicit quod si sal evanuerit; tertio eorum supplicium, cum dicit ad nihilum valet ultra. Among seasonings none is more useful than salt; among visible things none is clearer than light. But two others are mentioned in a negative way. In these is shown what their purpose is not, namely, not in concealing their life or person; hence he says, a city set upon a mountain cannot be hidden: nor in concealing the doctrine or grace; hence he says, nor do men light a lamp and put it under a bushel. Among defenses nothing is more obvious than a city; among useful things none is more suitable than a lamp. Therefore, they ought to be salt in life and morals; light in doctrine and preaching; a city in defenses and protection; a lamp in burning. Bede teaches that with salt they should season souls into the health of incorruption, that they should enlighten toward an understanding of truth, that they should defend their converts from enemies and inflame those they defend to a love of the godhead. He says, therefore, you are, i.e., ought to be, the salt of the earth. A Gloss: "The best salt, seasoning the worldly by the example of life." Jerome: "The apostles are called salt, because by them the entire human race is seasoned." Here three things are noted: first, the office of the apostles and of all apostolic men, when he says, you are the salt of the earth; secondly, their danger, when he says, but if the salt lose its taste; thirdly, their penalty, when he says, it is no longer good for anything. Comparantur autem sali ratione virtutis, ratione originis, et ratione consuetudinis.
- Ratione virtutis primo,
- quia habet virtutem saporativam, quia cibos condit; sic sermo apostolicus mentes insipidas condiebat; Col. IV, 6: omnis sermo vester in gratia semper sit sale conditus.
- Secundo habet vim arefactivam, unde Augustinus: sal sterilem terram facit: sic apostoli, destructo regno peccati, germen vitiorum compescebant. Sap. c. III, 13: felix sterilis et incoinquinata, quae nescivit thorum in delicto, habebit fructum in respectione animarum sanctarum.
- Tertio habet virtutem restrictivam, unde Augustinus: sal carnes desiccat: sic ipsi carnales concupiscentias restringebant; I Petr. II, 11: obsecro vos abstinere a carnalibus desideriis.
- Quarto habet virtutem mundificativam, unde Augustinus: sal a vermibus et putredine servat: sic praedicatio verbi divini arcet a putredine vitiorum; Rom. VI, 12: non regnet peccatum in vestro mortali corpore, ut obediatis concupiscentiis eius.
- Quinto habet virtutem sanativam, sicut habes IV Reg. II, 19 ss., quod Eliseus sale in vas novum misso sanavit aquas Iericho: sic infuso sale sapientiae caelestis in corde apostolorum, sanatae sunt aquae, idest populi; Ps. CVI, 20: misit verbum suum, et sanavit eos.
- Secundo comparantur sali ratione originis: nam sal ex aqua maris et calore ignis vel solis conficitur; et apostoli ex aqua tribulationis, et calore dilectionis facti sunt; Ps. LXV, v. 12: transivimus per ignem et aquam; Thren. I, 13: de caelo misit ignem in ossibus meis.
- Tertio ratione consuetudinis, quia usus eius in omni sacrificio erat; Lev. II, 13: omnis victima sale salietur. Sic honesta conversatio erat, et in occulto, et in aperto, et coram Deo, et coram proximo; Rom. XII, 17: providentes bona non tantum coram Deo, sed etiam coram hominibus.
They are compared to salt by reason of its quality, by reason of its origin and by reason of its use.
- First, by reason of its quality,
- because it has power to flavor, for it seasons foot. In this way the sermons of the apostles seasoned insipid minds: "Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt" (Col 4:6).
- Secondly, it has the power to make dry; hence, Augustine: "Salt makes land sterile; so the apostles, having destroyed the kingdom of sin, kept the seed of vices in check: "Blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled, who has not entered into a sinful union; she will have fruit, when God examines souls" (Wis 3:13).
- Thirdly, it has restraining power; hence Augustine says that salt dries up flesh. So the apostles restrained fleshly desires: "I beseech you to abstain from the passions of the flesh" (1 Pt 2:11.
- Fourthly, it has cleansing power; hence, Augustine says that salt preserves from worms and rottenness. So the preaching o the divine word defends from the rottenness of sin: "Let not sin, therefore, reign in your mortal bodies, to make you obey their passions" (Rom 4:12).
- Fifthly, it has healing power, as in 2 Kings (2:19 ff) we read that Elisha, having put salt in a new bowl, used it to make the waters of Jericho wholesome. Similarly, after the salt of wisdom was poured into the heart of the apostles, the waters, i.e., the people, were purified: "He sent forth his word and healed them": (Ps 107:20).
- "Secondly they are compared to salt by reason of origin: for salt is made from sea water and the heat of fire or of the sun; and the apostles were made from the water of tribulation and the heat of love: "We went through fire and through water" (Ps 66:12); "From on high he sent fire into my bones" (Lam 1:13).
- Thirdly, by reason of custom, because it was used in every sacrifice: "With all your offerings you shall offer salt" (Lev 2:13). So the apostles' life was honorable in private and in public, before God and neighbor.
Quod si sal evanuerit, in quo salietur? Hic ostenditur eorum periculum; unde dicit quod si sal, idest praedicator, vel praelatus, vel doctor evanuerit. Evanescere dicitur sal tripliciter, scilicet liquefactione, quod fit per humidum et frigidum; secundo infatuatione; tertio evanescit, quando omnino deficit. Expone ergo tripliciter sic:
- si evanuerit, idest frigore, sive timore adversitatis, vel humiditate prosperitatis se dissolverit, in quo salietur? Idest, in quo populus bonis moribus informabitur?
- Vel si evanuerit, idest infatuetur, deviando a veritate, in quo, idest per quem, populus erudietur? Secundum Bedam. Thren. IV, 4: parvuli petierunt panem, et non erat qui frangeret eis.
- Vel, si evanuerit, idest omnino defecerit, in quo salietur? Idest per quem modum poenitentiae condietur populus? Ier. XXX, 12: insanabilis fractura tua, pessima plaga tua. De omnibus his Hieronymus: evanescit sal cupiditate effluens, timore succumbens, errore subvertens, prosperis elatus, adversis depressus.
But if salt has lost its taste, how shall its saltiness be restored? Here is shown their danger; hence, he says But if the salt, i.e., the preacher, or prelate, or teacher lose its taste. Salt is said to lose its taste in three ways, namely, by liquefying, which is caused by something cold and wet; secondly, when it misleads; thirdly, when it is depleted. This is explained in three ways thus:
- If it lose its taste, i.e., by coldness or fear of adversity, or is dissolved by the dampness of prosperity, how shall its saltiness be restored, i.e., how shall the people acquire good habits?
- Or, if it lose its taste, i.e., misleads, by deviating from the truth, how shall the people be instructed: "The children beg for food, but no one gives to them" (Lam 4:4).
- Or, if it lose its taste, i.e., completely vanishes, how shall its saltiness be restored, i.e., by what sort of penance shall the people be seasoned? (Jer 30:12): "Your hurt is incurable, and your wound is grievous." Jerome says of all these: "Salt loses its taste by wasting away through greed, giving in to fear, subverting by error, becoming puffed up by prosperity and depressed by adversity."
Ad nihilum valet ultra. Hic notatur eorum supplicium: ubi tria ponuntur.
- Primo valoris annihilatio per subtractionem gratiae; I Cor. XV, 10: gratia Dei sum id, quod sum et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit ad nihilum valet ultra, quia, ut dicit Beda; suo unctu germinare prohibet, et foecundare non sinit. Unde Lc. XIV, 35: neque in terra, neque in sterquilinio utile est.
- Secundo gloriae amissio ex defectu negligentiae; unde subditur nisi ut mittatur foras, idest extra Ecclesiam, vel extra Paradisum, vel ab officio docendi removeatur; Apoc. XXII, v. 15: foris canes, et venefici, et impudici, et homicidae, e idolis servientes, et omnis qui amat, et facit mendacium; Io. XV, 6: mittetur foras sicut palmes, et arescet et cetera.
- Tertio damnatio Gehennae ex cumulatione nequitiae; unde subditur et conculcetur ab hominibus, idest a Daemonibus; Daemon enim aliquando dicitur homo, sicut Ps. CXVII, 6: non timebo quid faciat mihi homo; Glossa: idest Diabolus. Vel conculcetur ab hominibus; idest, simul cum aliis calcetur, vel subtus alios in profundum Inferni proiiciatur; Mal. ult., 3: calcabitis impios; Iob XX, v. 25: vadent, et venient super eum horribiles. Vel conculcetur ab hominibus, idest irrideatur a carnalibus hominibus, Osee IV, 9: sicut populus, sic et sacerdos.
It is no longer good for anything. Here is presented their penalty, where three things are mentioned:
- first, the loss of strength through the removal of grace: "By the grace of God I am what I am" (1 Cor 15:10). In regard to this he says, it is no longer good for anything, because, as Bede says, he prevents his anointing from blossoming and does not allow him to bear fruit." Hence Luke (14:35): "It is neither fit for the land nor the dunghill."
- Secondly, the loss of glory on account of negligence; hence he adds, except to be thrown out, i.e., out of the Church, or out of paradise, or be removed from the office of teaching: "Outside are the dogs and sorcerers and fornicators and murderers and idolaters and everyone who loves and practices falsehood" (Rev 22:15); "He is cast forth as a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and burned" (Jn 15:6).
- Thirdly, the damnation of gehenna from the accumulated iniquities; hence he adds, and trodden under foot by men, i.e., by demons. For a demon is sometimes called a man, as in Ps 118 (v. 6): "I do not fear what man can do to me," i.e., the devil, says a Gloss. Or, trodden under foot by men, i.e., stepped on along with others, or cast into the depths of hell over others: "You shall tread down the wicked" (Mal 4:3); "Terrors come upon him" (Jb 20:25). Or, trodden under foot by men, i.e., made the sport of carnal men: "And it shall be like people, like priest" (Hos 4:9).
Glossa: irrideatur ab hominibus. Sed ille qui persecutionem patitur, irridetur ab hominibus; ergo calcatur. Contra. Augustinus et Rabanus: non calcatur qui persecutionem patitur. Responsio. Calcari non dicitur nisi qui inferior est; et ideo ille qui persecutionem patitur, licet in terra multa sustineat in corpore, et a malis irrideatur, tamen quia fixus est in caelo corde, non dicitur calcari. Et sic loquitur Augustinus et Rabanus. A Gloss: Let him be laughed at by men. But one who suffers persecution is laughed at by men. Therefore, he is trodden under foot. On the other hand, Augustine and Rabanus: "One who suffers persecution is not trodden under foot." The answer: "One is not said to be trodden under foot, unless he is inferior; and therefore, one who suffers persecution, although he endures much in the body on earth, is not said to be trodden under foot, because his heart is fixed on heaven." Thus speak Augustine and Rabanus. Vos estis lux mundi et cetera. Hic ostenditur quod debent illuminare verbo doctrinae: in quo possunt notari tria quae debet habere praedicator verbi divini. Primum est stabilitas, ut non deviet a veritate; secundum est claritas, ut non doceat cum obscuritate; tertium est utilitas, ut quaerat Dei laudem, et non suam. (14) You are the light of the world. Here is shown that they should enlighten by the word of doctrine. Three qualities, which the preacher of the divine word should have, can be noted here: the first is stability, so as not to deviate from the truth; the second is clarity, so that he does not teach obscurely; the third is utility, so that he seeks God's glory and not his own. Primum notatur cum dicitur vos, discretive, scilicet qui estis derivati a me qui sum prima lux; Io. VIII, 12: ego sum lux mundi. Estis, idest esse debetis. Ecce stabilitas, quae notatur in verbo substantivo, in quo excluditur lucis defectio, contra illos qui praedicant falsitatem, et lucis fictio, contra illos qui se transfigurant in Angelum lucis, II Cor. c. XI, 14, et lucis diminutio, contra illos qui timore vel adulatione non reprehendunt vitia. The first is noted, when he says, You, as distinct from others, because you derive from me who am the first light: "I am the light of the world" (Jn 8:12); are, i.e., should be. Behold the stability denoted in the substantive verb, in which failure of the light is precluded against those who preach falsehood; and pretended light, against those who transform themselves into an angel of light (2 Cor 11:14); and decrease of light, against those who through fear or adulation do not reprehend vices. Deinde notatur claritas, cum dicitur lux. Glossa: per quos omnes illuminantur a tenebris ignorantiae. Comparantur autem luci ratione essentiae, ratione actus, ratione virtutis sive efficaciae:
- nam eius essentia est caelestis. Unde Basilius in Hexameron: lux est natura sibi per omnia similis et simplex. Eccli. XXIV, 6: ego feci in caelis ut oriretur lumen indeficiens; et ipsi conversatione debet esse caelestes; Phil. III, 20: nostra conversatio in caelis est. Item non inquinatur ab immunditiis; Sap. VII, 25: nihil inquinatum in illam incurrit; et ipsi debent esse mundi; Eccle. IX, 8: omni tempore vestimenta tua sint candida. Item omnibus est communicabilis; Iob c. XXV, 3: super quem non splendet lumen eius? Et praedicatores se debent omnibus exponere; Lc. VI, 30: omni petenti te tribue.
- Secundo ratione actus, qui secundum Basilium est tenebras illuminare, vias dirigere, latibula manifestare, differentias rerum ostendere: et ipsi praedicatores debent illuminare in credendis, dirigere in operandis, vitanda manifestare, et modo comminando, modo exhortando, hominibus praedicare.
- Tertio ratione suae efficaciae: lux enim ingerit delectationem; Eccle. XI, 7: dulce est lumen, et delectabile est oculis videre solem. Item terrae foecunditatem; Eccli. XLIII, 4: radios igneos exsufflans et cetera. Item viventibus cognitionem. Philosophus: homo generat hominem et sol. Praeter haec, secundum Basilium, veniente luce diei, aegritudines alleviantur, homines a somno excitantur, aves garriunt, bestiae ad latibula sua fugiunt: sic luce apostolorum mundus est aedificatus exemplis, inflammatus doctrinis, foecundatus bonis operibus, alleviatus peccatis, excitatus a negligentiis, animatus ad contemplationem caelestium, ereptus de potestate Daemonum.
Then clarity is mentioned, when he says, light. A Gloss: "Through whom all are illumined form the darkness of ignorance." They are compared to light by reason of essence, of act, and power or efficacy,
- for its essence is celestial. Hence Basil: "Light is a nature similar throughout and simple." "I made an unfailing light rise in the heavens" (Sir 24:6); and by their lives they should be heavenly: "But our commonwealth is in heaven" (Phil 3:20). Nor is it stained with uncleanness: "Nothing undefiled gains entrance into her" (Wis 7:25); and they should be undefiled: "Let your garments be always white" (Ec 9:8). Furthermore, it can be communicated to all: "On whom does his light not shine?" (Jb 25:3); and preachers should be available to all: "Give to everyone who begs from you" (Lk 6:30).
- Secondly, by reason of its act which, according to Basil, is to illumine the dark, direct one on his way, manifest what is concealed, and indicate the differences of things. And preachers should give light in regard to what must be believed, direct the people in their conduct, indicate what must be avoided, and now by threatening, now by exhorting, preach to men.
- Thirdly, by reason of efficacy; for light brings pleasure: "Light is sweet; and it is pleasant for the eyes to behold the sun" (Ec 11:7); it also makes the earth fecund: "The sun breathes out fiery vapors" (Sir 43:4). It also brings knowledge to the living: "Man generates man and so does the sun" (Aristotle). In addition to these, according to Basil, when the light of day arrives, illnesses are alleviated, men are awakened from sleep, birds chirp, beasts hurry to their lairs; similarly, by the light of the apostles the world is edified by examples, inflamed by teachings, made fecund by good works, alleviated of their sins, roused from their negligences, stirred to contemplate heavenly things, snatched from the power of demons.
Deinde notatur utilitas, dum dicit mundi, idest universaliter; Ps. XVIII, 5: in omnem terram exivit sonus eorum. Then its utility is noted, when he says, of the world, i.e., universally: "Their voice goes out through all the earth" (Ps 19:4). Quaeritur autem hic, quare praemiserit sal luci. Responsio Chrysostomi: quia prius vita, quam doctrina: vita enim ducit ad scientiam veritatis. Here arises the question why he mentioned salt before light. The answer, according to Chrysostom, is that life precedes doctrine; for life leads to knowledge of the truth.
Petri de Scala
14b οὐ δύναται πόλις κρυβῆναι ἐπάνω ὄρους κειμένη: 15 οὐδὲ καίουσιν λύχνον καὶ τιθέασιν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, καὶ λάμπει πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ. 16 οὕτως λαμψάτω τὸ φῶς ὑμῶν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὅπως ἴδωσιν ὑμῶν τὰ καλὰ ἔργα καὶ δοξάσωσιν τὸν πατέρα ὑμῶν τὸν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. 14b A city seated on a mountain cannot be hid. 15. Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house. 16. So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven. Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita. Haec est pars ubi ostenditur, quod non debent esse in absconsione vitae, unde dicit non potest civitas abscondi. Glossa, idest soliditas apostolicae doctrinae, vel sancta vita ipsorum munita virtutibus. Ier. I, 18: dedi te in civitatem munitam. Abscondi, id est celari, supra montem posita, idest sita super Christum, vel Ecclesiam. Quare non potest celari? Quia ipse mons manifestat eam, secundum Glossam Chrysostomi: omni tuba documenta sunt operum clariora, vitaque munda ipsa est luce fulgentior, nec obscurari poterit, etiam si innumeri fuerint obloquentes. A city set on a hill [mountain] cannot be hid.This is the section in which is shown that they should not conceal themselves. Hence he says, A city cannot be hid, i.e., the solidity of the apostolic doctrine, or their holy life fortified by the virtues: "I make you this day a fortified city" (Jer 1:18). Set on a mountain, i.e., established on Christ, or on the Church, cannot be hid, i.e., concealed. Why can it not be concealed? Because the mountain reveals it, according to a Gloss of Chrysostom: "The examples of works are louder than any trumpet, and a pure life is more shining than light; it cannot be obscured, no matter how many malign it." Et notandum quod ex virtute verbi supra montem, notantur tria: quia est secura, quod indicat constantiam: quia est inexpugnabilis, quod indicat patientiam: quia est in firmo et immobili loco sita, quod indicat perseverantiam. It should be noted that by the phrase, on a mountain, three things are noted: that it is secure, which indicates constancy; that it is unassailable, which indicates patience; that it is set on a firm and immovable place, which indicates perseverance. Deinde ponit, quod non debent esse in absconsione doctrinae: unde dicit neque accendunt, scilicet viri sancti lucernam, idest doctrinam praedicationis, vel fervorem doctrinae: nam in lucerna est ignis et lumen: sic et in praedicatione debet esse fervor spiritus interius, et lumen boni exempli exterius; sicut dicitur, quod Ioannes erat lucerna ardens et lucens, Io. V, 35. (15) Then he says that they should not hide the doctrine; hence, nor do men light, i.e., holy men, a lamp, i.e., the doctrine to be preached, or the fervor of the doctrine. For a lamp is fire and light; so, too, in the preacher should be fervor of spirit inwardly and the light of good example outwardly. Thus it is said that John "was a burning and shining lamp" (Jn 5:35). Sub modio idest in abscondito, sed super candelabrum, idest in manifesto. Glossa Bedae: idest super Ecclesiam; quasi dicat: non ideo data est doctrina praedicationis, ut celetur sub modio timoris, vel commodo vitae praesentis: modius enim, secundum Isidorum Lib. Etymol. XVII, est vas in quo mensuratur, et id quod mensuratur. Secundum Bedam, mystice, Christus lucernam incarnationis suae non inclusit sub modio, idest mensura legis, vel in terminis unius gentis, sed super candelabrum, idest Ecclesiam, ut luceat omnibus qui in domo sunt, idest in Ecclesia, vel in mundo. Under a bushel, i.e., in concealment, but on a stand, i.e., i public. Bede's Gloss: "i.e., on the Church"; as if to say: the doctrine for preaching has not been given to be concealed under the cover of fear or the convenience of the present life. According to Bede mystically, Christ did not enclose the lamp of his incarnation under a bushel, i.e., the limits of the Law or within the confines of one people, but on a stand, i.e., the Church, that it give light to all in the house, i.e., in the Church or in the world. Sed est hic quaestio cur apostoli, sive apostolica doctrina, dicuntur civitas, cum potius sint fundamentum, et Ecclesia sit civitas cuius sunt fundamentum. Responsio. Dicuntur civitas, quia sub Christo fuerunt initiatores Ecclesiae. Vel nomine totius intelligitur pars, nomine civitatis fundamentum. Mons enim, super quem civitas ponitur, Christus est, de quo Is. II, 2: erit in novissimis diebus praeparatus mons domus domini in vertice montium, et elevabitur super colles, et fluent ad eum omnes gentes. But why are the apostles or the apostolic doctrine called a city, since they are rather the foundation, and the Church is the city of which they are the foundation? The answer is that they are called a city, because under Christ they were the foundation of the Church. Or by the name of the whole is understood the part, so that by the name Church is understood the foundation. For the mountain on which the city is set is Christ, about whom Is (2:2) says: "It shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the house of the Lord shall be established as the highest of the mountains and shall be raised above the hills, and many peoples shall come." Deinde dicit sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus. Et est secundum ab illo loco vos estis sal terrae. Ubi informat eos quoad modum docendi. Et hunc modum describit quoad tria.
- Primo quoad doctrinae manifestationem; unde dicit sic luceat lux vestra, idest doctrina, coram hominibus; Rom. XII, 17: providentes bona non tantum coram Deo, sed etiam coram omnibus hominibus.
- Secundo, quoad manifestatae doctrinae per opera bona confirmationem; unde subdit ut videant opera vestra bona. Glossa: opera requiro ut videantur, et sic doctrina confirmetur. Iac. II, 12: sic loquimini, et sic facite. Chrysostomus: nomen Dei per eos blasphematur, qui non faciunt quod docent.
Sed contra hoc videtur esse quod infra dicitur: cum facis eleemosynam, nesciat sinistra tua quid faciat dextera tua. Item: ora patrem tuum in abscondito, et pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi. Responsio. Bona opera prohibet fieri in manifesto quantum ad laudem hominum; hic autem requirit fieri ut confirmetur doctrina, et Deus glorificetur, secundum Glossam. Si enim doctrina est bona, et praedicator malus, tunc ipse est occasio blasphemiae doctrinae Dei. Unde Bernardus: lingua magniloqua, et manus otiosa, doctrina lucida, et vita tenebrosa, est res monstruosa.
- Tertio, quoad rectam intentionem; unde addit et glorificent patrem vestrum, Glossa: in vobis et non vos, quia eius opus est. Qui in caelis est. Gregorius: sic opus sit in publico, ut intentio maneat in occulto, ut de bono opere proximis praebeamus exemplum, et tamen pro intentione, qua soli Deo placere quaerimus, semper optemus secretum.
(16) Let your light so shine before men... This concludes the instruction on how they should preach. He describes this way in regard to three things:
- first, as to manifesting the doctrine; hence he says, Let your light, i.e., doctrine, so shine before men.
- Secondly, as to confirming the manifested doctrine by good works; hence he adds, that they may see your good works. A Gloss: "I require works that may be seen, and thus the doctrine is confirmed"; "So speak and so act" (Jas 2:12); "God's name is blasphemed by those who do not what they teach" (Chrysostom).
Something said below seems to be contrary to this: "When you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing." Also, "Your father who sees in secret will repay you." I answer that he forbids good works being done in public, in so far as they relate to human praise; but here he requires that they be performed, in order that the doctrine be confirmed and God be glorified, according to a Gloss. For if the doctrine is good and the preacher evil, the occasion to blaspheme the doctrine exists. Hence Bernard: "An eloquent tongue and idle hand, clear doctrine and a dark life, are monstrous."
- Thirdly, as to the right intention. Hence he add, and give glory to your Father. "in you and not you, because it is his work" (Gloss). Who is in heaven. Gregory: "A work should be so performed in public that the intention remains secret, that we give to our neighbor the example of a good work, and yet the intention, by which we seek to please God alone, we always desire to be secret."
Petri de Scala
17 μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας: οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι. 18 ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ, ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κεραία οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται. 19 ὃς ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων καὶ διδάξῃ οὕτως τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἐλάχιστος κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν: ὃς δ' ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν. 17. Do not think that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18. For amen I say unto you, till heaven and earth pass, one jot, or one tittle shall not pass of the law, till all be fulfilled. 19. He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments, and shall so teach men shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven. But he that shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. Nolite putare quoniam veni solvere legem. Haec est secunda pars a principio huius capituli ubi tacitae quaestioni respondet. Unde Beda: quia poterant aestimare, quod vetera praecepta vellet abolere, ante interrogata prius occurrit, dicens nolite putare et cetera. Ubi tria facit: primo dicit se non velle legem destruere, sed implere; secundo docet eam implendam fore, ibi amen dico vobis etc.; tertio ad eius impletionem incipit alios provocare, ibi qui ergo solvit et cetera. Think not that I have come to abolish the Law. This is the second part mentioned at the beginning of section (5-2), and it answers a tacit question. Hence Bede: "Because they might suppose that he wanted to abolish the ancient precepts, he anticipates their question and says, Think not... Here he does three things: first, he says that he does not wish to destroy the Law; secondly, that it will be fulfilled (v. 18); thirdly, he begins to rouse others to fulfill it (v. 19). Dicit ergo nolite putare, idest opinari, quia veni, idest quod venerim, solvere legem, aut prophetas. Per haec duo comprehendit totam continentiam veteris legis, quia lex principaliter erat ad declinandum a malo; prophetia ad faciendum bonum: illa operandorum, et haec credendorum. Solvere autem est uno modo, secundum Bedam, non facere quod illa spiritualiter dicit. Vel solvere est non intelligere quod illa declaravit, secundum Glossam. Unde Christus non venit solvere, quia spiritualiter implevit. Propter quod dicit non veni solvere legem, sed adimplere, idest perfecte implere.
- Implevit autem primo moralia, caritatis dulcedine condiendo, quia plenitudo legis est dilectio, Rom. XIII, 10. Io. XV, 11: hoc est praeceptum meum ut diligatis invicem, sicut dilexi vos.
- Secundo caerimonialia, figurarum velamen detegendo; infra c. XXVII, 51: velum templi scissum est; Apoc. c. V, 9: dignus est agnus aperire librum, et solvere signacula eius, idest observationes figurarum in lege.
- Tertio prophetias in se completas ostendendo; Lc. ult., 25: oportet impleri quae scripta sunt in prophetis de me.
- Quarto promissiones confirmando; ad Gal. III, 16: Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones.
- Quinto iudicialia per misericordiam temperando; Io. VIII, 11, de adultera: nec ego te condemnabo.
- Sexto consilia addendo; infra XIX, 21: vade, et vende omnia et cetera. Septimo promissiones omnes eis factas de spiritus sancti missione, et filii incarnatione etc. persolvendo; ad Hebr. VIII, 8: consummabo testamentum novum; Io. XIX, 30: consummatum est.
(17) He says, therefore, think not, i.e., suppose not, that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets. These two include everything contained in the Old Law, because the Law aimed chiefly at declining from evil, and prophecy at doing good. The former dealt with works, the latter with beliefs. To abolish is in one sense, according to Bede, not to do what it says spiritually. Hence Christ did not come to abolish, because he fulfilled it spiritually. Hence he says, but to fulfill, i.e., perfectly.
- First, he fulfilled the moral precepts by seasoning with the savor of charity, because the fulfillment of the Law is charity (Rom 13:10): "This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you" (Jn 15:12).
- Secondly, the ceremonial laws by removing the veil of figures: "The veil of the temple was torn in two" (Mt 27:51); "Worthy is the lamb to take the scrolls and open its seals," i.e., the observances of the figures in the Law (Rev 5:9).
- Thirdly, by showing that in him the prophecies were fulfilled: "Was it not necessary to fulfill all that was written in the prophets concerning me" (Lk 24:25).
- Fourthly, by confirming the promises: "The promises were made to Abraham" (Gal 3:16).
- Fifthly, by tempering the judicial precepts with mercy; (Jn 8:11) concerning the adulteress: "Neither will I condemn you."
- Sixthly, by adding counsels: "God, and sell all you possess..." (Mt 19:21). Seventhly, by fulfilling all the promises made to them about sending the Holy Spirit and about the incarnation of the Son: "I will establish a new covenant" (Heb 8:8); "It is finished" (Jn 19:30).
Amen dico vobis et cetera. Ecce secundum, ubi ostendit quod ex parte sui implenda est: unde dicit amen. Assertivum veritatis est. Unde, secundum Augustinum, nomen Hebraeum est, et interpretatur verum vel vere. Secundum Hieronymum, vere, vel fideliter, vel fiat. Dico vobis, donec, idest antequam, transeat caelum et terra. (18) Amen I say to you. Behold the second, where he shows that it must be fulfilled; hence he says, Amen, which asserts a truth, I say to you, till, i.e., before, heaven and earth pass away. Contra. Eccle. I, 4: terra autem in aeternum stat. Responsio. Non dicuntur caelum et terra transire secundum substantiam, sed secundum formam; unde II Petri III, 10: adveniet dies domini sicut fur, in quo caeli cum magno impetu transient, et elementa calore solventur. Unde donec transeat caelum et terra, idest elementa mutentur de hac mutabili forma ad immutabilitatem, secundum Glossam. On the other hand Ec (1:4) says: "The earth remains forever." I answer that heaven and earth are not said to pass away as to their substance, but as to their form: "The day of the Lord will come as a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a loud noise, and the elements will be dissolved with fire" (2 Pt 3:10). Hence till heaven and earth pass away, i.e., the elements are changed from their present mutable form to immutability, according to a Gloss. Iota unum. Iota unum est decima littera Graeca, et est minima ceteris litteris, ut dicit Augustinus, quia uno ductu fit. Apex est aliqua distinctio ipsius litterae, idest quaedam virgula in summitate. Hebraei autem diversa elementa significant per eamdem figuram, sed per quosdam punctos supra vel infra positos distinguunt. Unde illi puncti vocantur apices. Et secundum Rabanum iota significat Decalogum; secundum Hieronymum significat ea quae minima putantur in lege, sicut forte erant aliquae figurae. Apex significat minimam particulam praecepti, vel minimum significativum legis, secundum Rabanum. Vult ergo dicere quod iota unum, idest unum de decem mandatis, aut unus apex idest minimum significativum in lege, non praeteribit a lege, donec omnia fiant idest non remanebit quin impleatur et perficiatur. Glossa: in capite, vel in corpore. Is. XXVIII, 22: consummationem et abbreviationem audivi a domino. Not an iota. Iota is the tenth Greek letter, and it is the smallest letter, as Augustine says, because it is formed by a simple stroke of the pen. According to Rabanus, iota signifies the Decalogue; according to Jerome, it signifies matters considered to be slightest in the Law, as perhaps certain figures were. Not a dot. A dot signifies the smallest part of a precept, or the least thing significative of a law, according to Rabanus. Therefore, he would say that one iota, i.e., one of the ten commandments, or one dot, i.e., the least significative of a law, will pass from the law, until all is accomplished, i.e., will not remain without being fulfilled and made perfect: "In the head, or in the body" (A Gloss); "I have heard a decree of accomplishment from the Lord" (Is 28:22). Qui ergo solverit et cetera. Hic provocat ad eius impletionem, dicens qui ergo solverit unum de mandatis istis minimis. Contra Io. X, 35: non potest solvi Scriptura. Responsio. Non solvitur simpliciter, sed in aliquibus. Unde Rabanus: mandata solvit in seipso, et non in ipsis. Solvuntur autem tripliciter, scilicet non agendo, non credendo, alios in errorem trahendo. Minima mandata sunt moralia, vel legalia aliqua, quia minus sunt significatione; vel minima quantum ad remunerationem, in comparatione ad illa quae Christus dixit. Unde Chrysostomus: mandata Moysi in actu facilia sunt, ut non occidas; et ideo in remuneratione modica, et in peccato magna: sed mandata Christi, ut non irascaris, in actu difficilia; et ideo in remuneratione magna, et in peccato minima. Minimus vocabitur in regno caelorum. Contra, Cassiodorus: qui maiora negligens docere praesumpserit, consequens est ut non iam minimus in caelo sed in Gehennae supplicio maximus habeatur. Responsio. Non habebitur, ut dicit Cassiodorus, sed vocabitur, quia erit eo indignus, ut dicit Augustinus. Unde minimus vocabitur in regno caelorum, idest nullus, quia non erit ibi. Vel ipse non existens in regno vocabitur minimus, idest despectissimus et vilissimus, ab his qui sunt in regno. Vel, secundum Glossam, minimus, idest despectissimus in Ecclesia. Contra. Immo minimus est qui male facit, et male docet. Responsio. Qui male facit, et male docet, non est in Ecclesia quoad hoc opus: et ideo non vocatur in regno caelorum nec magnus, nec parvus; sed qui male facit, et bene docet, est in Ecclesia quoad aliquod opus, sed minimus in illa. (19) Whoever then relaxes [breaks]... Here he persuades to its fulfillment, saying, Whoever then breaks the least of these commandments. On the other hand, "The scripture cannot be broken" (Jn 10:35). I answer that it is not broken absolutely, but in certain persons. Hence Rabanus: "He breaks the commandments in himself, and not in themselves." However, they are broken in three ways, namely, by not acting, by not believing, and by leading others into error. The least of the commandments are the moral ones, or certain legal ones, because they are less by signification; or they are the least, so far as reward is concerned. Hence Chrysostom: "The Mosaic commandments are easy to fulfill, such as not to kill; therefore, they are slight in their reward and great as sins. But the commandments of Christ, such as not to become angry, are most difficult to keep; therefore, they are great in reward and slight as sins." Shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven. On the other hand, Cassiodorus says: "One who neglects the greater things and presumes so to teach is no longer regarded as least in the kingdom of heaven but greatest in the punishment of hell." I answer that he will not be regarded, as Cassiodorus says, but will be called, because he will be unworthy of it. Hence, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven, i.e., nothing, because he will not be there. Or, not existing in the kingdom, he will be called least, i.e., the most despised and most vile, by those who are in the kingdom. Or, according to a Gloss, least, i.e., most despised in the Church. On the other hand, the least is the person who does evil and teaches evil. I answer that one who does evil and teaches evil is not in the Church, so far as such conduct is concerned; therefore, he is called neither great nor small in the kingdom of heaven. But one who does evil but preaches what is good is in the Church, so far as some work is concerned, but he is the least in it. Qui autem fecerit, idest servaverit, et docuerit, sic esse faciendum, hic magnus vocabitur, scilicet merito in Ecclesia militante, et magnus praemio, in regno caelorum, idest in Ecclesia triumphante. Augustinus: non dicit determinate, qui fecerit minima, sed indeterminate, ut ostendat quod maiora et minima oportet eum facere, qui in regno caelorum vult magnus esse. But he who does, i.e., observes, them and teaches that such and such must be done shall be called great, namely, in merit in the Church Militant, and great in his reward in the kingdom of heaven, i.e., in the Church Triumphant. Augustine: "He who does the least" is not said determinately but indeterminately, in order to show that one who wishes to be great in the kingdom of heaven must do the greater and the least."
Petri de Scala
20 λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ περισσεύσῃ ὑμῶν ἡ δικαιοσύνη πλεῖον τῶν γραμματέων καὶ φαρισαίων, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. 21 ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, οὐ φονεύσεις: ὃς δ' ἂν φονεύσῃ, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει. 22 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει: ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ, ῥακά, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ: ὃς δ' ἂν εἴπῃ, μωρέ, ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός. 20. For I tell you, that unless your justice abound more than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. 21. You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not kill. And whosoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment. 22. But I say to you, that whosoever is angry with his brother, shall be in danger of the judgment. And whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council. And whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Dico autem vobis etc. Haec est tertia (1) pars a principio huius capituli principalis [no 403J, in qua ad impletionem novae legis monet: et haec pars dividitur in duas. Primo monet ad impletionis executionem; secundo monet ad executionis rectam intentionem, cap. VI [no 559J Attendite etc. For I tell you... This is the third main section mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. In it he admonishes us to fulfill the New Law. This section is divided into two parts: first, he advises us to perform what is required; secondly, to have the right intention in action (c. 6) Circa prim urn duo facit. Pmo monet ad impletionis perfection em explanando praeccpra; secundo addendo consilia, ibi Dictum est antiquis: Oculum pro oculo etc. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he admonishes us to perfect fulfillment by explaining the precepts; secondly, by adding counsels (v. 38). Circa primum duo. Primo monet ad abundantem iustitiam; secundo ostendit modum abundantis iustitiae, ibi Audistis quia dictum est antiquis. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he advises that our justice abound; secondly, he shows the way to abundant justice (v. 21). Dicit ergo Dico autern vobis, idest hic praedico. Unde attendite diligenter, quia nisi abundaverit iustitia vestra. Chrysostomus: "Iustitiam vocat universalem virtutem". Augustinus: "Non solum legis praecepta, sed etiam illa quae addo". (20) He says, therefore, For I tell you, i.e., I preach. Hence listen carefully, unless your justice exceeds [abounds more]. Chrysostom: "He calls justice all the virtues combined." Augustine: "Not only the precepts of the law, but even those I add." Contra. Act. xv, 10: Hoc est onus quod nee nos, nee patres nostri portare potuimus; Ex. XVII, 12: erant manus Moysi graves. Quomodo ergo dicit Abundaverit? Responsio. Quia specialiter hoc dicitur discipulis, et per consequens omnibus: et extendendum est non solum ad exteriorum operum exhibitionem, sed etiam ad animi cohibitionem. Levior autem est, quia est lex amoris, et amor omnia facit levia. On the other hand, Acts (15:10): "This is a yoke which neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear"; "But Moses' hands grew weary" (Ex 17:2). How then can he say, abounds more? I answer that in a specific way this is said to the disciples, and consequentially to all men; and it must be extended not only to performance of external works but even to restraining the mind. but it is easier, because it is a law of love, and love makes all things light. Item videtur ex hoc, quod moderni teneantur ad maiorem iustitiam quam antiqui. Contra: "Coelibatus Ioannis non praefertur coniugio Abrahae,". Responsio: Ad iustitiam maiorem non tenentur, sed abundare in iustitia dicuntur, quia quod occulte dictum est antiquis, expressum est modernis; unde ibi figura, hic veritas. It also appears that those who come later are bound to greater holiness than the ancients. On the other hand, John's celibacy is not preferred to Abraham's married state. I answer that they are not bound to greater holiness, but they are said to abound in holiness, because what was said in a hidden way to the ancients was made explicit to the ones who came later; hence there it was a figure, here the truth. Item super illud Plusquam scribarum, Chrysostomus: "Non iniquorum, quia non ei, quae non erat, comparasset illam iustitiam quae erat: plus enim et minus eiusdem generis sunt". Ergo scribae erant iusti. Responsio. Talis iustitia erat apparens. Unde non ei quae non erat, idest quae non esse videretur. Again, Chrysostom comments on more than that of the Scribes and Pharisees that he is not speaking of the wicked, because he would not compare that justice which exists to that which did not exist. For more and less apply to things of the same class. Therefore the Scribes were just. I answer that their justice was seeming. Hence not to that which did not exist, i.e., which seemed not to exist. Plusquam scribarum et pharisaeorum,
- quia iustitia horum erat in praesumptione suae actionis, et in iudicio alterius, sicut patet de illo Lc. XlII, 12: Ieiuno bis in sabbato.
- Secundo, quia erat in ostentatione operis, non in rectitudine intentionis.
- Tertio, quia erat in lotione et exteriori munditia, non in opere.
- Quarto, in affiictione corporis per ieiunia, et non in mandatorum observatione.
- Quinto, quia erat in minoribus observantiis, relictis gravioribus legis:
More than that of the Scribes and Pharisees,
- because their justice lay in presumption concerning their own actions and in judging those of others: "I fast twice a week" (Lk 13:12).
- Secondly, because it lay in showing off their works, not in the correctness of their intention.
- Thirdly, because it lay in washings and outward cleanliness, not in works.
- Fourthly, in afflicting the body by fasts, and not in observing the commandments.
- Fifthly, because it lay in minor observances, leaving aside the weightier matters of the law.
quasi ergo dicat, Non solum si minima, quemadmodum pharisaei faciunt, impleveritis, sed etiam illa quae addo ad perfectionem non intrabitis in regnum caelorum, idest in Ecclesiam triumphantem; Provo xv, 5: In abundanti iustitia virtus maxima est. Therefore it is as though he were saying: unless you fulfill not only the minimum, as the Pharisees, do, but also the things I add for perfection, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven, i.e., the Church Triumphant. (Pr 15:5): "The greatest virtue consists in abundant justice." Audistis quia dictum est antiquis etc. Hic ostendit modum abundantis iustitiae. Abundans autem iustitia est ordinans omnem motum animae: propter quod dividitur in tres. Primo docetur ordinari in suis motibus virtus irascibilis, sive animativa; secundo concupiscibilis, sive affectiva, ibi Dictum est antiquis Non moechaberis etc.; tertio rationalis, sive intellectiva, ibi Dictum est antiquis, Non periurabis etc. (21) You have heard that it was said to the men of old... Here he shows the function of abundant justice. But abundant justice sets in order every movement of the soul. Therefore, it is divided into three parts: first the irascible appetite is trained to be orderly in its movements; secondly, the concupisciple or affective (v. 27); thirdly, the rational or intellective (v. 33). Item prima dividitur in duas. Primo ponit prohibitionem legis circa actum ex indebita inordinatione irascibilis erga proximum; secundo ponit superadditionem ipsius prohibitionis secundum perfectionem evangelicam, ibi Dico autem vobis etc. The first is divided into two: first, he presents the Law's prohibition against acting from undue disorder of the irascible to ward one's neighbor; secondly, he adds to the prohibition something based on evangelical perfection. Circa primum iterum duo facit; quia primo replicat prohibitionem; secundo poenam legis, ibi Qui autem occiderit, reus erit iudicio. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he repeats the prohibition; secondly, the penalty imposed by the Law (v. 21b). Quaerit autern primo Chrysostomus, quare non incipit a primo mandato. Responsio. Incipit a generalissimis passionibus, scilicet furore et concupiscentia, quae destruunt caritatem: nam concupiscentia destruit amorem Dei, furor amorem proximi. But Chrysostom asks why he does not begin with the first commandment. I answer that he begins with the most general emotions, namely, anger and covetousness, which destroy charity; for the latter destroys love of God, and the former, love of neighbor. Iuxta hoc quaeritur, cum rationalis sit prior in modo quam irascibilis et concupiscibilis, quare non prius ordinatur quam ipsae. Responsio. Procedit ab inferiori ad superius, quia doctrina levior et universalior; motus autem irae et concupiscentiae sunt motus virtutis animalis, quae inferior est rationali. One next asks: since reason extends to more than the irascible and concupiscible, why is it not regulated before the others. The answer is that he goes from the lower to the higher, because the doctrine is easier and more general; for the movements of anger and desire are the movements of animal powers, which are inferior to the rational. Item cum motus irae sequatur ad motum concupiscentiae, quare non prius ordinatur virtus concupiscibilis, quam irascibilis? Responsio. Prior est natura et conservatio eius, quam multiplicatio; sed ira est contra conservationem naturae; et ideo primo admonet iram, deinde ordinat concupiscentiam, quae est ad multiplicationem naturae. Again, since the movement of anger follows from the movement of desire, why isn't the consucpiscible faculty regulated before the irascible? The answer is that a nature and its preservation are prior to its multiplication. But anger is contrary to the preservation of a nature. Therefore he first warns against anger and then regulates desire, which exists for the multiplication of a nature. Dicit ergo Audistis quia dictum est. Non dicit, "Dixi" vel "Pater meus", sed simpliciter dictum est, ne sermo eius repelleretur. Antiquis, quibus data est lex [Ex. C. xx. 13]: Non occides. Ecce prohibitio actus, qui est destructio naturae, qui provenit ex furore irae. Chrysostomus: "Nihil ita malitiam et errorem inducit et radicat, ut amoris destructio". He says, therefore, You have heard that it was said... He does not say, "I have said" or "My Father," but simply, it was said, least his teaching be rejected. To the men of old, to whom the Law was given. "You shall not kill." This forbids the act which destroys a nature and it comes from the fury of anger. Chrysostom: "Nothing so induces and roots one in malice as the destruction of love." Whoever kills shall be liable to judgment, i.e., to punishment by the Law. This is the punishment of retaliation [of which Ex (c. 20). speaks, which is an actual killing. Qui autem occiderit, reus erit iudicio, idest punitione legis, quae est poena talionis, de qua Ex. xx, quae est occisio actualis. 485. Ego autem dico vobis; quasi dicit, Lex data punit actualiter, sed dico quod iudicio legis caelestis non solum qui occidit, sed etiam qui irascitur, reus est. Unde haec est pars ubi ponitur superadditio, ex qua ordinatur irascibilis in suis motibus. Est autem ira et ad proximum, et ad adversarium, quae est discordia, quam ibi prohibet Esto consentiens adversario tuo. Insuper ira ad proximum est vel subita, vel inveterata, quae est idem quod odium, quam ibi removet, Si offers munus tuum etc. Ira subita est duplex,
- vel intus latens,
- vel exterius apparens; et haec duplex,
- scilicet cum apparet exterius per signum confusum, quando quis prorumpit in vocem indignationis, quam removet ibi Qui dixerit fratri suo, Racha etc.
- Vel per signum determinatum, sicut quando prorumpit in sermonem, exprimendo affectionem irascibilis cum certa malitia, quam removet ibi [no 490] Qui autem dixerit, Fatue etc.; per hoc enim exprimitur discreta indignatio procedens a ratione.
(22) But I say to you. As if to say: The Law that was given punishes actually, but I say that by the judgment of the heavenly law, not only one who kills but also one who gets angry, is guilty. Hence this is the part wherein the addition is made that regulates the irascible faculty in its movements. But anger is against one's neighbor and against an adversary. This discord is forbidden, when he says, Make friends quickly with your adversary (v. 25). In addition, anger at one's neighbor is either sudden or continuous, which is the same as hatred, which he removes when he says, If you are offering your gift at the altar... Sudden anger is twofold:
- lurking within
- or appearing outwardly. The latter is also twofold, namely,
- when it appears outwardly through an unclear sign and bursts forth in an expression of indignity. This he removes when he says, Whoever says to his brother, Raqa.
- Or by a clear sign, as when it breaks out into words that express clearly an emotion of the irascible faculty. He removes this, when he says, Whoever says, "You fool!" For by this is expressed a fixed indignation proceeding from reason.
Quantum ad primum, scilicet prohibitionem irae latentis, quae est motus indignationis, sive malevolentiae, dicit Ego autem dico vobis, quia omnis qui irascitur fratri suo, idest quicumque motum malum ad nocendum proximo habuerit, et retinuerit, secundum Rabanum, reus erit iudicio, idest dignus accusatione. Unde secundum Augustinum, hoc iudicium habet condemnationem et poenam incertam. Unde qui habet voluntatem nocendi tantum in animo, debet iudicare se reum: et haec ira radix est homicidii, de quo supra. Unde Chrysostomus: "Radix occisionis est ira: qui radicem abscindit, destruit ramos". In regard to the first, namely, the prohibition against latent anger, which is a movement of indignation or ill-will, he says: But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother, i.e., whoever has an evil inclination to harm his brother, and retains it, according to Rabanus, shall be liable to judgment, i.e. worthy of accusation. Hence according to Augustine, this judgment has an uncertain condemnation and punishment. Consequently, one who has the will to harm only in the mind should judge himself guilty; and this anger is the root of murder, about which we have spoken above. Hence Chrysostom: "The root of killing is anger: one who removes the root destroys the branches." Sed hic est quaestio. Si enim omnis qui irascitur fratri suo reus est iudicio, cum sancti irascuntur malis, peccant, cum nullus excipiatur? Responsio. Duplex est ira: per zelum; et haec non est peccatum; et talem habent sancti; et est ira per consensum; et de tali dicitur hic : Qui irascitur etc. Unde Glossa: "Ira est omnis malus motus animi ad nocendum". But a question arises. If everyone who is angry with his brother is liable to judgment, when the saints are angry at evils, they sin; since no one is excepted. The answer is that there are two kinds of anger: one is through zeal. This is what the saints have, and it is not a sin. The other is by consent, and it is of this anger that it is said, "He that is angry with his brother..." Hence, a Gloss: "Anger is any evil movement of the mind to cause harm." Qui autem dixerit (ecce prohibitio irae per signum indignationis expressivum) fratri suo, per naturae communionem vel per fidem sicut sunt Christiani, vel per possibilitatem ad fidei unitatem et sic sunt fratres Iudaei vel Gentiles. Racha, idest qui motum in voce indignationis proruperit; unde Hieronymus: "Racha hebraeum est, quod interpretatur cenos, idest inanis, aut vacuus, quem nos possumus nuncupare absque cerebro"; in quo notatur affectus indignantis. Reus erit iudicio. Glossa: "Idest consensu in iudicium de danda sententia in eum"; quasi dicat: Dignum est ut sententia proferatur contra eum. Whoever says (Behold the prohibition against anger expressed by a sign of indignation) to his brother by their common nature, or by faith, as Christians are, or by a possibility of conversion to the faith; and so Jews and Gentiles are brothers. Raqa!, i.e., whoever in anger breaks out in a word of indignation. Hence Jerome: Raqa is Hebrew and means empty or stupid, or, as we might say, brainless; in which is noted the attitude of the indignant person. Will be guilty of the judgment. A Gloss: "i.e., of consent to the judgment that sentence be passed against him." As if to say: He is deserving of sentence being passed against him. Glossa: "Dignus accusatione", quod supra dictum est de homicidio. Ergo semper talis peccat mortaliter. Responsio. Ira, quae est motus animi, est duplex, vel subita, vel cum deliberatione: si subita, veniale; unde Hieronymus: "Si subitus motus, cui non consentitur, propassio est". Si cum deliberatione, mortale; unde Hieronymus: "Accedente consensu, passio mors in domo". A Gloss: "Worthy of accusation," which was said above of murder. Therefore, such a one always sins mortally. The answer is that anger, which is a movement of the mind, is either sudden or with deliberation. If sudden, it is venial. Hence Jerome: "If the movement is sudden and without consent, it is at most an incipient feeling." If with deliberation, it is mortal. Hence, Jerome: "When consent is present, the passion is death in the house." Qui autem dixerit, Fatue. Ecce tertius gradus irae, scilicet quae est per signum certum expressivum malitiae; unde dicit, Qui autem dixerit, Fatue, idest qui usque ad convicium processerit, quod est ex certa malitia, reus erit gehennae ignis, idest punietur aeterna poena. Gehenna, secundum Hieronymum, dicitur a Ge, quod est terra, et Ennon, qui est locus iuxta lerusalem, ubi Iudaei idolis immolabant. Sed tempore captivitatis repletus est locus ille cadaveribus mortuorurn, cui comparat Christus infernum, vocando poenam aeternam gehennam. Whoever says, "You fool"... Behold the third degree of anger, namely, marked by a definite sign expressive of malice. Hence he says, Whoever says, "You fool," i.e., whoever goes as far as abuse proceeding from certain malice, shall be liable to the fire of hell [gehenna], i.e., will be punished with eternal punishment. According to Jerome, "gehenna" comes from "ge" meaning three, and "Ennon", a place near Jerusalem, where the Jews sacrificed to idols. But in the time of the captivity that place was filled with the corpses of the dead. Christ compares hell to this place, when he calls eternal punishment gehenna. Sed est hic quaestio, quia Paulus ad Gal. III, 1 dicit: O insensati Galatae etc. Item Lc. ult., 25: O stulti et tardi corde ad credendum, Responsio secundum Chrysostomum: Cum dicit racha, et fatue, intelligendum est sine causa; nam hoc dicere non est peccatum, cum causa subest. Contra hoc Hieronymus inquit : "in quibusdam codicibus additur sine causa, in veris autem non est: et ita penitus tollitur. Unde radendum est Sine causa, quia [lac. I, v. 20] ira viri iustitiam Dei non operatur". Responsio. Intelligit de ira, quae est inordinatus motus animi ad nocendum cum con sensu. But there is a question, for Paul says to Galatians (3:1): "O foolish Galatians"; and Luke: "O foolish and slow to believe." The answer according to Chrysostom: "When he says, 'Raqa' and 'Fool', it is understood to be said without reason; for to say these is not sinful when there is an underlying cause." But against this Jerome says: "In some versions "without cause" is added, but it is not found in the true versions." Hence "without cause" should be erased, because James (1:20) says: "Man's anger does not work the justice of God." The answer is that Jerome is speaking of anger as a disordered movement of the mind to cause harm and accompanied by consent. Item quaeritur, quare ira gravat peccatum linguae. Responsio secundum Chrysostomum: " Omnis sermo vanus qui dicitur, immundo spiritu dictante profertur". Vanum ergo dicentes non tantum ideo peccamus quia aliqem laedimus, sed quia locum damus in nobis immundis spiritibus agendi quod volunt. The question also arises, why does anger make a sin of the tongue more serious? Chrysostom answers: "All vain talk is uttered under the dictate of the unclean spirit." Therefore all of us who speak vanity sin, not only because we harm the neighbor, but because we give the unclean spirits room within us for doing what they will. Notandum atem circa supradicta, quod iudicium, concilium et gehenna exprimunt poenam infernalem; sed plus et minus secundum qualitatem culpae. Unde Gregorius: "Circuit gradus culpae, circuit ordo sententiae; quia in iudicio adhuc causa dicitur, in concilio iam sententia apta definitur; in gehenna vero ea quae de concilio sententia egreditur, completur". Propter hoc dicitur Lev. xix, 17: Non oderis fratrem tuum in corde tuo. Et ad Eph. iv, 36: Sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram. Qui ergo motum nocendi habet in animo, debet iudicare se reum; si autem prodeat in contumeliam adversus fratrem, eget reconciliatione si autem non iudicat se reum, nec fratri vult reconciliari, ex contemptu perseverans in odio, reus erit gehennae. Regarding the above, it should be noted that judgment is the council and gehenna the punishment of hell, but more and less according to the quality of the guilt. Hence Gregory: "The degree of guilt is estimated, the order of sentencing is weighed; because during judgment it is still called a case, in the council the suitable sentence is defined, but in gehenna the sentence passed by the council is carried out." For this reason Leviticus (19:17) says: "You shall not hate your brother in your heart" and in Ephesians (4:26): "Do not let the sun go down on your anger." Therefore, whoever has in his heart a movement to harm someone should judge himself guilty; if he breaks out in insult against his brother, he needs to be reconciled. But if he does not judge himself guilty and does not wish to be reconciled to his brother but out of contempt perseveres in hatred, he will be liable to gehenna.
Petri de Scala
23 ἐὰν οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρόν σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κἀκεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ, 24 ἄφες ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, καὶ ὕπαγε πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρόν σου. 25 ἴσθι εὐνοῶν τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ σου ταχὺ ἕως ὅτου εἶ μετ' αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, μήποτέ σε παραδῷ ὁ ἀντίδικος τῷ κριτῇ, καὶ ὁ κριτὴς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ, καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ: 26 ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, οὐ μὴ ἐξέλθῃς ἐκεῖθεν ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην. 23. If therefore thou offer thy gift at the altar, and there thou remember that thy brother hath anything against thee; 24. Leave there thy offering before the altar, and go first to be reconciled to thy brother, and then coming thou shalt offer thy gift. 25. Be at agreement with thy adversary betimes, whilst thou art in the way with him: lest perhaps the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26. Amen I say to thee, thou shalt not go out from thence till thou repay the last farthing. Hic prohibet iram inveteratam, ex qua odium nascitur, et concludit a maiori, secundum Rabanum, sic: si non licet fratri tuo irasci, multo fortius non licet detinere iram, unde nascatur odium. Ergo si tu offers, idest offerre proponis ad altare. Hoc multipliciter exponitur,
- secundum quod altare aliquando accipitur pro materiali templo, sicut in Ps. XXV, 6: lavabo inter innocentes manus meas, et circumdabo altare tuum, domine. Aliquando pro Christo; Thren. c. II, 7: repulit dominus altare suum, idest Christum, scilicet in passione.
- Aliquando pro cordis devotione, et hoc est templum interius, secundum Augustinum.
(23) So if you are offering... Here he forbids prolonged anger, from which is born hatred; and he concludes from the greater to the lesser, according to Rabanus, thus: If it is not lawful to be angry at your brother, much more is it not lawful to continue in anger, from which hatred is born. Therefore, if you are offering, i.e., propose to offer, at the altar. This is explained in a number of ways,
- accordingly as altar is sometimes taken for the material temple as in Psalm 26 (v. 6): "I wash my hands in innocence, and go about your altar, O Lord." Sometimes for Christ: "The Lord has scorned his altar" (Lam 2:7).
- Sometimes for the heart's devotion, and this is the inner temple, as Augustine says.
Quantum ad primum, si offers munus tuum, idest oblatione, ad altare, materiale, ad litteram; vel munus boni operis, secundum Glossam, ad altare, idest Christum. Vel secundum Augustinum: munus tuum, idest orationes, Psalmos, hymnos, et huiusmodi, ad altare, idest in corde, quod est templum ubi oblaturus es; As to the first, if you are offering your gift, i.e. as an oblation, at the altar, i.e., material; or the gift of good works, according to a Gloss, at the altar, i.e., Christ. Or, according to Augustine: your gift, i.e., prayers, psalms, hymns and the like, at the altar, i.e., in the heart, which is the temple where you plan to offer. et ibi, scilicet in Ecclesia, vel in corde, recordatus fueris quod frater tuus habet aliquid adversum te. Hoc potest intelligi dupliciter, scilicet de laedente et laeso.
- De laedente sic, secundum Augustinum: si recordatus fueris, idest si in mentem et notitiam tibi venerit, quod frater tuus, quem laesisti, habet aliquid adversum te, scilicet pro contumeliae affectione, pro corporali laesione, pro temporalium subtractione, pro famae denigratione: relinque ibi, scilicet coram altare, sive coram Deo, munus tuum, et vade, si absens est: non pedibus corporis, ut dicit Augustinus, sed animo humili te prosternas in conspectu eius cui oblaturus es; si praesens est, revocandus est ad amorem, petendo veniam ab eo.
- Vel si frater tuus, qui te laesit, habet aliquid adversum te, i. e. unde adversatur tibi, vade reconciliari fratri tuo, dimittendo rancorem sibi. Ex hoc enim quod dicens si frater tuus habet aliquid adversum te, non apponit iuste, dat intelligere quod etiam ille cui iniuria facta est, debet quaerere amicitiam. Unde Chrysostomus si pro gloria salutis tuae iubet te dominus amicitiam facere, multo magis debes rogare, ut duplicem gloriam consequaris, unam, quia innoxius es; alteram, quia prior rogasti.
And there, namely, in the church or in the heart, remember that your brother has something against you. This can be understood in two ways, namely, of the one injuring and of the one injured.
- Of the one injuring thus, according to Augustine: If you remember, i.e., if it comes to your mind or your notice, that your brother, whom you have injured, has something against you, namely, for contumely, for bodily harm, for taking his temporal possessions, for blackening his reputation; leave there, namely, before the altar or before God, your gift, and go, if he is absent, not with your bodily feet, as Augustine says, but by prostrating yourself humbly in the presence of the One to whom you are about to offer; if he is present, he must be returned to your love by seeking pardon from him.
- Or, if your brother, who has injured you, has something against you, i.e., to make him your adversary, go and be reconciled to your brother by putting aside the rancor against him. For from the fact that after saying, if your brother has something against you, he does not add "justly", he makes it plain that even the one who suffered the injury ought to seek friendship. Hence Chrysostom: If for the glory of your salvation the Lord commands you to make friendship, much more should you ask for a double glory: one, because you are harmless; the other, because you asked first.
Et tunc veniens, quasi placens domino, qui prius non placebas, offeres munus tuum. Chrysostomus: si cogitatu offendisti, cogitatu reconciliare; si verbis, verbis; si factis, factis. Et iterum: nisi quem factis laesisti, factis placaveris, sine causa oras ad dominum, sine causa eleemosynas facis de rebus, quibus alios expoliasti. Quid enim prodest si alius pro te orat ad dominum, et alius adversum te interpellat ad dominum? Eccli. XXXIV, 23: dona iniquorum non probat altissimus. And then come, as though pleasing to the Lord after not being pleasing, and offer your give. Chrysostom: "If you have offended by thought, be reconciled by thought; if by words, by words; if by deeds, by deeds." And again: Unless you placate by words the one you offended by words, without reason to you pray to the Lord, without reason do you give alms from things with which you have despoiled others. For what is the profit, if another prays to the Lord for you, and another intercedes with the Lord against you." "The Most High is not pleased with the gifts of the ungodly" (Sir 34:19). Et nota hic quatuor quae requiruntur ad dationem sive oblationem, scilicet mentis hilaritas; unde dicit si offers; Eccli. c. XXXV, 11: in omni dato hilarem fac vultum tuum. Secundo, rei proprietas; unde dicit munus tuum; Prov. III, 9: honora Deum de tua substantia. Tertio, loci opportunitas ad altare. Quarto, proximorum caritas: unde dicit et recordatus fueris; I Cor. XIII, 3: si distribuero in cibos pauperum omnes facultates meas, caritatem autem non habuero, nihil mihi prodest. Stultus est qui copiam ciborum perdit pro denario salis, idest caritatis, quae dat omnibus saporem et decorem, ut aurum aliis metallis. Note here the four things required for giving or offering, namely, cheerfulness; hence he says, If you are offering: "With every gift show a cheerful face" (Sir 35:9). Secondly, ownership of the thing; hence he says, your gift: "Honor the Lord with your substance" (Pr 3:9). Thirdly, fitness of place: at the altar. Fourthly, love of neighbor; hence he says, and there remember that your brother...: "If I give away all I have, but have not love, I gain nothing" (1 Cor 13:3). It is foolish to lose an abundance of food for a few pennies' worth of salt, i.e., of charity, which imparts delicacy and elegance to all, as gold to other metals. Esto consentiens adversario tuo. Supra prohibuit habere iram, sive discordiam cum fratribus, hic removet habere discordiam cum adversario, dicens esto consentiens, idest benevolus vel benignus, ut habetur ex Graeco sicut dicit Hieronymus, adversario tuo. Contra. Diabolus est adversarius: ergo est sibi consentiendum. Responsio. Loquitur de illo qui nobiscum est in via; sed Diabolus non est in via, nec potest esse, sed est in devio aeterno; unde adversario tuo, secundum Chrysostomum, idest homini adversanti, sive inimico ad litteram; Rom. XII, 18: si fieri potest, cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes. (25) Make friends quickly with your accuser [adversary]. Above he forbade anger or discord with one's brother; here he forbids discord with an adversary, saying, Make friends, i.e., be benevolent or be nigh, with your adversary. But the devil is an adversary; therefore, we should makes friends with him. I answer that he is speaking of one on the way with us; but the devil is not on the way and cannot be, for he is eternally off the way. Hence with your adversary, according to Chrysostom, i.e., human, or literally, an enemy: "If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all" (Rom 12:18). Dum, idest donec, es cum eo in via,
- idest in statu merendi; Io. IX, 4: venit tempus quando non licet operari.
- Vel adversarius noster est Deus, de quo Ex. XXIII, 7: ego dominus qui adversor impium.
- Vel sermo divinus, qui adversatur peccare volentibus; II Tim. penult., 16: omnis Scriptura divinitus inspirata utilis est ad docendum, ad arguendum. Vel conscientia remordens, de qua Ps. XLIX, 21: arguam te, et statuam contra faciem tuam.
While, i.e., as long as you are on the way with him,
- i.e., in the state of meriting: "Night comes, when no one can work" (Jn 9:4).
- Or, our adversary is God, of whom Exodus (23:7): "I, the Lord, will not acquit the wicked."
- Or, God's word, which is opposed to those who wish to sin: "All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction" (2 Tim 3:16).
- Or, an accusing conscience: "But now I rebuke you, and lay the charge before you" (Ps 50:21).
Et sic iterum omnibus istis modis exponitur. Unde esto consentiens adversario tuo, id est Deo, et divino sermoni, secundum Augustinum et Bedam, quibus est consentiendum in spe promissi, in timore supplicii, in opere praecepti, in declinatione prohibiti. And so it is again explained in all those ways. Hence make friends with your adversary, i.e., God, God's word, according to Augustine and Bede. To these one must consent in hope of the promise, in fear of punishment, by works that are commanded, by avoiding what is forbidden. Cito, idest sine mora; Eccli. V, 8: ne tardes converti ad dominum. Dum es cum eo, idest cum quo recte gradieris in via, scilicet Christi, sive poenitentiae, sive mundi; Ps. CXVIII, 32: viam mandatorum tuorum cucurri, cum dilatasti cor meum. Ne forte tradat te. Secundum Augustinum, ne forte causa sit occasionaliter ut tradaris. Et dicit forte, secundum Glossam, ne auferatur poenitentiae locus. Si enim obiisset adversarius antequam consentiret, sive esset benevolus, videretur quod damnaretur, dicendo simpliciter ne tradat te adversarius, idest sermo divinus, vel Deus, vel conscientia remordens, iudici. Glossa: in manus Christi. Io. V, 22: omne iudicium dedit filio. Et iudex, idest Christus; Ier. XXIX, 23: ego sum iudex, et testis. Tradat te ministro; Glossa: idest Angelo qui colligit zizania ad comprehendendum, inf. XIII, Ps. CIII, 4: qui facit Angelos suos spiritus. Vel ministro, i. e. exactori Diabolo; Is. XIV, 4: quomodo cessavit exactor? Et in carcerem mittaris, idest in abyssum Inferni; Is. XXIV, 22: claudentur in carcere; Apoc. XX, 3: misit illum in abyssum, et clausit. Quickly, i.e., without delay: "Do not delay to turn to the Lord" (Sir 5:7) While you are with him, i.e., with whom you rightly walk on the way, namely, of Christ, or of penance, or of the world: "I will run in the way of your commandments, when you enlarge my heart" (Ps 119:32). Lest he hand you over. According to Augustine, lest there be cause to hand you over. He adds, perchance, according to Augustine, so that room for penance not be removed. For if the adversary were to act, before he made friends or was benevolent, it would seem that he would be damned, since he says simply, lest the adversary hand you over, i.e., God's word, or God, or an accusing conscience, to the judge: "In to the hands of Christ" (a Gloss); "He has given all judgment over to the Son" (Jn 5:22); and the judge, i.e., Christ: "I am judge and witness" (Jer 29:23), to the guard: "That is, to the angel who collects the chaff for burning" (a Gloss); "Who makes spirits his messengers" (Ps 104:4). Or, to the guard, i.e., the oppressing devil: "How the oppressor has ceased!" (Is 14:4). And you be put in prison, i.e., into the infernal abyss: "They will be shut up in prison" (Is 24:22); "He threw him into the pit and shut it" (Rev 22:3). Amen dico tibi, idest certe scias qui non exies inde, donec, Glossa: idest numquam. Unde Augustinus: donec non significat hic finem poenae, sed continuationem miseriae. Quasi dicat, semper solves, et numquam persolves; sicut in Ps. CIX, 1: sede a dextris meis, donec ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum, idest semper sedebis. Reddas novissimum quadrantem, idest minutissima peccata, secundum Bedam et Rabanum, quia nihil remanebit impunitum: est enim quadrans genus nummi habens duo minuta. Vel secundum Augustinum et Hieronymum, per quadrantem voluit intelligere terrena peccata: nam quadrans novissimus est terra, quae quarta pars elementorum huius mundi est, et ea novissima ab igne; quasi dicat: quia noluisti esse ignis per caritatem, aereus per boni operis strenuitatem, aqueus per Baptismatis sanctificationem; sed fuisti terrenus inhaerendo terrenis, non exibis inde, quia numquam persolves peccata quae de terra contraxisti. (26) Amen, I say to you, i.e., you may know for certain, that you will never get out from it, until, "i.e., never" (a Gloss). Hence Augustine: "Until does not signify here the end of the punishment, but the continuation of misery." As if to say: You will always pay and never pay completely; as in Ps 110 (v. 1): "Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool," i.e., you will always sit. You have paid the last penny, i.e., the smallest sins, according to Bede and Rabanus, because nothing will remain unpunished; for a penny is a coin of the slightest value. Or, according to Augustine and Jerome, by penny he meant earthly sins, for the last penny is earth, which is a fourth part of this world's elements. As if to say: Because you refused to be fire through charity, air by the strenuousness of good works, water by the sanctification of baptism; but you were earthly by clinging to earthly things, you will never get out, because you will never pay for the sins which you contracted from the earth.
Petri de Scala
27 ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη, οὐ μοιχεύσεις. 28 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ βλέπων γυναῖκα πρὸς τὸ ἐπιθυμῆσαι αὐτὴν ἤδη ἐμοίχευσεν αὐτὴν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 29 εἰ δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ὁ δεξιὸς σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔξελε αὐτὸν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ: συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου βληθῇ εἰς γέενναν. 30 καὶ εἰ ἡ δεξιά σου χεὶρ σκανδαλίζει σε, ἔκκοψον αὐτὴν καὶ βάλε ἀπὸ σοῦ: συμφέρει γάρ σοι ἵνα ἀπόληται ἓν τῶν μελῶν σου καὶ μὴ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου εἰς γέενναν ἀπέλθῃ. 31 ἐρρέθη δέ, ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, δότω αὐτῇ ἀποστάσιον. 32 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχευθῆναι, καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ μοιχᾶται. 33 πάλιν ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις, οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις, ἀποδώσεις δὲ τῷ κυρίῳ τοὺς ὅρκους σου. 34 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ὀμόσαι ὅλως: μήτε ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὅτι θρόνος ἐστὶν τοῦ θεοῦ: 35 μήτε ἐν τῇ γῇ, ὅτι ὑποπόδιόν ἐστιν τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ: μήτε εἰς ἱεροσόλυμα, ὅτι πόλις ἐστὶν τοῦ μεγάλου βασιλέως: 36 μήτε ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ σου ὀμόσῃς, ὅτι οὐ δύνασαι μίαν τρίχα λευκὴν ποιῆσαι ἢ μέλαιναν. 37 ἔστω δὲ ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν ναὶ ναί, οὒ οὔ: τὸ δὲ περισσὸν τούτων ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ ἐστιν. 27. You have heard that it was said to them of old: Thou shalt not commit adultery. 28. But I say to you, that whosoever shall look on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29. And if thy right eye scandalize thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee. For it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than thy whole body be cast into hell. 30. And if thy right hand scandalize thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is expedient for thee that one of thy members should perish, rather than that thy whole body go into hell. 31. And it hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a bill of divorce. 32. But I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, excepting the cause of fornication, maketh her to commit adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away, committeth adultery. 33. Again you have heard that it was said to them of old, thou shalt not forswear thyself: but thou shalt perform thy oaths to the Lord. 34. But I say to you not to swear at all, neither by heaven for it is the throne of God. 35. Nor by the earth, for it is his footstool: nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king: 36. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37. But let your speech be yea, yea: no, no: and that which is over and above these, is of evil. Audistis, quia dictum est antiquis: non moechaberis et cetera. Supra ordinavit irascibilem respectu suae passionis, hic ordinat concupiscibilem respectu passionis quae est in radice, scilicet in virtute generativa. Ponuntur autem hic duo: primo ordinatio concupiscibilis circa suum motum; secundo confirmatio ipsius matrimonii dati in eius remedium, ibi dictum est: quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam. You have heard that it was said to those of old, "You shall not commit adultery." Above, he put order into the irascible in regard to its passions; here he orders the concupiscible in regard to the passion in its root, namely, in the reproductive faculty. Two things are presented here: first, the ordering of the concupiscible in regard to its movement; secondly, confirmation of marriage given as its remedy (v. 31). Insuper in prima, primo monet concupiscentiae inordinatum motum; secundo tollit occasionem sive provocationem ad ipsum, ibi quod si oculus tuus dexter scandalizat te. In the first, he first warns against the inordinate movement of concupiscence; secondly, he removes the occasion or provocation to it (v. 29). Prima duo continet, scilicet iustitiam legis veteris, quae consistebat tantum in opere exteriori; deinde explanationem novae, quae consistit etiam in interiori, ibi ego autem dico vobis et cetera. The first contains two things, namely, the justice of the Old Law, which consisted only in the external act; then the explanation of the New, which consists even in the internal (v. 28). Dicit ergo audistis quia dictum est antiquis, idest Iudaeis sub praeceptis legis degentibus multo tempore iam elapso. Unde Chrysostomus: dicendo antiquis, ostendit multum tempus ex quo mandatum hoc acceperunt, non moechaberis, idest non illegitime commisceberis mulieri. Moechia enim proprie est illicita commixtio maris et foeminae. Quaerit hic Chrysostomus quare non dicit de primo mandato. Responsio. Quia incipit a generalissimis passionibus, ut dictum est supra. (27) He says, therefore, You have heard that it was said to them of old, i.e., to the Jews living under the precepts of the Law a long time ago. Hence Chrysostom: "By saying to those of old he shows how long ago it was that they received this commandment, You shall not commit adultery, i.e., you shall not unlawfully unite with a woman. For adultery in the strict sense is the illicit carnal union of man and woman." Here Chrysostom asks why he does not speak of the first commandment. The answer is that he begins with the most general passions, as has been said. Ego autem dico vobis, idest ad hoc mandatum, quod solum in actu putatis esse servandum, addo et explano esse servandum in voluntate, secundum Augustinum. Quia omnis qui viderit mulierem, idest qui visum infixerit in mulierem. Est autem quaestio hic, quare praeter alios sensus solum visum nominat. Responsio. Quia visus magis est in promptu. Vel, secundum Bedam, in visu omnem motum animi ad delectationem intelligit.
Item hic quaeritur, quare non dicit, concupierit, sed omnis qui viderit, responsio. Quia concupiscere est aliquando subito, et non deliberate; et sic est veniale, et est propassio secundum Hieronymum. Sed videre ad concupiscendum est cum deliberatione; et ideo mortale, et est passio secundum Hieronymum. Iuxta hoc quaeritur, quare non dicit ad moechandum, sed solum ad concupiscendum. Responsio. Ut det intelligere, quod non solum operatio, vel consensus ad operandum est damnabilis, sed etiam intentio vel consensus ad delectandum.
(28) But I say to you, i.e., to this commandment, which you think should be observed only externally, I add and explain that t must be observed in the will, according to Augustine. That everyone who looks at a woman, i.e., who fixes his gaze on a woman. Here the question arises why he omits the other senses and mentions only sight. The answer is that sight is more obvious. Or, according to Bede, by sight he understands every movement of the soul to pleasure.
Another question is why he does not say, "desires" but looks at. The answer is that desire is sometimes sudden and not deliberate, and then it is venial; and according to Jerome it is a movement prior to a passion. But to look at in order to lust occurs with deliberation; therefore, it is mortal, and it is a passion, according to Jerome. In this context one might ask why he does not say "to commit adultery", but merely to lust. Te answer is that it was to vie us to understand that not only the act or the intention to act is damnable, but also the intention or consent to pleasure.
Ad concupiscendum eam; secundum Augustinum et Hieronymum, idest ut eam eo fine videat ut concupiscat interius, ut faceret si facultas se offerret. Iam moechatus est eam in corde suo, idest moechiae reus est, quia iam transivit in affectum cordis, secundum Rabanum. Gregorius: non licet intueri quod non licet concupisci. Thren. III, 51: oculus meus depraedatus est animam meam. Secundum Augustinum nomine moechantium omnem carnalem delectationem intelligit; et cum dicit viderit, visus pro omni motu qui est ad delectationem, non solum corporalis, sed etiam interior, qui est in concupiscentia, ponitur, ut dicit Beda. To lust after her, i.e., according to Augustine and Jerome, to look at her with the intention of lusting inwardly, so that he would act, if the opportunity presented itself. Has already committed adultery with her in his heart, i.e., is guilty of it, because it has now passed into the deserts of the heart, according to Rabanus. Gregory: "It is not lawful to look at anything not lawful to desire." "My eyes cause me grief" (Lam 3:51). According to Augustine the word "adultery" [moechia] is taken for all carnal pleasure; and when he says looks at, sight is taken for every movement toward pleasure, not only bodily but also internal, which is present in lust, according to Bede. Quod si oculus tuus et cetera. Hic removet provocantia ad ipsum motum, quae sunt duo principaliter, scilicet visus et tactus. Primum removet dum dicit quod si oculus tuus dexter scandalizat te; deinde secundum, ibi et si dextera manus tua scandalizat te. Dicit ergo quod si oculus tuus dexter scandalizat te; quasi dicat: supra prohibui vobis moechiam in actu et voluntate, sed et plus prohibeo, scilicet omnem occasionem provocantem ad ipsam; unde dico quod si oculus tuus dexter et cetera. Hoc exponitur multipliciter a sanctis.
- Secundum Hieronymum, Bedam et Hilarium. Oculum dicit visum et affectum mentis; unde Hieronymus: quia supra de concupiscentia mulieris dixerat, recte nunc cogitationem etiam sensum in diversa volventem, oculum nuncupavit. Et Hilarius: in oculo, et dextro intelligitur affectus quorumlibet animorum.
- Secundum Augustinum, et Rabanum, et Chrysostomum, oculus dexter potest hic accipi pro amicis et consiliariis, qui quasi iter in agendis demonstrant. Unde Chrysostomus: dexter apposuit, ut discas, quoniam non de membris est sermo, sed de his qui familiariter ad nos se habuerint.
- Item secundum Augustinum, et Bedam, et Hieronymum, pro parentibus et propinquis potest accipi oculus dexter. Vel secundum unam Glossam, pro vita contemplativa.
(29) If your right eye causes you to sin... as if to say: above I forbade adultery in act and will, but I forbid even more, namely, every occasion leading to it, when I say, if your right eye... This is explained in a number of ways by the saints.
- According to Jerome, Bede and Hilary, eye refers to sight and an affection of the mind. Hence Jerome: "Because he had spoken earlier of the desire for a woman, he now correctly calls thought moving the sense from one thing to another an eye."
- Hilary: "In the eye and in the right one is understood the affections of any higher part of the soul."
- According to Augustine, Rabanus and Chrysostom, right eye can be taken here for friends and advisers who, as it were, point out the way to act. Hence Chrysostom: "He added right, that you may learn that he is not speaking of bodily members, but of persons with whom we are on familiar terms."
- Again, according to Augustine and Bede and Jerome, right eye can be taken for parents and those near us. Or according to a Gloss, for the contemplative life.
Intelligendum est ergo sic: si oculus tuus, idest sensus, et cogitatio, dexter, idest sub specie bonae intentionis, scandalizat te, illicita concupiscendo, erue eum, scilicet malum usum ei frangendo, et proiice abs te, scilicet ipsum ex toto annihilando. Unde Chrysostomus: erat mulier religiosa, et respexi, et dixi, debeo visitare illam assidue, ut instruam illam, et confirmem in bono: bonus est iste respectus, et oculus dexter. Sed dum assidue visito, decidi in laqueum desiderii eius; ecce respectus bonus, et dexter oculus factus est mihi in scandalum. Eiiciam ergo illum bonum respectum, qui generaturus est malum. Et concludit infra: omne ergo bonum quod nos, vel alios scandalizet, praescindere debemus a nobis. Item si oculus dexter, idest amicus et consiliarius in divinis, scandalizet, trahendo in haeresim, talis est eruendus reprobando, proiiciendus manifeste contradicendo. Item si parentes scandalizant, vitae sanctitatem impediendo, talis oculus eruendus est resistendo, proiiciendus a se separando. Item si vita contemplativa scandalizat, in taedium vel arrogantiam vertendo, eruendus est aliquando diminuendo, proiiciendus ad activam transeundo. Expedit enim tibi, idest magis est necesse et utile tibi, ut pereat unum membrorum tuorum, idest sensus talis, vel consiliarius, vel propinquus, vel contemplatio; unde Glossa: ille quem habes ut membrum. Quam totum corpus tuum eat in Gehennam, idest quam tu totaliter in anima, et corpore mittaris in Infernum. Glossa: melius est illo praeciso salvari, quam cum illo damnari. Therefore, it should be understood thus: If your eye, i.e., senses and thought, right, i.e., under the form of a good intention, causes you to sin by desiring unlawful things, pluck it out by breaking off its evil use, and throw it away, namely, by annihilating it entirely. Hence, Chrysostom: "There was a pious woman and I regarded her and said: 'I should visit her often to instruct her and strengthen her in goodness'; that regard was good and so was the right eye. But while I continued to visit her, I fell into the trap of desiring her. Behold the good regard and the right eye have become a stumbling block to me. I will pluck out that good regard, which will beget evil." And he concludes later: "Therefore, every good that is a stumbling block for ourselves or others we should cut off from us." Likewise, if your right eye, i.e., friend and adviser in divine matters, is a stumbling block by drawing you into heresy, such a one must be plucked out by disapproval and thrown away by openly contradicting. Likewise, if parents are a stumbling block by impeding a holy life, such an eye must be plucked out by resisting, and cast out by separating from them. Likewise, if the contemplative life is a stumbling block by leading to boredom or arrogance, it must be plucked out by lessening it somewhat , and cast out by passing to the active life. It is better that you, i.e., it is more necessary and useful, that you lose one of your members, i.e., such a sense or adviser or relative or contemplation. Hence, a Gloss: "It is better to be saved with that cut off than with it to be damned." Contra. Secundum canones, quicumque tali occasione absciderit sibi membrum, irregularis est. Praeterea alia Glossa Chrysostomi et Augustini: nullum membrum ad litteram erui praecipitur. Contra. In vitis patrum hoc legitur factum fuisse. Responsio ad primum, quod nullum membrum intendit debere praecidi propter hoc; sed vocat praecidere vel eruere, usum vel actum huiusmodi a se per studium pii laboris amovere, ut supra dictum est. Ad secundum quod obiicitur de vitis patrum, respondetur, quod hoc excusatur per spiritum sanctum, quo inspirante creditur fuisse factum, sicut dicit Augustinus de Samsone in libro de civitate Dei; quod non aliter excusatur, nisi quia spiritus sanctus latenter hoc iusserit, qui per eum miracula faciebat. On the other hand, according to the Canons, whoever cuts off his member in such a circumstance is irregular. Besides, another Gloss of Chrysostom and Augustine says: "No member is literally to be cut off." I answer the first: He does not intend that any member be cut off for those reasons; but when he says to cut off or to throw away, he means that the use or action of this sort must be removed from oneself by the zeal of pious labor, as was said above. In regard to the second objection, which is based on the lives of the Fathers, I answer that this is excused by the Holy Spirit, under whose inspiration it is believed to have been done, as Augustine says of Samson in The city of God. It is excused for no other reason than that the Holy Spirit secretly commanded this and worked miracles through him. Et si dextera manus tua, idest operatio, vel tactus exterior cum bona intentione; vel amicus qui tibi ministrat in bonis; vel, secundum Chrysostomum, dextera manus, voluntas animae, sinistra, voluntas corporis. Haec autem corporea, ut dicit idem, organum est illius manus. (30) And if your right hand, i.e., activity or outward touch with a good intention, or a friend who ministers good things to you; or, according to Chrysostom, right hand, the will of the soul, the left, the will of the body. But this bodily one, as he says, is the organ of that hand. Sed quaeritur, quare non mentionem fecit de oculo sinistro et manu sinistra, cum contingat et per illam pati scandalum. Responsio. Removendo unum, quod videbatur minorem praestare occasionem, removet et id quod maiorem dat occasionem. Vel, secundum Chrysostomum, ut intelligas quod non de membris corporalibus loquitur, sed loquitur de familiaribus, vel amicis, ut supra dictum est. But why does he omit mention of the left eye and left hand, since they, too, can be stumbling blocks? I answer that by removing one, which seemed to be a lesser occasion, he also removed that which gives a greater occasion. Or, according to Chrysostom, we are to understand that he is not speaking of bodily members but of family or friends, as was said above. Scandalizat te, idest sit occasio ruinae tuae, sive scandali, abscinde eam, scilicet dimittendo, vel fugiendo; unde Chrysostomus: ad litteram nullum membrum in homine abscindi praecipitur, sed per studium pii laboris, si nocet, est revocandum, et removendum, et etiam longe a se faciendum, ut nec in memoria habeatur. Unde addit et proiice abs te, scilicet ex toto relinquendo. Expedit enim tibi ut pereat unum membrorum tuorum, quam totum corpus tuum eat in Gehennam. Glossa: idest melius est tibi illo praeciso salvari, quam cum illo damnari. Causes you to sin, i.e., is the occasion of your ruin or a stumbling block, cut it off by giving them up or departing. Hence, Chrysostom: "In the literal sense none of man's members is commanded to be cut off; but if it is harmful, it should be restrained and removed and even set far apart from you, so that it not be kept in the memory." Hence he adds, and throw it away, by forsaking it entirely. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell. A gloss: "It is better for you that it be cut off than to be damned with it." Dictum est et cetera. Hic ponitur secundum, scilicet confirmatio matrimonii dati in remedium concupiscentiae. Unde cum supra removerit illicitam commixtionem contra matrimonii legem, hic removet illicitam coniunctorum separationem: et per hoc confirmatio matrimonii est contra haereticos. Dicuntur autem hic duo: primo legis Moysi permissio; secundo legis novae iustitia et prohibitio, ibi dico autem vobis. Dicit ergo dictum est: non dicit a quo, vel quibus, per hoc significans ipsos esse quasi alienos a Deo, quibus hoc dicebatur, Deut. XXIV, 1 ubi scripsit Moyses, quod si uxor non placeret viro propter aliquam foeditatem, dimittat eam. Quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam, idest dimittere voluerit; et hoc fuit permissum a Moyse, non praeceptum; unde Marci X, 4: Moyses permisit libellum repudii scribere, et dimittere. Det ei libellum repudii. Hoc fuit praeceptum sub ista conditione, si dimitteret. Et in libello repudii ut dicunt scripta erat causa divortii, et dos quam dabat ei, et licentia quam habebat nubendi alii. Unde, secundum Chrysostomum, abdicabat a se, ut non esset in eius potestate ad eam reverti. (31) It was said... Here the second is present, namely, the confirmation of marriage given as a remedy for lust. Hence, after removing unlawful unions contrary to the law of marriage, he removes the unlawful separation of the married; and by this the confirmation of marriage against heretics. Two things are presented here: first, the permission granted by the Law of Moses; secondly, the righteousness and prohibition of the New Law (v. 32). He says, therefore, It was said. He does not say by whom or to whom, thus showing that those were estranged from God, as it were, to whom was directed Deuteronomy (2:41), where Moses wrote that if a wife was not pleasing to her husband on account of some deformity in her, he may send her away. Whoever divorces his wife, i.e., wishes to divorce her; and this was permitted by Moses, not commanded. Hence Mark (10:4): "Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of divorce, and to put her away." Let him give her a certificate of divorce. This was commanded on condition that he would divorce her. And in the certificate of divorce (as they say) was written the cause of the divorce and the dowry he gave her and the license she had to marry another. Hence, according to Chrysostom, he disowned her in such a way that it was not in his power to return to her. Quaeritur autem hic, quare hoc permisit Moyses, cum non esset ei indictum a domino. Responsio secundum Ambrosium et Chrysostomum: permisit, ne odio, vel alia causa habita in uxorem contingeret maius malum, scilicet occisio eius. Unde Ambrosius: melius est enim dividi, quam odio sanguinem fundi. But why did Moses permit this, since it had not been disclosed to him by the Lord? The answer, according to Ambrose and Chrysostom, is that he permitted it, lest through hatred or some other grievance against the wife, a greater evil be committed, such as killing the wife. Hence Ambrose: "It is better to be separated than for blood to be shed through hatred." Sed notandum, quod est multiplex permissio.
- Primo concessionis licitae, ut prior concedit te visitare parentes.
- Secundo dispensationis, quando permittit quod tibi non licet comedere, ut comedere carnes.
- Tertio tolerantiae, ut quando permittitur inter duo mala minus malum, ne fiat maius: et talis fuit permissio Moysis. Dicitur enim permisisse, quia toleravit, ne maius malum facerent, scilicet homicidium, ut supra dictum est. Et ideo dicit dominus, quod hoc praecepit Moyses ad duritiam cordis eorum, infra XIX, 8. Et talis permissio permittenti peccatum non est, quia hoc facit, ut resistat maiori malo.
- Quarto indulgentiae, quando permittitur aliquid, cuius oppositum melius est: sicut apostoli secundas nuptias, I Cor. VII, 39, permiserunt, cum tamen melior esset continentia vidualis.
- Quinto sustinentiae, sicut Deus permittit mala fieri, ut eliciat bona.
But it should be noted that there are many kinds of permission:
- the first deals with a lawful concession, as when your superior allows you to visit your parents;
- the second is concerned with a dispensation, as when he permits you to eat meat, which it is not lawful for you to eat.
- The third deals with tolerance, as when he permits the lesser of two evils to avoid the greater; and such was Moses' permission. For he is said to have permitted, because he tolerated it, lest they commit a greater evil, namely, murder, as has been said. And therefore, the Lord says: "For your harness of heart Moses allowed you to divorce your wives" (Mt 19:8). And such a permission is not a sin for the one permitting, because he does this to avoid a greater evil.
- The fourth is condescension, when something is permitted, the opposite of which is better, as when the Apostle permitted second marriages (1 Cor 7:39), even though continence in widows is better.
- The fifth is sufferance, as God permits evils to be done to draw good from them.
Ego autem dico vobis etc., idest id determinando, uxorem non dimittendam ex qualibet causa; et toleratum a Moyse, ne maius malum fieret, scilicet homicidium. Sic astringo, et explano: quia omnis, qui dimiserit uxorem suam, excepta causa fornicationis, scilicet corporalis, viri vel mulieris, facit eam moechari, quia illa nubit alteri. Et hoc non est coniugium, sed adulterium; unde addit et qui dimissam duxerit, adulterat, quia debet manere innupta, vel viro reconciliari, ut dicit Glossa. Quod si ipsam dimittat ob causam fornicationis, ut dicit Augustinus, ipse non facit eam moechari, sed ipsa, cuius est reatus. Nec dimittens sic potest illa vivente aliam ducere, ut tangitur I Cor. VII, 39. (32) But I say to you..., i.e., by decreeing it, that a wife shall not be divorced for any reason at all; and that was tolerated by Moses, lest a greater evil, namely, murder be committed. Thus do I bind you and explain: because everyone who divorces his wife, except on the ground of unchastity [fornication], i.e., bodily, on the part of the man or woman, makes her an adulteress, because she has married another. And this is not marriage but adultery; hence he adds, and whoever married a divorced woman commits adultery, because she should remain unmarried or be reconciled to the husband, as a Gloss says. But if he divorces her because of fornication, Augustine says that he does not make her an adulteress, but she who is guilty. Furthermore, the one divorcing her cannot marry another, as long as the first lives, as is remarked in 1 Corinthians 7:39. Nota, quod qui dimittit, sive repudiat, quatuor mala facit, ut dicit Chrysostomus,
- quia quantum ad Deum existit homicida;
- secundo, dimittit non fornicantem;
- tertio, facit eam adulteram;
- et quarto, accipientem facit adulterari.
Note that the one who divorces or repudiates does four evil things, as Chrysostom says:
- in regard to God his is a murderer;
- secondly, he divorces one who has not fornicated;
- thirdly, he makes her an adulteress;
- fourthly, he makes the one who receives her commit adultery.
Item adulterans quatuor peccata committit:
- exhaeredat filios,
- fidem violat,
- virum dimittit,
- et ex adulterio fornicatur.
Furthermore, an adulteress commits four sins:
- she disinherits the children;
- she violates fidelity;
- she divorces the husband;
- she fornicates in adultery.
Propter hoc dicitur Is. l, 1: quis est hic liber repudii matris vestrae quo dimisi eam? Eccli. XXIII, 32: omnis mulier relinquens virum suum peccabit. Item nota super illud excepta causa fornicationis etc., Glossam Augustini et Chrysostomi: causa fornicationis est si uxor cogat ad idololatriam, vel avaritiam, vel ad alias illicitas concupiscentias: non enim fornicatio est tantum stupri, sed generaliter quae a lege Dei aberrare facit. Ergo spiritualis fornicatio solvit matrimonium. For this reason Isaiah (50:1) says: "Where is your mother's bill of divorce with which I put her away?" "Every woman leaving her husband will sin" (Sir 23)22). Note also Augustine and Chrysostom's Gloss on except on the ground of fornication. "Fornication is the ground, if the wife compels to idolatry, or greed, or to other unlawful desires; for fornication is not only ravishment, but generally something which makes one turn from God's law." Therefore spiritual fornication dissolves a marriage. Contra. Hieronymus: si mulier peccat in animam suam, non est polluta viro: quasi dicat: propter hoc quod peccat tantum in animam suam, non peccavit contra virum: et sic per hoc non debet solvi matrimonium. Responsio. Vinculum matrimonii consideratur tripliciter: vel quantum ad mutuam continentiam; vel quantum ad reddendum debitum carnale, vel quantum ad cohabitationem mutui servitii. Primum vinculum non solvit nisi mors alterius, vel utriusque: quia consummato matrimonio, alter contrahere, altero vivente, non potest. Secundum vinculum solvitur in carnali fornicatione; cum distinctione tamen: nam quaedam spiritualis fornicatio corrumpit facientem tantum, sicut superbia, ira, et similia; alia corrumpit cohabitantem, sicut haeresis, vel furtum, et similia. Quantum ergo ad primum modum non debet solvi vinculum cohabitationis. Quantum ad secundum debet solvi manente illa fornicatione spirituali, ut si diceret mulier se nolle habitare cum viro, nisi faceret furtum, vel talia huiusmodi. Sunt autem sex casus, qui continentur his versibus: On the other hand, Jerome: "If a woman sins against her own soul, she is not defiled by a man." As if to say: Since she sins only against her own soul, she has not sinned against the husband. Consequently, the marriage is not thereby dissolved. I answer that the bond of marriage is considered in three ways: as to mutual continence, or as to rendering the bodily debt, or as to living together in mutual service. The first bond is broken only by the death of one or both, because once the marriage is consummated, one cannot contract another, as long as the other party is living. The second bond is broken in bodily fornication; but keep in mind a distinction: for one spiritual fornication harms only the one who commits it, as pride anger and the like; another type harms the one living with another, as heresy, or theft and the like. Therefore, in regard to the first type the bond of living together should not be dissolved. In regard to the second it should be dissolved, as long as that spiritual fornication continues, such as if the woman should say that she does not wish to live with her husband, unless he is willing to steal or do things of that sort. But there are six cases, which are contained in these verses:
- simile, prostituens, vis,
- mors, et credita forma si convertatur,.
- post novit, mittere nequit
- Similar, prostitution, force,
- Death, suppose form, if converted,
- After he knew, cannot divorce.
In istis casibus non licet dimittere uxorem fornicantem. Primus est similitudo, idest si ipse vir convincitur fornicari; secundus prostitutio, hoc est si ipse vir prostituat ipsam; tertius est violentia, hoc est quando ab altero opprimitur per violentiam: et intelligitur de violentia absoluta, et non de illa quae est per metum; quartus est credita forma, hoc est quando ab alio cognita est sub specie viri sui, quem putabat virum suum; quintus est mors, hoc est cum credit probabiliter virum suum mortuum, et alteri nubit; et viro redeunte statim recedit a priori; sextus est conversio, hoc est fidelis ab infideli secundum ritum suae sectae dimittatur; postea utroque converso ad fidem cogitur per Ecclesiam eam recipere; septimus est reconciliatio, hoc est cum reconciliavit eam sibi post commissum adulterium, vel publice adulterantem retinuit. In istis casibus nequit vir mittere, idest dimittere uxorem fornicantem. Et sic intelligitur Glossa Augustini et Chrysostomi. In those cases it is not lawful to put away a wife, who has committed adultery. The first is likeness, i.e., if the husband is proved to have committed adultery; the second is prostitution, i.e., if the husband himself gives her to prostitution; the third is force, i.e., when she is violently overcome by someone (this is absolute violence and not the kind induced by fear); the fourth is supposed form, i.e., when she has been known by someone in the form of her husband, and whom she took to be her husband; the fifth is death, i.e., when she believes that her husband is probably dead, and she marries another; the sixth is conversion, i.e., a believing wife is dismissed by an unbelieving husband according to the rite of her sect: if he is later converted to the faith, he is required by the Church to receive her; the seventh is reconciliation, i.e., when he has reconciled her to himself after her adultery, or allowed her to remain after publicly committing adultery. In those cases the man cannot dismiss the wife, i.e., divorce and adulterous wife. An this is the meaning of Augustine's and Chrysostom's Gloss. Quaeritur autem hic, utrum similis causa sit in viris, si dimittantur ab uxoribus suis causa fornicationis. Responsio Hieronymi: quicquid viris dicitur, redundat in feminas: neque enim adultera uxor dimittenda, et vir moechus retinendus: aliae sunt leges Caesaris, aliae Christi; apud illas in viris fraena pudicitiae laxantur, apud Christum quod non licet feminis, aeque non licet viris, quia eadem servitus pari conditione censetur. Item super illud facit eam moechari, quaeritur quare non dicit et mulier si nubat alteri, adulterat. Responsio. Mulier, ut dicit Chrysostomus, imbecillis est: propterea per minas quas in virum dimittentem eam facit, vult emendare illius stultitiam. Sicut habens filium prodigum, illum dimittens increpat eos qui faciunt eum talem, et prohibet eos non convenire, neque apparere sibi. The question arises whether the case is similar with men, if they are divorced by their wives on account of fornication. Jerome answers: "Whatever is said to men extends to women, for a wife who has committed adultery is not to be divorced and an adulterous husband kept. The laws of Caesar are one thing and those of Christ another: in the former the bridle of modesty is loose, with Christ whatever is unlawful for women is equally unlawful for men, because the same obligation is regarded to have the same conditions. Likewise, in regard to makes her an adulteress, why does he not say:"And the woman, if she marries another, commits adultery?" The answer is that, as Chrysostom says, the woman is weak-minded. For this reason by the threats he makes against the husband divorcing her, he wishes to correct her folly; just as one who dismisses a spendthrift son rebukes those who make him such and prevents their meeting or seeing him. Iterum audistis quia dictum est antiquis. Supra, ordinavit irascibilem, et concupiscibilem ad suas passiones; hic ordinat rationalem respectu veritatis. Est autem duplex veritas, creata et increata. Ordinat ergo virtutem rationalem ad veritatem increatam per debitam reverentiam et honorificationem; secundo ad veritatem creatam per rectam interpretationem, ibi sit autem sermo vester, est est, non non. (33) Again you have heard that it was said to the men of old... Above, he put in order the irascible and concupiscible in so far as their passions are concerned; here he puts order in the rational power in regard to truth. But truth is twofold: created and uncreated. Therefore, he puts order in the rational power in respect to uncreated truth by due reverence and honor; secondly, in respect to created truth by correct interpretation (v. 37). In primo dicuntur duo. Quia primo ponit iustitiam legis, Two things are said in the first: first, he asserts the justice of the Law, which consists in two things, namely, in avoiding perjury and in fulfilling an oath (v. 33b); secondly, the justice of the Gospel, quae consistit in duobus, scilicet in evitatione periurii, et solutione praestiti iuramenti, ibi reddes autem domino iuramenta tua. Secundo iustitiam Evangelii, quae consistit in duobus, in prohibitione assiduitatis iuramenti, cum dicit ego autem dico vobis, non iurare omnino et in prohibitionis explanatione, cum dicit neque per caelum et cetera. which consists in two things, namely, in forbidding frequent oaths (v. 34) and in explaining the prohibition (v. 34b). Dicit ergo iterum audistis, quia dictum est antiquis, non periurabis, idest non periurium committes; unde Lev. XIX, 12: non peierabis, ne polluas nomen Dei tui. Quaerit autem Chrysostomus, quare furtum praeteriens, ad falsum testimonium transcendit. Responsio. Quoniam qui furatur, quandoque peierat, et non e converso: quoniam qui non vult mentiri, vel iurare, numquam eliget furari: et per hoc id advertit. Vel dicendum quod furtum puniebatur in lege; mendacium autem non. Et ideo ne putetur licitum, hic prohibet. He says, therefore, You shall not swear falsely, i.e., you shall not commit perjury: "You shall not swear by my name falsely, and so profane the name of your God" (Lev 19:12). But Chrysostom asks why he passes over staling and moves to false testimony. The answer is that a thief sometimes swears falsely and not vice versa; because one who does not wish to lie or swear will never choose to steal: and by this he draws our attention to that fact. Or it might be said that stealing was punished by the Law, but not lying. Consequently, lest it be considered lawful, he forbids it here. Reddes autem domino iuramenta tua, Hieronymus: idest si iurare contigerit, per creationem iurabis, non per creaturam. Unde domino dicit, non idolo, vel creaturae: quia, ut dicit Chrysostomus, qui domino non reddit iuramenta sua, sed elementis, dupliciter peccat: primo, quia non reddit Deo ius suum; secundo, quia deificat per quod iurat, et sic idololatriam committit. Glossa Hieronymi: sicut victimas Deo immolare iussit, ne eas idolis immolarent, sic parvulis concessum est iurare per Deum. Ergo si parvulis, non licet hoc perfectis. You shall perform to the Lord what you have sworn. Jerome: "This means that if one happens to swear, he shall swear by the Creator, not by the creature." Hence he says, to the Lord, not to an idol or a creature; because, as Chrysostom says, whoever does not perform to the Lord what he has sworn, but to the elements, sins in two ways: first, for not rendering to God his due; secondly, because he deifies the thing by which he swore, and so commits idolatry. Jerome's Gloss: "Just as he commanded that victims be sacrificed to God, lest they sacrifice them to idols, so small ones were permitted to swear by God." Therefore, if it is a concession to the small, it is not for the perfect. Contra. Apostolus iuravit, Rom. I, 9: testis est mihi Deus et cetera. Et Angelus Apoc. X, 6. Responsio. Parvulos dicit qui veritatem dicunt, seu humiles Deum timentes. Vel parvulis, idest pro parvulis, hoc est pro istis temporalibus. On the other hand, the Apostle swore: "God is my witness" (Rom 1:9) and so did the angel in Revelation (10:6). I answer that he calls those who speak the truth small, or the humble who fear God. Or, to the small ones means for trifles, i.e., for those temporal things. Ego autem dico vobis, idest occasione periurii etiam iuramenta prohibeo, mandans vobis non iurare omnino, idest ex qualibet causa, sive sine legitima causa, quia cum sine causa iuratur, attestatio primae veritatis contemnitur, quia assumitur in vanum, quod prohibetur Ex. XX, 7: non assumes nomen Dei tui in vanum. (34) But I say to you, i.e., considering the possibility of perjury, I even forbid oaths, commanding you not to sear at all, i.e., for any reason or without a legitimate reason; because when one swears without cause, the testimony of the first truth is scorned, for it is taken in vain and that is forbidden: "You shall not take the name of your God in vain" (Ex 20:7). Contra Ps. CIX, 4: iuravit dominus, et non poenitebit eum; ad Hebr. VI, 16: omnis controversiae finis ad confirmationem est iuramentum. Responsio. Prohibet iurare omnino, idest assidue. Vel omnino, in sensu composito, idest in omni casu. Debent autem in iuramento tria esse: materia debita, scilicet veritas; forma debita, scilicet iustitia; et finis rectus: unde secundum Augustinum, et Gregorium, et Origenem, non penitus iurare prohibuit, sed occasione periurii, quod perfectius est, docuit. Secundum Alexandrum, hoc praecipitur solum apostolis in primitiva Ecclesia, ne imperfecti haberentur. Vel cum dicit non iurare omnino, prohibetur affectus iurandi, non effectus, sicut Iac. V, v. 12: ante omnia, fratres, nolite iurare, idest non appetatis. Unde Hieronymus: Christus omnino iurare prohibet, ne quis quasi bonum appetat iusiurandum, et assiduitate iurandi labatur in periurium. On the other hand Psalm 110 (v. 4) says: "The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind," and Hebrews (6:16): "In all men's disputes an oath is final for confirmation." The answer is that he forbids any swearing at all, i.e., frequently; or at all in the strict sense, i.e., in every case. But three things should be in an oath: due matter, namely, truth; due form, namely, justice; and the correct purpose. Hence, according to Augustine and Gregory and Origen, he does not forbid swearing in all cases, but teaches what is more perfect, considering the danger of perjury. According to Alexander this command is solely for the apostles in the early Church, lest they be regarded as imperfect. Or when he says, so not swear at all, the desire but not the effect of swearing is forbidden, as James (5:12) teaches: "Above all, my brothers, do not swear," i.e., do not desire. Hence Jerome: "Christ forbids swearing at all, so that no one may desire an oath as something good and by frequent swearing slip into perjury. Augustine, too, in On lying says: "Not to swear at all, i.e., as far as in you lies, you would not like or with any pleasure desire it." Again, the same Augustine: "Swearing is not good; but it is not evil, when it is necessary." Item Augustinus in libro de mendacio dicit: omnino non iurare, idest quantum in te est, non ames, neque cum aliqua delectatione appetas. Item idem Augustinus: iuratio non est bona, non tamen est mala, cum est necessaria. Contra. Augustinus in sermone de periculo: falsa iuratio perniciosa, vera periculosa, nulla secura. Si periculosa, ergo mala. Responsio. Periculosa dicitur respectu iurantis, non quia mala, sed quia de facili potest omitti aliqua conditio iuramenti, quae est triplex, iuxta illud Ier. IV, 2: iurabis, vivit dominus, in veritate, in iudicio, et iustitia. In veritate iurat qui secundum veritatem rei et conscientiae; in iustitia qui licite; in iudicio qui pro causa sufficiente. On the other hand Augustine in the sermon On danger sys: "A false oath is pernicious, a true one dangerous, not any is secure." If dangerous, then evil. The answer is that it is called dangerous in regard to the one swearing, not because it is evil, but because some condition for an oath can easily be missing. These conditions are three, according to Jeremiah: "You shall swear. The Lord lives in truth, is judgment, in justice." He swears in truth who does so according to the truth of the reality and of conscience; in justice who does so lawfully; in judgment who does so for a sufficient cause. Neque per caelum. Chrysostomus: qui per caelum iurat, caelum deificat, et per caelum intelligit omnem creaturam superiorem naturalem. Glossa: non iuremus per creaturas. Contra. Ioseph iuravit per salutem Pharaonis, Gen. XLII, 15. Responsio. Iuravit, potestatem eius a Deo atque salutem cognoscens. Ergo non fuit per creaturam iurare, sed per Deum, in cuius manu salus est omnium. Quia thronus Dei est; Is. ult., 1: caelum mihi sedes est. Neither by heaven. Chrysostom: "Whoever swears by heaven deifies heaven," sand by heaven he understands every higher natural creature. A Gloss: "Let us not swear by creatures." But Joseph swore by the life of Pharaoh. I answer that he swore, recognizing that his life and power were from God. Therefore, he swore not by a creature but by God, in whose hand is everyone's life. For it is the throne of God: "Heaven is my throne" (Is 66:1). Neque per terram, per quam intelligitur omnis creatura naturalis inferior, quia scabellum pedum eius est; Is. ibid.: terra scabellum pedum meorum. Et, ut dicit Augustinus, in caelo dicitur Deus sedere, terramque calcare, non quod membra sic locata habeat; sed quia in corpore mundi maxima species est caeli, minima terrae: propter quod in caelo dicitur sedere, quia in magna sua potentia relucet. (35) Nor by the earth, by which is understood every; lower natural creature, for it is his footstool: "Earth is my footstool" (Is 66:1). Augustine says that God is said to sit in heaven, to tread the earth, not that he has parts thus situated; but because in the world the greatest species are of heaven, the lowest of earth. He is said to be seated in heaven, because he shines forth in his great power. Deinde comprehendit creaturam artificialem, dicens neque per Ierosolymam. Consuetudo erat Iudaeis iurare per Ierusalem, et templum, et huiusmodi. Quia est civitas magni regis; Ps. LXXVI, 14: quis Deus magnus, sicut Deus noster? Then he refers to the man-made creature, saying, or by Jerusalem... It was a custom for the Jews to swear by Jerusalem and the temple and the like. For it is the city of the great king: "What god is great like our God?" (Ps 77:13). Neque per caput tuum iuraveris. Per hoc intelligitur omnis creatura, quae est idem quod nos. Augustinus: cum quis per salutem meam iurat, salutem suam Deo obligat. Cum per filios meos, oppignorat Deo, ut hoc eveniat in caput eorum quod exit de ore eius. Quoniam non potes unum capillum album facere aut nigrum, scilicet naturaliter, quasi dicat, non est opus tuum, sed Dei. Unde Augustinus: iurare per quaslibet creaturas est creatorem earum testem adhibere. Propter haec omnia dicitur Eccli. XXIII, 9: iurationi non assuescat os tuum. Chrysostomus: nemo est qui frequenter iuret, qui aliquando non periuret. (36) And do not swear by your head. By this is understood every creature, which is the same as we. Augustine: "When anyone swears by my health, he obligates his own health to God. When he swears by my children, he pledges that what comes from his mouth shall fall on their head." For you cannot make one hair black or white, i.e., naturally. As if to say: it is not your work but God's. Hence Augustine: "To swear by any creatures is to call upon the Creator as witness." In addition it says in Sirach (23:9): "Do not accustom your mouth to oaths." Chrysostom: There is no one who swears frequently who sometimes does not swear falsely." Sit autem sermo vester, est est, non non. Haec est secunda pars ubi ordinat rationalem veritatem creatam per rectam interpretationem, scilicet quando veritas exprimitur verbo, secundum quod concipitur in animo. Unde dicit, ita prohibui non iurare etiam cum oportet loqui. Sit autem, idest: sed, sermo vester sit, est est, idest sermo vester habens existentiam rei sit, est est, idest proferatur secundum veritatem conscientiae non non, idest, de re quae non est, proferatur non esse. Unde Rabanus: est est, non non, bis dicit, ut quod ore dicis, operibus comprobes; quod verbis negas, factis non confirmes. Quod autem his abundantius est, idest illud quod asseritur, vel negatur supra simplicem veritatem rei, sicut per iuramentum a malo est: non dicit quod malum sit, ut dicit Augustinus, sed a malo, scilicet non tuo, sed ex infirmitate compellentis te iurare, aut incredulitate. (37) Let your speech be simply 'Yes' or 'No'. This is the second part, where he regulates created rational truth by a correct interpretation, namely, when the truth is expressed in words, as it is conceived in the mind. Hence he says: Thus, I have forbidden you to swear, even when there is need to speak. But let your speech be 'yes, yes,' i.e., your speech dealing with the existence of a thing should be simply 'Yes,' i.e., be uttered according to the truth as known. 'No, no,' i.e., concerning a thing which is not, it should be declared not to be. Hence Rabanus: "'Yes, yes,' 'No, no.' he says both twice, so that what you say with your mouth you may prove by your works; what you deny in words, you may not affirm by deeds." Anything more than this comes from evil, i.e., what is asserted or denied beyond the simple truth of the matter as by an oath comes from evil. He does not say that it is evil, as Augustine says, but from evil, namely, not yours but from the weakness of the one compelling you to swear, or from disbelief. Unde nota, quod iurare licet multis de causis.
- Primo pro veritate confirmanda incredulis, II Cor. I, 18: fidelis Deus, quia sermo, qui fuit apud nos, non fuit in illo est et non,
- secundo pro pace reformanda, ut Iacob iuravit Laban, Gen. XXXI, 53,
- tertio pro amicitia contrahenda, Gen. XXVI, 28: dixerunt viri Gerarae ad Isaac: sit iuramentum inter nos,
- quarto pro veritate manifestanda, Deut. c. XIX, 15: in ore duorum vel trium testium stat omne verbum,
- quinto pro fidelitate servanda, II Reg. V, 3: venerunt seniores Israel ad regem, et percussit cum eis foedus,
- sexto pro obedientiae et subiectionis recognitione: sic viri Galaad Iephte,
- septimo pro consuetudine Ecclesiae servanda, ut canonici: sicut iuraverunt filii Israel se domino servituros.
Hence note that it is lawful to swear for many reasons:
- first, to convince the incredulous of the truth: "As surely as God is faithful, our word shall be Yes and No" (2 Cor 1:18);
- secondly, to restore peace, as Jacob swore to Laban (Gen 31:53);
- thirdly, to beget friendship: "The men of Gerar said to Isaac: 'Let there be an oath between you and us'" (Gen 26:28);
- fourthly, to make the truth manifest: "In the mouth of two or three witnesses every word stands" (Dt 19:15);
- fifthly, to preserve loyalty: "The elders of Israel came to the king and made a covenant with him" (2 Sam 5:3);
- sixthly, to acknowledge obedience and subjection, as the men of Gilead to Jephthah (Jd 11:10);
- seventhly, to observe the custom of the Church, as canons. This is the way the children of Israel swore to serve the Lord.
Et hae septem causae sunt propter bonum introducendum. Item aliae duae causae sunt propter malum amovendum, scilicet sicuti iuratur in contestatione litis ut calumnia sopiatur; ad Hebr. c. VI, 16: omnis controversiae finis ad confirmationem est iuramentum. Alia causa est ad infamiam purgandam; Deut. XXI, 1: quando inventum fuerit cadaver hominis occisi, et ignorabitur caedis reus, egredientur maiores natu, et iudices (...) et dicent: manus nostrae non effuderunt sanguinem hunc, nec oculi viderunt. Propitius esto populo tuo Israel quem redemisti, domine. And these seven exist for the sake of introducing something good. But there are two causes which exist to remove evil, namely,
- when bearing testimony in a dispute, to set calumny at rest: "In all men's disputes an oath is final for confirmation" (Heb 6:16).
- The second cause is to ward off blame: "If anyone is found slain, and it is not known who killed him, then your elders and judges shall come forth and testify: 'Our hands did not shed this blood, neither did our eyes see it shed. Forgive, O Lord, your people Israel, whom you have redeemed'" (Dt 21:1).
Petri de Scala
38 ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη, ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος. 39 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ: ἀλλ' ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰς τὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα [σου], στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην: 40 καὶ τῷ θέλοντί σοι κριθῆναι καὶ τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν, ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον: 41 καὶ ὅστις σε ἀγγαρεύσει μίλιον ἕν, ὕπαγε μετ' αὐτοῦ δύο. 42 τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δός, καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῇς. 43 ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη, ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου. 44 ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρ τῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς, 45 ὅπως γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους. 46 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 47 καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 48 ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν. 38. You have heard that it hath been said: An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. 39. But I say to you not to resist evil: but if one strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him also the other. And if a man will contend with thee in judgment, and take away thy coat, let go thy cloak also unto him. 41. And whosoever will force thee one mile, go with him other two. 42. Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not away. 43. You have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thy enemy. 44. But I say to you, Love your enemies: do good to them that hate you: and pray for them that persecute and calumniate you: 45. That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise upon the good, and bad, and raineth upon the just and the unjust. 46. For if you love them that love you, what reward shall you have? do not even the publicans this? 47. And if you salute your brethren only, what do you more? do not also the heathens this? 48. Be you therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect. Audistis, quia dictum est, oculum pro oculo. Haec est secunda pars ab illo loco dico autem vobis etc. in qua monet ad impletionis perfectionem, addendo consilia. Et primo ponit consilia respectu iudicialium; secundo respectu moralium, ibi audistis quia dictum est, diliges proximum tuum. You have heard that it was said, "An eye for an eye..." This is the second part of the section which began at v. 20, namely, for I tell you..., in which he urges complete perfection by adding counsels. First, he presents counsels regarding judicial matters; secondly, regarding morals (v. 43). Prima in duas. Primo ponit veteris legis iustitiam; secundo novae legis perfectionem, The first is divided into two parts: first, he presents the righteousness of the Old Law; secondly, the New Law's perfection, quae consistit in duobus, scilicet in mali illati perpessione, et in beneficentiae operatione, ibi qui autem petit a te da ei. which consists in two things, namely, in bearing with evil inflicted and in performing good works (v. 42). In patiendo autem malum illatum, dupliciter, aut in corpore, aut in re, ibi si quis voluerit tecum in iudicio contendere; aut in operatione, ibi si quis te angariaverit mille passus. One endures inflicted evil in the body, or property (v. 40) or in action (v. 41). Ad patientiam mali illati in corpore monet secundum duplicem gradum. Uno modo ad non appetendum vindictam; alio modo esse paratum ad plura sustinenda, ibi si quis te percusserit in dexteram maxillam tuam. In enduring evil inflicted on the body, he urges two ways: one way, by not seeking revenge; the other, by being ready to bear many things (v. 39). Dicit ergo audistis quia dictum est, non dicit quibus ut innuat illos esse duros corde, oculum pro oculo, dentem pro dente, in quo lex talionis erat iniuriae illatae statuta, ut Augustinus dicit, Ex. XXI, 24 et Deut. XIX, 21. Sed quaeritur quare legem talionis concessit Moyses. Responsio. Moyses vidit eos temerarios in iniuriis et vindictis faciendis; et ideo cum non posset aliter eos retrahere, poenam vindictae voluit temperare, ne supra modum illatas iniurias vindicarent, sed ad plura pro pari parem redderent talionem. (38) He says, therefore: You have heard that it was said. He does not say to whom, which suggest that they were hardhearted; an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, in which the law of retaliation for inflicted injury had been prescribed, as Augustine says: Ex (21:24) and Dt (19:24). But why did Moses allow the law of retaliation? The answer is that Moses saw that they were rash in causing injuries and seeking revenge. Therefore, since there was no other way to restrain them, he wished to moderate the penalty of revenge and thereby keep them from exceeding the limit in avenging inflicted injuries, so that at most they would retaliate equal for equal. Item super illud Glossa Augustini: lex modum ultionis constituit. Contra Levit. XIX, 18: non quaeras ultionem, nec memor eris iniuriae civium tuorum. Responsio. Talionis erat lex iudici in praecepto, et hoc ut faceret zelo iustitiae, et non zelo vindictae, ad malorum cohibitionem; et sic intelligit Augustinus. Sed quia erat permissa iniuriato secundum paritatem, putabant Iudaei se posse ulcisci; et ideo inhibetur in Levitico. Item ibidem Augustinus: iniustorum iustitia est: non quia iniqua est ultio quam lex statuit. Ergo ultio erat licita. Responsio. Ultio amore iustitiae erat licita ipsi iudici, non amore vindictae. Unde sic intelligitur Glossa: ultio iusta iniustorum, idest vindictam iniuste exigentium. Likewise, against Augustine's Gloss: "The Law put a limit on revenge," it says in Leviticus (19:18): "You shall not take revenge or bear any grudge against the sons of your own people." The answer is that a judge was obliged by the law of retaliation, so that he would be inspired by a zeal for justice and not revenge in restraining evil. And that is Augustine's understanding. But because equal retaliation had been permitted, the Jews thought that they could take revenge; and that is why it was forbidden in Leviticus. Augustine also says: "It is the justice of the unjust, not because the revenge established by the Law is sinful." Therefore, revenge was lawful. The answer is that revenge for the love of justice was lawful for the judge, not for the love of retaliation. Hence, the Gloss is so understood: "The just revenge of the unjust, i.e., unjustly demanding retaliation." Ego autem; quasi dicat: illis sic concessum est, ego autem dico vobis, idest dicendo moneo vos non resistere malo, idest non velitis repellere iniuriam illatam ulciscendo, vel animo ulciscendi. Unde cum dicit malo, intelligit de malo temporali, sive poenae, ut dicit Augustinus et Hieronymus; et non de malo culpae, cui usque ad mortem resistendum est. Chrysostomus: praecepit istud, non ut nobis mutuo oculos eruamus, sed ut potius innocentes custodiamus, vel contineamus manus, sicque comminatione tali impetum fraenavit iniuriae. Item idem: iracundia per iracundiam non compescitur. Et intelligi debet de malo poenae, quod est tripliciter, ut Augustinus dicit: in cruciatu corporum, damno rerum, et angariis operum. (39) But I...; as if to say: such permission was granted them, but I say to you, i.e., by saying, I urge it, not to resist evil, i.e., you should not wish to repel injury by retaliating or by intending to get revenge. Hence when he says, evil, he means temporal evil or punishment, as Augustine and Jerome say, and not the evil of guilt, which must be resisted until death. Chrysostom: "He commanded this not in order that we tear one another's eyes out, but rather that we keep them sinless or restrain our hands; and so by such a warning he bridles the force of an injury." He also says: "Anger is not overcome by anger." And it should be understood of the evil of punishment, which is found in three things, as Augustine says: in pains of the body, in damage to property and in forced labor. Quaeritur autem utrum non resistere malo, sit praeceptum, vel consilium. Responsio. Iniuria quam appellat hic malum, aut est particularis et privata, aut publica:
- si publica, tunc repelli debet iussu principis; Rom. XIII, 4: Dei minister est, vindex in iram ei qui male agit. Item Augustinus: fortitudo quae a barbaris defendit patriam, vel domi defendit infirmos, vel a latronibus socios, plena iustitia est. Et sic praeceptum est subditis, non solum principibus.
- Vel potest esse iniuria particularis; et tunc iniuria repelli potest tripliciter:
- vel impediendo, sicut Paulus, qui per milites impedivit iniurias Iudaeorum:
- vel arguendo, sicut dominus fecit danti ei alapam, Io. XXII, 23, et sic licet omnibus tam perfectis quam imperfectis:
- vel repellitur cogente necessitate,
- sicut quando non potest vitari laesio, nec per fugam, nec per aliud impedimentum; et tunc aut repellitur sine armis, et hoc modo permittitur clericis et laicis:
- aut cum armis, et sic non licet clericis, etsi laicis forte liceat flagrante maleficio cum moderamine inculpatae tutelae, ut dicit lex:
et sic est in praecepto clericis, laicis autem in consilio;
- aut repellitur animo ulciscendi, sive vindictae libidine, et sic omnibus est prohibitum, et praeceptum. Et sic intellectum multipliciter non resistere malo, est in praecepto, vel in consilio.
One might ask whether not to resist evil is a precept or a counsel. The answer is that an injury, which he calls an evil here, is either particular and private or public;
- if public, then it should be resisted by a command of the ruler: "He is the servant of God to execute his wrath on the wrongdoer" (Rom 13:4). Augustine: "The courage which defends the fatherland from barbarians or defends the weak at home or companions from robbers, is filled with justice." Consequently, it is a precept for subjects and not only for rulers.
- Or the injury can be particular, and then it can be resisted in three ways:
- by hindering, as Paul, who hindered injuries from the Jews with soldiers;
- or by argument, as the Lord did to the one who slapped him (Jn 23:23): and this is lawful for anyone, both the perfect and the imperfect.
- Or it is resisted, when necessity requires,
- as when it cannot be avoided by flight or some other stragegem. And then it is resisted without arms; and this method is permitted clerics and laity;
- or with arms, and this is not lawful for clerics, even though it is perchance lawful for the laity in the face of serious injury to resist, provided that one does not injure the attacker more than is absolutely necessary for self defense, as the law says.
Thus, it is a matter of precept for clerics, but of counsel for the laity.
- Or it is resisted in a spirit of revenge or with a lust for retaliation; then it is forbidden to everyone, and is a precept. Thus understood, do not resist evil, is a precept in a number of ways, or a counsel.
Si quis te percusserit in dexteram maxillam, ad litteram, praebe ei et alteram, idest paratus sis sustinere patienter. Rabanus: non tantum non repercutias, sed si vult alteram ferire, patienter feras. Et hoc congruebat apostolis pro tempore illo: nam quia fundaturi erant Ecclesiam, voluit eos debere sustinere primos impetus persecutorum, ut homines videntes eorum patientiam converterentur ad fidem. Unde Chrysostomus: si diligenter inspexeris quam illi fuerunt legis auditores, et in qua conversatione degentes, et quando haec praecepta susceperint, facile intelliges, maxime miraberis legislatoris sapientiam. Vel praebe ei et aliam. Glossa: totum corpus ad affligendum. Hieron.: aliam, idest dexteram, quia iustus totus est dexter. Ambrosius: quid tam mirum quam percutienti maxillam praebere? Nonne omnis impetus indignantis frangitur, ira sedatur, et per patientiam ille qui iniuriatur, ad poenitentiam revocatur? If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also, i.e., be ready to endure it patiently. Rabanus: "Not only should you not strike back, but if he wants to strike the other, you should bear it patiently." And this was suitable for the apostles for that time; and because they were destined to found the Church, he wanted them to be obligated to endure the first attacks of persecutors, in order that men, seeing their patience, would be converted to the faith. Hence Chrysostom: "If you examine closely how they were hearers of the Law and in what circumstances they lived and when they received these precepts, you will easily understand and extremely admire the wisdom of the Lawgiver." Or, turn to him the other. A Gloss: "The entire body to be afflicted." Jerome: "The other, i.e., the right, because the just person is totally right." Ambrose: "What is so praiseworthy as to offer the cheek to the striker? Isn't the onrush of indignation broken, anger stilled, and the one inflicting the injury recalled to repentance through this patience?" Et ei qui vult tecum in iudicio Glossa altercationis: contendere, idest contentiose agere, et tunicam tuam tollere, idest vestes viliores, dimitte ei et pallium, idest vestes pretiosiores, sive exteriores, priusquam contentiose agas, et fraudulenter. Et secundum hoc inhibitum est omnibus causam movere contra aliquem cum fraude et contentione. Unde de isto iudicio dicit Chrysostomus: omne iudicium irritatio est cordis; si semel in iudicium ingressus fueris, iam non cogitas ut veritas causae appareat, sed ut quoquo modo victor existas. Vel potest esse monitio quoad perfectos, quia quamvis infirmis sit licitum movere causam contra proximum sub iudice, dummodo sit sine fraude, tamen hoc non licet perfectis litem cum proximo habere. Unde Chrysostomus: qui te venerari debuerat propter dignitatem filii, iudicat te propter necessitatem causae, et perdis dignitatem Christi propter negotium mundi. Unde solent dici hi versus: expedit infirmis, licet absque dolo, sine lite, praelatisque licet, non expedit anachoritae: non licet ut per eum sint res in iure petitae. Triplex autem est causa qua possunt ablata repeti ab aliquibus vice perfectorum.
- Prima est malorum refraenatio; Iob c. XXIX, 17: conterebam molas iniqui, et de dentibus illius auferebam praedam. Gregorius: non solum cura debet esse ne nostra subtrahant, sed ut rapientes non sua, semetipsos non perdant.
- Secunda est pacis conservatio; Is. XXXII, 17: erit opus iustitiae pax.
- Tertia est pauperum consolatio, quibus data sunt illa bona temporalia ad sustentationem.
(40) And if anyone would sue you and take your coat, i.e., your cheap clothing, let him have your cloak as well, i.e., the expensive clothing or the outer garments, before you act contentiously and fraudulently. According to this, everyone is forbidden to begin a suit against anyone fraudulently and in a spirit of contention. Hence Chrysostom says of that suit: "Every suit irritates the heart; if you have once gone to judgment, you no longer plan that the truth of the matter appear, but that you emerge victorious by any means." Or it can be taken as an admonition for the perfect, because although it is lawful for the weak to begin a suit against his neighbor before a judge, provided it is without fraud, nevertheless it is not lawful for the perfect to have a litigation with his neighbor. Hence Chrysostom says: "One who ought to have respected you because of your dignity as a son judges you, because you demanded a suit, and you destroy Christ's dignity for the sake of worldly business." But there are three reasons why the return of stolen goods can be sought to recompense the perfect:
- the first is to bridle the wicked: "I broke the fangs of the unrighteous, and made him drop his prey from his teeth" (Jb 29:17). Gregory: "There should not only be concern that they not take what is ours, but that thieves not destroy themselves.
- The second is to preserve the peace: "The effect of righteousness will be peace" (Is 32:17);
- the third is consolation of the poor, to whom those temporal goods were given for sustenance.
Et quicumque. Ecce tertium, scilicet monitio in angaria operum: angaria enim est exigentia indebiti servitii, vel operis in propria persona; unde dicit et quicumque te angariaverit, idest servire te coegerit corporaliter, verbi gratia, ut vadas cum eo mille passus, vade cum eo et alia duo, idest, adhuc sis paratus, ut amplius patiaris. (41) And whoever... This is the third, namely, an admonition in regard to forced labor. Forcing or impressing is demanding service or work that is not owed and to be performed personally. Hence he says, If anyone forces you, i.e., compels you to bodily service, for example, to go one mile, go with him another two, i.e., be so prepared that you would suffer more. Augustine: "Historically we find this fulfilled neither in Jesus nor in his faithful." Therefore, it is explained according to Augustinus: historialiter hoc nec in Iesu, nec in suis invenimus impletum. Exponitur ergo: vade, secundum Augustinum, non tam pedibus, quam parato affectu et animo; quasi dicat: si quis cogit te servire, et solatium impendere, paratus esto compassionis affectu multo plura impendere. Augustine, not so much in terms of the feet as of affections and readiness of spirit. As if to say: If anyone forces you to serve and to offer solace, be prepared to bestow many things in a spirit of compassion. Et qui petit a te, da ei. Hic ponitur perfectio in beneficentiae exhibitione, quod fit dupliciter, scilicet sine remunerationis spe, donando indigentibus: et absque usuris mutuum concedendo petentibus. Quantum ad primum dicit qui petit a te, da ei; rem vel correctionem.
- Glossa: quae honeste et iuste possunt dari. Honeste dicit, quia res ita posset esse necessaria, quod honeste non posset dari. Iuste, quia aliena res non potest dari iuste.
- Augustinus: ita des ut nec tibi noceas, nec alii. Est autem triplex donum, quod maxime debemus dare, scilicet de corde, compassionem; Is. LVIII, 10: cum effuderis esurienti animam tuam et cetera.
- Gregorius: plus est compati ex corde quam dare, quia qui compatitur, de seipso dat; qui de pecunia, de alieno. Secundo de ore, dulcis verbi consolationem; Eccli. XVIII, 16: nonne ardorem refrigerabit ros? Sic et verbum melius quam datum. Tertio de manu temporalem substantiam; Deut. XV, 11: praecipio ut aperias manum fratri tuo egeno
(42) Give to him who begs from you. Here is presented perfection in showing kindness, which is done in two ways; namely, without hope of recompense by giving to the needy, and by granting borrowers a loan without usury. In regard to the first he says, Give to him who begs from you something concrete or a correction.
- A Gloss: "which can be given honestly and justly." It says "honestly, because a thing might be so needed, that it could not honestly be given; "justly," because someone else's property cannot be given justly.
- Augustine: "You should give in such a way that you harm neither yourself nor anyone else." There are three gifts we ought mainly to give, namely, from the heart, compassion: "If you pour yourself out for the hungry and satisfy the desire of the afflicted..." (Is 58:10).
- Gregory: "Compassion from the heart is greater than giving, because whoever has compassion gives of himself; whoever gives of his money, gives of something else." Secondly, from the mouth, the consolation of a kind word: "Does not the dew assuage the scorching heat?" So a word is better than a gift" (Sir 18:16). Thirdly, from the hand, temporal sustenance: "You shall open wide your hand to your needy brother" (Dt 15:11).
Quaeritur autem hic, an ad hoc teneantur omnes, et semper. Responsio. Datum potest esse temporale, vel spirituale:
- si temporale, vel est de obsequio in opere;
- et sic tenetur quilibet ad indigentem; Ex. XXIII, 5: si videris asinum odientis te, iacentem sub onere, non pertransibis, sed sublevabis cum eo;
- vel est de rebus; et tunc vel est de superfluis, vel de necessariis:
- ad superflua tenentur clerici; unde Ambrosius: non maioris est criminis habenti tollere, quam cum possis, indigentibus denegare. De necessariis autem vel superfluis in casu tenetur quilibet, scilicet posito in extrema necessitate. Unde Hieronymus super illud Rom. XII, 20: si esurierit inimicus tuus: quisquis in quacumque necessitate morituro succurrere poterit, si non fecerit, occidit. Si autem non sit dives, cum non possit dare temporalia, tenetur ad affectum. Unde Glossa: si deest facultas, da affectum.
- Si autem est spirituale, tunc vel est compassionis de corde, vel dulcis verbi de ore, vel sapientiae de mente, et obligat tam pauperes quam divites; unde Hieronymus: in plerisque pauperibus hoc stare non potest, sed etiam divites si semper dividunt, semper dare non poterunt. Praeceptum ergo intelligitur de illa pecunia, secundum Hieronymum, quae dando non deficit, idest de sapientia; sed quanto plus data fuerit, tanto amplius duplicatur.
Here the question arises whether everyone is bound to this and always. The answer is that a gift can be temporal or spiritual.
- If temporal, then it concerns either:
- a duty in deed, in which case everyone is bound to one in need: "If you see the ass of one who hates you lying under its burden, you shall not pass by but help him to lift it up" (Ex 23:25).
- Or articles: and then it is about superfluities or necessities.
- In regard to superfluities clerics are bound; hence Ambrose: "it is no greater crime to take something from its owner than to refuse a person in need, when you can help."
- In regard to necessities or superfluities, everyone is bound in case one is in extreme need. Hence Jerome on Romans (12:20): "If your enemy is hungry" says: "Whoever in any need could help one on the point of death, if he does not, kills." If he is not rich, since he cannot give something temporal, he is bound to show affection Hence a Gloss: "If riches are lacking, give sympathy."
- But if it is spiritual, then it concerns compassion from the heart, or a kind word from the mouth, or wisdom from the mind. These oblige both the poor and the rich. Hence Jerome: "This cannot apply to many of the poor; but even the rich, if they always share, cannot always give." The precept, therefore, is understood of that money, according to Jerome, which does not fail by giving, i.e., of wisdom; but the more it is given, the more it doubles itself.
Et volenti mutuari a te, ne avertaris. Ecce secundum genus praestandi, secundum Chrysostomum, scilicet cum reddituro commodamus; unde dicit et volent mutuari a te, idest volenti a te accipere mutuo, ne avertaris. Glossa: idest ne alienes voluntatem. Chrysostomus: similis est pecunia usurarii morsui aspidis: percussus enim ab aspide quasi delectatus vadit in somnum, et per suavitatem soporis moritur, quia tunc venenum latenter per omnia membra decurrit: sic qui sub usura accipit, sub tempore quasi beneficium sentit; sed usura per omnes eius facultates decurrit, et totum convertit in debitum. And do not refuse him who would borrow from you. Behold the second kind of giving, according to Chrysostom, namely, when we lend to one who will pay back; hence he says, to him who would borrow from you, i.e., wishing to obtain a loan from you, do not refuse. A Gloss: "i.e., do not turn aside his wish." Chrysostom: "The money of a usurer is like the bite of an asp; for one struck by an asp goes into a pleasant sleep and dies form the pleasure of the soporific potion, because then the venom creeps stealthily into all the bodily members. In the same way, one who accepts money under usury receives it for a while a a benefit; but the usury flows into all his resources and turns everything into a debt." Audistis, quia dictum est: diliges proximum tuum et cetera. Hic ponit consilia respectu moralium. Et quia moralia complentur in dilectione proximi, Rom. XIII, v. 8: qui diligit proximum, legem implevit; ideo monet ad dilectionem cuiuslibet tibi proximi et conformis in natura, sicut sunt et inimici. Dicuntur autem hic tria. Primo legis antiquae reprobatio; secundo Iudaeorum facta traditio, ibi et odio habebis inimicum tuum; tertio legis evangelicae perfectio, ibi ego autem dico vobis: diligite inimicos vestros. Ubi quatuor tangit, scilicet inimicorum dilectionem; secundo monitionis suae rationem, ibi ut sitis filii patris vestri; tertio suae rationis approbationem, ibi si enim diligitis eos qui vos diligunt, quam mercedem habebitis? Quarto perfectionis conclusionem, ibi estote ergo vos perfecti. (43) You have heard that it was said: "You shall love your neighbor..." Here he presents moral counsels. And because morals are perfected in love of neighbor: "He that loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law" (Rom 13:8), he urges love of anyone near to you and conformed in nature, as even enemies are. Three things are said here: first, rejection of the ancient law; secondly, the tradition originated by the Jews (v. 43b); thirdly, the perfection of the Law of the Gospel (v. 44). Here he touches on four things, namely, love of enemies; secondly, the reason (v. 45); thirdly, proof of his reason (v. 46); fourthly, the conclusion of perfection (v. 48). Dicit ergo audistis quia dictum est: diliges proximum tuum, scilicet affectu et effectu, et odio habebis inimicum tuum. Istud numquam invenitur in lege, sed additio est ex parte Iudaeorum: putabant enim hoc forte addendum ex multis quae in lege dicta sunt: nam Deus praecepit ut delerent Amalecitas, et Ex. XXIII, 22 dicitur: inimicus ero inimicis tuis. Et sic de aliis. Et ideo contra hoc ponitur evangelica perfectio, quae consistit in tribus: in actu cordis, operis, et oris. He says, therefore, You have heard that it was said (Lev 19:18): You shall love your neighbor, namely in affect and effect, and hate your enemy. The latter is never found in the Law, but was added by the Jews. For they supposed that this should perhaps be added by reason of many things said in the Law: for God commanded that the Amalekites be destroyed, and Exodus (23:22) states: "I will be an enemy to your enemies." And so for other statements. And therefore, against this he presents evangelical perfection, which consists in three things: in acts of the heart, of works and of the mouth. Quantum ad actum cordis dicit ego autem dico vobis: diligite inimicos vestros, ad litteram, consulendo, auxiliando, beneficia largiendo. Augustinus de vera religione: quid ei nocebit qui bene uti etiam inimico potest? Eius enim praesidio atque merito inimicitias non timescit, cuius praecepto et dono diligit inimicos. Quaeritur autem si omnes ad hoc tenentur. Responsio. Omnes tenentur ad hoc affectu, et etiam effectu in necessitate, ut dictum est supra. Perfecti vero extra necessitatem debent diligere inimicos perfecte, affectu et effectu. Affectu autem possunt diligere inimicos generalis Ecclesiae. (44) As to acts of the heart he says, But I say to you: Love your enemies, literally, by counseling, aiding and bestowing benefits. Augustine in True religion: "what harm will come to one who is able to use even his enemy well? For by his protection and merit enmities are not feared by whose command and gift he loves his enemies." The question is whether everyone is bound to this. The answer is that everyone is bound to this by affect, and everyone by effect in necessity, as was said above. But the perfect should love their enemies perfectly outside of necessity, by affect and effect. But they can love by affect the enemies of the Church in general. Benefacite, in effectu operis, his qui vos oderunt, tum ex naturae conformitate, Is. c. LVIII, 7: carnem tuam ne despexeris, tum ex Dei et proximi caritate; Rom. XII, 20: si esurierit inimicus tuus, ciba illum et cetera. Chrysostomus: si benefeceris inimico, tibi amplius benefecisti. Et orate, verbo oris, pro persequentibus vos, per apertam iniuriam, et calumniantibus, per apparentem iniustitiam. Vel persequentibus, facto, calumniantibus, idest falso criminantibus verbo. Hoc fecit Stephanus, Act. c. VII, 59. Et Christus, Lc. XXIII, 34: pater, ignosce illis: non enim sciunt quid faciunt. Do good in deed to those who hate you, both because you are alike in nature: "Do not despise your own flesh" (Is 58:7), and because you love God and neighbor: "If your enemy is hungry, give him to eat..." (Rom 12:20). Chrysostom: "If you do good to your enemy, you have done better for yourself." And pray for those who persecute you by obvious harm, and calumniate by evident injustice. Or persecute in deed and calumniate, i.e., accuse falsely, in word. Stephen did this (acts 12:59) and Christ: "Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do" (Lk 23:34). Ut sitis filii patris vestri. Hic ponitur monitionis ratio ex duplici exemplo, scilicet divino et humano. Quantum ad exemplum divinum dicit, ita debetis diligere ut sitis filii patris vestri, idest imitatione. Unde Rabanus: filii non degeneres. Carnales filii si similes sunt patribus, nullam laudem merentur; si dissimiles, nullum vituperium: quia non est in potestate hominis, quam accipiat corporis qualitatem. Filii autem spirituales, si similes, laudandi; si dissimiles, vituperandi: quia in potestate cuiuslibet est mensuram iustitiae faciendi. Qui in caelis est, per operis sui maiorem relucentiam. Vel in caelis, secundum Glossam, idest in electis et sanctis per gratiam. Qui solem suum. Ecce exemplum humanum. Et dicit signanter suum, idest quem ipsemet fecit, contra haereticos. Facit oriri super bonos et malos, ad litteram, secundum Rabanum; et pluit super iustos et iniustos, similiter ad litteram. Vel per solem potest significari influentia divinae bonitatis; per pluviam manifestatio veritatis; quasi dicat: si es similis patri caelesti, benefacies bonis et malis. (45) That you may be sons of your Father. Here is given the reason for the admonition in the form of two examples, namely, divine and human. As to the divine example, he says: You should love in this way, that you may be sons of your Father, i.e., by imitation. Rabanus: "Sons that are not ignoble." Sons of the flesh, if they are similar to their fathers, deserve no praise; if dissimilar, no reproach; because it is not in a man's power what quality of body he receives. But spiritual sons, if they are similar, should be praised; if they are dissimilar, they deserve rebuke; because it is in each one's power to form his measure of justice. Who is in heaven by the greater brilliance of his work. In heaven, according to a Gloss, i.e., in the elect and the saints, by grace. Who makes his sun. Behold the human example. He says his, i.e., which he made, contrary to the heretics. To rise on the evil and on the good, literally, according to Rabanus; and sends rain on the just and on the unjust, also literally. Or by sun can be signified the influence of divine goodness; by rain the heavenly manifestation of truth. As if to say: If you are like your heavenly Father, you will bestow benefits on the good and on the wicked. Si enim diligitis eos qui vos diligunt et cetera. Hic probat rationem et admonitionem suam exemplo publicanorum; quasi dicat: non est perfectio tantum diligere amicos; quia si diligitis eos qui vos diligunt, quam mercedem habebitis? Quasi dicat, nullam. Infra VI, 2: recepistis mercedem vestram. Nonne et publicani hoc faciunt? Qualis in vobis erit perfectio, si in dilectione non superatis exemplum publicanorum qui imperfecti sunt? Secundum Rabanum, dicuntur publicani qui vectigalia publica, vel negotia saecularia, vel lucra sectantur. Et, ut idem dicit, publicanus nomen traxit a Publio rege, qui primus eos ordinavit. (46) For if you love those who love you... Here he proves his reason and admonition from the example of the publicans. As if to say: It is not perfection to love only friends, because, if you love those who love you, what reward have you? As if to say: None: "You have received your reward" (Mt 6:2). Do not even the tax collectors do the same? What sort of perfection is in you, if you do not excel in love the example of the publicans, who are imperfect? According to Rabanus: "Thos who pursue public taxes or secular affairs or gain are called publicans. He also says that publicans obtained their name form king Publius, who first established them. Et si salutaveritis fratres vestros tantum, idest si tantum oraveritis pro his, qui aliqua affinitate, vel amicitia coniuncti sunt vobis: nam salutatio, ut dicit Glossa, est quaedam species orationis, quid amplius facitis? Id est, quid plura facietis quam gentes sive gentiles, qui ex quodam humano affectu hoc faciunt? Quasi dicat: in hoc non eritis gentilibus perfectiores. Nam et ethnici, Rabanus, idest gentiles sive gentilibus dediti: ethnos Graece, gens Latine; hoc faciunt, idest humano affectu suis compatiuntur, et pro suis orant. Chrysostomus: si indignum est ut te qui in eodem est honore contemnat, quanto indignius est a te Deum contemni? Estote ergo. (47) And if you salute only your brethren, i.e., if you pray only for those who are joined to you by some relationship or friendship; for a salutation, as a Gloss says, is a kind of prayer, what more are you doing than others? Tat is to say: What more are you doing than the pagans or gentiles, who do this form human feeling As if to say: In this you will not be more perfect than gentiles. Do no even the gentiles do the same? i.e., through human affection sympathize with their own and pray for them? Chrysostom: "If it is unbecoming for one as honorable as you to despise you, how much more unworthy is it that God be despised by you?" Hic ponitur conclusio; quasi dicat: monui vos ad perfectionem evangelicam, ergo estote perfecti; Glossa: in caritate Dei et proximi sicut et pater vester caelestis perfectus est. Glossa: sicut imitationem notat, non aequalitatem; quasi dicat: hoc quod dixi faciatis, ut mereamini esse filii patris caelestis per adoptionis gratiam. Et nota quod duplex est perfectio, scilicet gloriae, et viae.
- De prima ad Eph. IV, 13: donec occurramus omnes in virum perfectum et cetera.
- Perfectio viae
- vel est naturae, de qua Gen. II, 1: perfecti sunt caeli et terra, et omnis ornatus eorum,
- vel est gratiae: et haec est duplex, vel status, vel meriti.
- Perfectio meriti est multiplex.
- Prima cordis; Is. XXXVIII, 3: memento quomodo ambulaverim coram te in veritate et corde perfecto.
- Secunda oris; Iac. III, 2: si quis in verbo non offendit, hic perfectus est vir.
- Tertia operis, et haec est multiplex.
- Prima innocentiae; Eccli. XXXI, 8: beatus vir qui inventus est sine macula et cetera. Et sequitur: qui probatus est in illo, et perfectus inventus est.
- Secunda excellentiae vitae, Gen. VI, 9: Noe vir iustus atque perfectus fuit in generationibus suis: ad hanc tenentur clerici super laicos.
- Tertia obedientiae; Gen. XVII, 1: ambula coram me, et esto perfectus.
- Quarta patientiae; Iac. I, 4: patientia opus perfectum habet.
- Quinta perseverantiae; I Petr. I, 13: sobrii, et perfecti. Glossa: constanter perseverando.
- Sexta est caritatis; I Io. IV, 18: perfecta caritas foras mittit timorem: ad hanc tenentur omnes.
- Perfectio status est duplex.
- Prima ordinis; Deut. XXXIII, 8 dicitur Levitis: perfectio tua et doctrina tua viro sancto tuo.
- Secunda praelationis; Lc. VI, 40: perfectus erit omnis si sit sicut magister eius.
- Tertia religionis; infra c. XIX, 21: si vis perfectus esse, vade, et vende omnia quae habes, et da pauperibus et cetera.
(48) You, therefore must be perfect. Here the conclusion is presented. As if to say: I have urged you to evangelical perfection; therefore, you must be perfect. A Gloss: "In the love of God and neighbor, as denotes imitation, not equality"; as if to say: You should do as I have said, in order that you may merit to be sons of the heavenly Father by grace of adoption And note that perfection is twofold, namely, of glory and of the journey.
- Concerning the first it says in Ephesians (4:13): "Until we all attain to perfect manhood..."
- Perfection on the journey is either
- of nature: "The heavens and earth and all their adornment were completed" (Gen 2:1);
- or of grace, which is two fold, namely, of state or of merit.
- The perfection of merit is manifold.
- First, of the heart: "Remember how I have walked before you in truth and with a perfect heart" (Is 38:3).
- Secondly, of the tongue: "If one does not offend in speaking, he is a perfect man" (Jas 3:2).
- The third is of works and is various.
- The first is innocence: "Blessed is the man who is found without stain" (Sir 31:3) and it continues: "Who has been proved in it and found perfect."
- The second is of excellent life: "Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation" (Gen 6:9); clerics are bound to this over the laity.
- The third is of obedience: "Walk before me and be perfect" (Gen 17:1).
- The fourth is of patience: "Patience has a perfect work" (Jas 1:4).
- The fifth is of perseverance: "Be sober and perfect" (1 Pt 1:13); a Gloss: "By constant perseverance."
- The sixth is of charity: "Perfect charity casts out fear" (1 Jn 4:18). All are bound to this.
- Perfection of state is threefold:
- the first is of order; Deuteronomy (33:8) tells the Levites, "Your perfection and your doctrine to your holy man."
- The second is of prelacy: "Everyone will be perfect, if he is as his master" (Lk 6:4);
- the third is of religious: "If you would be perfect, go and sell all you posses, and give to the poor; and come, follow me" (Mt 19:21).
Petri de Scala
1 προσέχετε [δὲ] τὴν δικαιοσύνην ὑμῶν μὴ ποιεῖν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι αὐτοῖς: εἰ δὲ μή γε, μισθὸν οὐκ ἔχετε παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ ὑμῶν τῷ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. 2 ὅταν οὖν ποιῇς ἐλεημοσύνην, μὴ σαλπίσῃς ἔμπροσθέν σου, ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ ποιοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις, ὅπως δοξασθῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων: ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 3 σοῦ δὲ ποιοῦντος ἐλεημοσύνην μὴ γνώτω ἡ ἀριστερά σου τί ποιεῖ ἡ δεξιά σου, 4 ὅπως ᾖ σου ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ: καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι. 1. Take heed that you do not your justice before men, to be seen by them: otherwise you shall not have a reward of your Father who is in heaven. 2. Therefore when thou dost an alms-deed, sound not a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be honoured by men. Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. 3. But when thou dost alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doth. 4. That thy alms may be in secret, and thy Father who seeth in secret will repay thee. Attendite, ne iustitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus. Haec est pars secunda ab illo loco. Dico autem vobis etc., in qua postquam monuit ad executionem evangelicae perfectionis, monet ad executionis rectam intentionem. Et dividitur in duas: primo monet ad simplicitatem sanctae intentionis; secundo ad puritatem sanctae conversationis, ibi attendite a falsis prophetis. (1) Beware of practicing your piety before men. This is the second part of that section which began at 5:20, in which, after having urged them to accomplish evangelical perfection, he exhorts them to have the right intention in this task. This is divided into two parts: first, he urges the simplicity of a holy intention; secondly, the purity of a holy manner of life (c. 7). Simplicitas sanctae intentionis debet esse affectu et effectu: contra duplicitatem effectus, de qua Eccli. II, 14: vae peccatori ingredienti terram duabus viis; et contra duplicitatem affectus, de qua Iac. I, 8: vir duplex animo inconstans est in omnibus operibus suis. Primam ergo removet in hoc cap., et duplicitatem effectus removet ibi nolite thesaurizare vobis thesauros in terra. The simplicity of a whole intention should be in affect and effect, as opposed to duality of affect: "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways" (Jas 1:8). He removes the first in this chapter; the duality of effect at v. (19). Duplicitas affectus est, cum quis quod est bonum ex genere, facit ex mundano favore. Removet ergo primo appetitum mundani favoris ab omnibus operibus generaliter; secundo specialiter, ibi cum ergo facit eleemosynam. Insuper primo ponit mundani favoris exclusionem; secundo subiungit rationem, ibi alioquin mercedem non habebitis apud patrem vestrum. There is duality of affect, when a person does for worldly favor something which is good. First, therefore, he removes the desire for worldly favor from all actions in general; secondly, specifically (v. 2). In addition, first he rejects worldly favor; secondly, he gives the reason (v. 1b). Dicit ergo attendite, id est cauti et attenti estote, ne iustitiam vestram, Glossa: idest opera iustitiae vestrae, faciatis, Glossa: eo fine, coram hominibus, ut videamini ab eis, idest ut humanum favorem appetatis.
- Augustinus: non prohibet videri ut Deus laudetur, sed videri ut ipsi laudentur.
- Chrysostomus: sicut lampas abscondi non potest, sic nec opus iustitiae celari. Alioquin, quasi dicat, quod si ita non feceritis, non habebitis mercedem apud patrem vestrum qui in caelis est.
- Glossa: quia humanus favor vobis deputatur, pro cuius mercedis amore fit. Aggaei I, 6: qui mercedes congregavit, misit eas in sacculum pertusum. Hieronymus: non virtus, sed causa virtutis apud Deum mercedem habet.
He says, therefore, Beware, be careful and on your guard, of practicing your piety, i.e., your works of holiness, before men in order to be seen by them, i.e., in order to seek human praise.
- Augustine: "He does not forbid being seen in order that God be praised, but being seen in order that they be praised."
- Chrysostom: "As a lamp cannot be concealed, so a work of holiness cannot be hid." For then, i.e., if you do not do it thus, you will have no reward from your Father who is in heaven.
- A Gloss: "Because human praise is assigned to you for the love of whose reward it is done:"; "He who has gathered riches has put them into a bag with holes" (Hag 1:6). Jerome: "Not virtue, but the cause of virtue, obtains a reward with God.
Cum ergo facis eleemosynam. Haec est secunda pars, ubi removet specialiter humani favoris appetitum a bonis operibus. Unde Augustinus in Glossa: a toto descendit in partes. Sunt autem tria bona opera maxime, scilicet eleemosyna, oratio et ieiunium: eleemosyna contra oculorum concupiscentiam, oratio contra superbiam vitae, ieiunium contra concupiscentiam carnis. Prima ordinat ad proximum; secunda ad Deum; tertia ad seipsum. Excludit ergo appetitum favoris humani primo ab eleemosyna; secundo ab oratione, ibi et cum oratis etc.; tertio a ieiunio, ibi cum autem ieiunatis et cetera. Thus, when you give alms. This is the second part, where he removes one by one the desires for human praise from good works. Hence Augustine in a Gloss: "He descends from the whole to the parts." Now there in the main three good works, namely, alms, prayer and fasting: alms against the concupiscence of the eyes; prayer against the pride of life, and fasting against the concupiscence of the flesh. The first regulates us in regard to our neighbor; the second, to God; the third, to ourselves. First, therefore, he excludes the desire for human praise by alms; secondly, by prayer (v. 5); thirdly, by fasting (v. 16). In prima dicuntur quatuor: primo ponit favoris exclusionem; secundo eius rationem, ibi amen dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam; tertio dandi modum et discretionem, ibi te autem faciente; quarto danti promissionem, ibi et pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi. In the first he touches on four things: first, he excludes praise; secondly, the reason (v. 2b); thirdly, the manner and care of giving (v. 2); fourthly, a promise to the giver 9v. 4b). Dicit ergo cum ergo facis eleemosynam, idest opera misericordiae, noli ante te tuba canere, ad litteram, secundum Anselmum, forte canebant tuba ut omnes venirent quasi ad spectaculum, cum eleemosynas dabant. Vel tuba canere est pompam vanae laudis appetere; unde Rabanus: ante se tuba canit qui ante alios vult laudari. Vel, ut dicit Chrysostomus, tuba est omnis actus vel sermo, per quem ipsa operis iactantia designatur. Et sic aliquando ipsa etiam absconsio tuba est. Sicut hypocritae faciunt. Hypocrita, ut dicit Augustinus, est qui simulat quod non est: unde dicitur ab hypos, quod est sub, vel supra, et crisis, aurum, quasi supra aureatus, intus luteus. In synagogis, ut videantur a sapientibus, et vicis ut videantur a turbis. Et per hoc notatur vana eorum intentio. Ut honorificentur ab hominibus, idest eo fine ut honorent eos homines. Ecce vanae pompae appetitus. Chrysostomus: non est ingrata Deo quae ab hominibus visa est eleemosyna; sed quae ad hoc est facta ut ab hominibus visa sit. (2) He says, therefore, Thus, when you give alms, i.e., do works of mercy, sound no trumpet before you; literally, according to Anselm, they perhaps sounded a trumpet, so that everyone would come as to a spectacle, when they gave alms. Or, to sound a trumpet is to seek the pomp of vainglory; hence, Rabanus: "One sounds a trumpet before himself, when he wants to be praised before others." Or, as Chrysostom says, the trumpet is every act or word by which boasting of one's works is signified. And so, sometimes concealment itself is a trumpet. As the hypocrites do. A hypocrite, as Augustine says, is one who pretends to be what he is not; hence, it is taken from hypo, which is over or above, and crisis, gold. As if to say: gold on the surface and clay within. In the synagogues, to be seen by the wise, and in the streets, to be seen by the crowds. And by this is their vain intention revealed. That they may be praised by men, i.e., their purpose is that men honor them. Behold the desire of vain pomp. Chrysostom: "An alms seen by men is not displeasing to God, but one given in order to be seen by men is." Amen dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam. Hic ponit exclusionis rationem. Amen dico vobis, idest certe sciatis, receperunt mercedem suam. Glossa: idest merces sua laus humana est. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward. Here he presents the reason for the prohibition. Truly, I say to you, i.e., take it as certain, they have received their reward. A Gloss: ""This means that their reward is human praise." Te autem faciente eleemosynam. Hic tertio ostenditur modus faciendi eleemosynam. Unde dicit te autem faciente eleemosynam, idest cum opus aliquod misericordiae facis nesciat sinistra tua. Per sinistram intentio perversa designatur vanae laudis; per dexteram intentio sancta implendi praecepta Dei, ut dicit Augustinus. Unde nesciat sinistra tua, idest non se immisceat perversa intentio laudis, vel ineptae laetitiae, vel elationis quid faciat dextera tua, idest cum praecepta Dei implere contenditis; quasi dicat: quod agit virtus, nesciat elatio, vel vana gloria. (3) But when you give alms. Here, thirdly, is shown the way to give alms. Hence he says, But when you give alms, i.e., when you do any work of mercy, Do not let your left hand know. By left the perverse intention of vain praise is signified; by the right the holy intention of fulfilling God's precepts, as Augustine says. Hence let not your left hand, i.e., do not permit the perverse intention of praise, or a foolish feeling of satisfaction or of elation, intermingle with what your right hand does, i.e., when you strive to fulfill God's precepts. As if to say: What holiness does, let neither elation nor vain glory know. Ut sit eleemosyna tua in abscondito, idest in secreto conscientiae, secundum Glossam. In conscientia dicitur fieri eleemosyna, quando propter Deum fit, non quia abscondatur aliquando ab hominibus. Unde Chrysostomus: qui propter Deum facit eleemosynam, neminem videt in corde suo nisi Deum, propter quem facit: et ideo si praesentibus aliquibus faciat, tamen animus eius non videt illos, etsi videatur ab eis; potest et e contrario fieri ut nemo sit praesens, tamen ille in corde suo gerit personas quibus vult ostentare. Eleemosyna in ascondito fit quae nullis miscetur tenebris: lux intus est, tenebrae extra. Et pater tuus. Ecce quartum, scilicet facienti promissio. Unde dicit et pater tuus qui vidit in abscondito, idest qui est discretor intentionum, ad Hebr. IV. Et I Reg. XVI, 7: homo videt quae foris parent; Deus autem intuetur cor. Reddet tibi, scilicet mercedem; Eccli. V, 4: altissimus est patiens redditor. Chrysostomus: impossibile est ut bonum opus in abscondito dimittat Deus, quia gloria eius est. Si vis ergo directiones tuas videre, absconde eas. Si enim studueris nunc latere, tunc Deus famose praedicabit toto orbe terrarum praesente. (4) So that your alms may be in secret, i.e., in the seclusion of your conscience, according to a Gloss. An alms is said to be given in the conscience, when it is done for God's sake, not because it is sometimes concealed from them. Hence Chrysostom: "One who gives an alms for the sake of God sees no one in his heart but God, for whose sake it is given; and therefore, if he gives in the presence of others, his mind does not see them, even though they see him .It can also be done, so that no one is present, yet he carries in his heart the persons before whom he would like to make a display. An alms is given in secret, when it is not mingled with darkness: the light is within, the darkness without." And your Father. This is the fourth, namely, a promise to the giver. Hence he says, and the Father who sees in secret, i.e., who reads intentions (Heb c. 4); "Man sees what appears outwardly, but God looks at the heart:" (1 Sam 16:7); will reward you: "The Most High is a patient rewarder" (Sir 5:4). Chrysostom: "It is impossible that God overlook a good work done in secret, because it is his glory. If you wish, therefore, to see your aims, hide them. for if you strive to hide them now, God will make them known, when the whole world is present.
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5 καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί: ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις: ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6 σὺ δὲ ὅταν προσεύχῃ, εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ ταμεῖόν σου καὶ κλείσας τὴν θύραν σου πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ: καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι. 7 προσευχόμενοι δὲ μὴ βατταλογήσητε ὥσπερ οἱ ἐθνικοί, δοκοῦσιν γὰρ ὅτι ἐν τῇ πολυλογίᾳ αὐτῶν εἰσακουσθήσονται. 8 μὴ οὖν ὁμοιωθῆτε αὐτοῖς, οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὧν χρείαν ἔχετε πρὸ τοῦ ὑμᾶς αἰτῆσαι αὐτόν. 5. And when ye pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, that love to stand and pray in the synagogues and corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men: Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. 6. But thou when thou shalt pray, enter into thy chamber, and having shut the door, pray to thy Father in secret, and thy father who seeth in secret will repay thee. 7. And when you are praying, speak not much, as the heathens. For they think that in their much speaking they may be heard. 8. Be not you therefore like to them for your Father knoweth what is needful for you, before you ask him. Et cum oratis, non eritis sicut hypocritae. Hic secundo removet appetitum humani favoris ab oratione: et continet tria. Primo excludit humani favoris appetitum; secundo docet orandi modum, ibi tu autem cum oraveris; tertio orationis debitam subiungit formam, ibi sic ergo orabitis et cetera. (5) And when you pray... Here, secondly, he excludes the desire for human praise for praying, and it contains three things: first, he excludes the desire for human praise; secondly, he teaches how to pray (v. 6); thirdly, he adds the proper form of prayer (v. 9). Prima continet tria. Primo removet ab oratione hypocritarum ostentationem; secundo ostentationis modum et finem ibi qui amant in synagogis et angulis platearum stantes orare; tertio subdit eorum condemnationem, ibi amen dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam. The first contains three items: first, he removes from prayer the display of the hypocrites; secondly, the means and end of display (v. 5b); thirdly, he mentions their condemnation (v. 5c). Dicit ergo et cum oratis, scilicet ex affectu mentis. He says, therefore, When you pray, namely, from an affect of the mind. Sed hic est quaestio litteralis, quare non dixit, cum oras, singulariter, sicut superius, et, cum facis et cetera. Responsio. Pluraliter dicit cum oratis, quia omnium est orare, quia ad hoc non exigitur res temporalis, nisi cordis intentio; sed eleemosynam dare non est omnium. Vel dicendum, quod oratio dupliciter fit: in communi, sicut in choro, et solitarie et cetera. But a question arises concerning words. Why did he not say, "When you pray" in the singular, as he did above when he said, When you give alms...? The answer is that he says, When you pray in the plural, because all should pray, since temporal possessions are not needed for this, but an intention of the heart; but giving alms is not within the power of everyone. Or it might be said that prayer is made in two ways: in common, as in choir; or alone. Non eritis sicut hypocritae, foris lucentes, intus foetentes, infra XXIII, 27. Qui amant. Sed quaeritur quare non dicit, qui orant. Responsio Chrysostomi: quia revera non orant, sed amant videri ac si orarent. Iuxta hoc quaeritur quare non similiter dixit de eleemosyna. Responsio. Quia licet dent eleemosynam mala intentione, dant tamen ipsam rem. In synagogis, ubi conveniunt sapientes orare, ut videantur. Stantes. Hoc dicit, quia mos Iudaeorum est ut stando orent, quia stando legem acceperunt; Ex. XIX, 17: steterunt ad radicem montis et cetera. Et in angulis platearum, supple: amant orare. Chrysostomus: quaerunt se abscondere ut dupliciter laudentur: primo quia orant; secundo, quia latenter orant. Ut videantur ab hominibus. Ecce vana intentio. Chrysostomus: non intendunt exaudiri, sed videri item idem: o insania vanitatis. Esse nolunt quod desiderant apparere: mendaciter orant, cum non orent: et mendaciter laudantur, cum non sint laudabiles. Speciem vacuam religionis vendunt, et verbum vacuum laudis emunt. Finito verbo, finitur et bonum quod positum erat in verbo. Unde bene subiungit amen dico vobis; quasi dicat, pro certo sciatis receperunt mercedem suam; Glossa: laudem humanam; sed a me recipient aeternam poenam. You must no be like hypocrites, shining without, stenchy within. They love... But why does he not say, "they pray"? Chrysostom answers: Because they do not really pray, but love to be seen as though praying. In this regard one asks why he did not say the same about almsgiving. The answer is that although they give an alms with an evil intention, they really do give something. In the synagogues, where the learned gather to pray, in order to be seen. To stand. He says this, because it is the custom of the Jews to pray standing, because they received the Law standing: "They stood at the foot of the mountain" (Ex 19:17). And at the street corners. Chrysostom: "They try to hide themselves, in order that they be praised for two reasons: first, because they are praying; secondly, because they are praying in secret." That they may be seen by men. This is the vain intention. Chrysostom: "They do not intend to be heard, but to be seen." He also says: "Oh, the folly of vanity! They do not wish to be what they desire to seem to be: their praying is a lie, since they do not pray; their praise is a lie, because they deserve no praise. They sell an empty form of religion, and they buy and empty word of praise. When that word has ended, the good placed in that word also ends." Hence he wisely adds, Truly, I say to you... As if to say: Be sure that they have received their reward: A Gloss: "i.e., human praise, but from me they will receive eternal punishment. Tu autem cum oraveris et cetera. Haec est secunda pars, ubi dat orandi modum. Et primo ostendit debitum modum; secundo excludit ab ipso modo ritum gentilium, sive multiloquium, ibi orantes autem nolite multum loqui. (6) But when you pray... This is the second part, where he defines the way to pray. First, he shows the proper way; secondly, he excludes from that way the rite of the Gentiles, or much speaking (v. 7). Prima in duas: primo dat orandi modum; secundo subdit promissum, ibi et pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi. The first contains two things: the proper procedure in praying; secondly, a promise (v. 6d). Modus autem orandi consistit in tribus. Primo in secreto meditationis; secundo in exclusione pravae affectionis, ibi et clauso ostio: tertio in rectitudine intentionis ibi ora patrem tuum in abscondito. The procedure in praying consists in three things: first, in secret meditation; secondly, in excluding improper desires (v. 6b); thirdly, in a right intention (v. 6c). Dicit ergo tu autem cum oraveris, intra in cubiculum tuum, idest secretum mentis, et arcanum, ut dicit Augustinus, et Rabanus per actum secretae meditationis. Chrysostomus: Deus non voce clamosa pulsandus est, sed conscientia recta placandus: quia non est vocis, sed cordis auditor. Vel intra in cubiculum ad litteram. Et signanter dicit cubiculum, quia tunc anima debet ab exterioribus quiescere cum orat: et tunc est tempus convenientius, et locus secretior. Chrysostomus: per diem mille te circumdederunt causae, et non permiserunt te esse secretum orationi. Sed quando ad lectum perveneris, dic animae tuae: anima, quomodo expendimus diem? Quid boni vel mali fecimus? Roga Deum prius, et sic animae tuae soporari permitte. Sic faciebat Iudith VIII, 6, sic Petrus, Act. X, 9, et Tobias III, 10. Et clauso ostio, idest exclusa omni prava affectione et mundana, vel sensibus exterioribus clausis, ut dicit Glossa. Is. c. XXVI, 20: vade, populus meus, in cubicula tua et claude ostia tua super te. Ora patrem,
- Glossa: qui oratur in spiritu et veritate, Io. IV, 23. Ora non de mundanis. Isidorus: longe est a Deo animus qui in cogitationibus saeculi fuerit occupatus.
- Hieronymus: aliud est narrare nescienti, aliud rogare scientem: illic indicium, hic obsequium. In abscondito, idest cordis intimo.
- Chrysostomus: orans nil novi faciat quod aspiciant homines, nec voce clamet, nec manus expandat, nec impudenter oculos tollat ad caelum, ut notabilis fiat. Et pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, reddet tibi. Ecce promissum subdit dicens et pater tuus, qui videt in abscondito, idest qui intuetur cor; Hebr. IV, 13: omnia nuda et aperta sunt oculis eius. Reddet tibi. Non dicit, dabit, quia iam se debitorem constituit, idest pro certo retribuet tibi mercedem. Chrysostomus: intende Dei philanthropiam, idest amorem quem habet ad homines: et misericordiam Dei cum admiratione considera, cum pro his quoque quae a nobis rogatur bonis, mercedem se pollicetur daturum.
He says, therefore, When you pray, go into your room, i.e., the concealment and privacy of your mind, as Augustine says; and Rabanus, by an act of secret meditation. Chrysostom: "God is not to be pounded with aloud voice, but appeased by a good conscience; for he hears not he voice but the heart." Or, Go into your room literally. It is significant that he says, room, because when the should prays, it should be cut off from external things; and then the time is more fitting and the place ore secret.
- Chrysostom: "By day a thousand concerns bother you and do not permit you to pray in secret. But when you reach your bed, say to your soul: 'Soul, how have we spent the day. What good or evil have we done?' Seek God first, and then permit your soul to sleep." Judith acted thus (Jdt 8:6) and Peter (Acts 10:9) and Tobit (3:10). And shut the door, i.e., remove every evil and worldly affection, or turn off your external senses, as a Gloss says. "Come, my people, enter your chamber and shut your doors behind you" (Is 26:20). And pray in secret.
- A Gloss: "He is prayed to in spirit and truth" (Jn 4:23). Do not pray for earthly things. Isidore: ""A soul occupied with thoughts of the world is far fro God."
- Jerome: "It is one thing to tell one who does not know; it is another to ask one who does know. The former is disclosure, the latter homage." In secret, i.e., the inner man.
- Chrysostom: "One at prayer should do nothing novel for men to see, nor shout with his voice, nor stretch out his hands, nor boldly raise his eyes to heaven, in order to be noticed. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you. This is his promise, and your Father who sees in secret, i.e., who looks at the heart: "All are open and laid bare to his eyes" (Heb 4:13); will reward you. He does not say, "will give," because he has now made himself your debtor, i.e., it is certain that he will present you with a reward.
- Chrysostom: "Consider God's philanthropy, i.e., the love he has toward men; and ponder God's mercy with admiration, when he promises to give a reward even for the good things he is asked for by us."
Orantes autem nolite multum loqui. Hic excludit ab oratione multiloquium ubi primo ponit multiloquii prohibitionem; secundo prohibitionis rationem, ibi nolite ergo assimilari eis. (7) And in praying do not heap up many words. Here he excludes verbosity from prayer: first, he forbids it; secondly, the reason (v. 8). Dicit ergo orantes autem nolite multum loqui, idest in verbis nolite confidere. Contra. I Thess. ult., 17: sine intermissione orate. Praeterea dominus multum stetit in oratione, infra cap. XXVI, 36 ss. et Lc. VI, 12. Responsio secundum Augustinum. Damnat multiloquium de infidelitate, sed non orationes quas in cordis puritate sancti faciunt. Unde Anselmus: non est peccatum orare cum cordis devotione per multiloquium. Sicut ethnici faciunt: gentiles enim multiplicabant verba in orationibus,
- primo, ut indicarent intentionem suam Daemonibus quos adorabant, quia aliter non potuissent cognoscere; unde Augustinus: gentilibus erat necessaria verborum multiplicitas propter Daemones.
- Secundo, ut Daemones absentes ad se revocarent: et huic causae alludit Elias III Reg. XVIII, 27, dicens sacerdotibus Baal cum diu orassent: clamate voce maiore: Deus enim vester est, et forsitan loquitur, aut in diversorio est, aut forte dormit: ut excitetur.
- Tertio, ut verborum persuasione inclinarent eos ad miserendum; unde subdidit: putant enim quod in multiloquio exaudiantur, idest opinantur quod in multitudine verborum persuasibilium preces eorum effectui mancipentur.
He says, therefore, And in praying do not heap up many words, i.e., do not trust in words. On the other hand, it says in 1 Thessalonians (5:17): "Pray without ceasing." Furthermore, the Lord spent much time in prayer (Mt 26:36 and Lk 6:12). The answer, according to Augustine, is that he condemns the verbosity of unbelief, but not prayer which the saints say with a pure heart. Hence Anselm: "It is not a sin to pray many words with devotion of heart." As the Gentiles do: for they multiply words in prayer.
- First, to indicate their intention to the demons they adore, because otherwise they could not know; hence Augustine: "A multitude of words was needed by the Gentiles on account of the demons."
- Secondly, in order to call back the absent demons; and Elijah alludes to this in 1 Kings (18:27):"Cry louder, for he is a god; either he is musing, or he has gone aside, or perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened."
- Thirdly, in order to obtain their pity by oral persuasion. Hence he adds, for they think they will be heard for their many words, i.e., they suppose that in a multitude of persuasive words their prayers will secure an effect.
Et quia illi ita faciunt, ergo vos, mei fideles, nolite assimilari eis, scilicet in multiloquio, ut credatis Deum inclinari persuasibilibus verbis. Isidorus: non in multiloquio exaudiuntur homines, quasi pluribus verbis conentur Deum inflectere. Item ut putetis Deum vestrum ignorare quod petitis: scit enim pater vester quid opus sit vobis. Ecce ratio prohibitionis; quasi dicat: non oportet vos multis verbis orare, sed rebus et cordis affectu simplici, dicit Rabanus. (8) And because they act thus, do not be like them, my faithful, namely, in much speaking, as though believing that God is moved by persuasive words. Isidore: "Men are not heard by much speaking, as if they were trying to bend God by many words." Also you should not suppose that God does not know your requests, for your Father knows what you need. Behold the reason for the prohibition. As if to say: It is not proper for you to pray with many words, "but with thanks and simple affect of heart," says Rabanus. Quia scit pater vester quid opus, idest quid necesse sit vobis, antequam petatis. Quare ergo oportet orare? Responsio. Non ut doceas, sed inflectas, ut familiaris efficiaris, ut humilieris, ut peccatorum tuorum rememoreris. Et signanter dicit pater vester. Chrysostomus: dicendo pater, et veniam peccatorum, et poenarum interitum, et iustificationem, et sanctificationem, et liberationem, et filiorum adoptionem, et haereditatem Dei, et fraternitatem cum unigenito copulatam, et sancti spiritus dona largissima, uno sermone significavit. For your Father knows what you need, before you ask him. Therefore, what need is there to pray? I answer: Not to inform but to render compassionate, so that you may be made a friend, that you may be humble, that you may be mindful of your sins. And it is significant that he says, your Father. Chrysostom: "By saying Father he signified in one word the forgiveness of sins, the cessation of punishments, and justification and sanctification and release, and adoption of sons and an inheritance form God and brotherhood with the Only Begotten, and the abundant gifts of the Holy Spirit." Quaerit hic Hieronymus et Rabanus: si novit Deus antequam petamus, ad quid scienti petimus? Responsio. Multiplex est causa quare scienti loquimur, et oramus.
- Prima ut nos profiteamur, et sciamus habere nos ab eo quod petimus; unde Rabanus: non est opus narrare, sed obsecrare.
- Secunda ut exemplum praestetur; unde Rabanus: vult Deus rogari, ut bonitas eius derivetur ad populos.
- Tertia ut mens nostra excitetur; unde Hieronymus: nos tempore orandi excitamus.
- Quarta ut devotio excitetur astantibus. Hieronymus: loquimur, non ut nostrae faciamus indicium voluntatis, sed ut excitemus obsequium piae devotionis.
- Quinta ut desiderium accendatur.
- Sexta ut cor purgetur. De his duobus Glossa interlinearis: verbis cor accenditur, et precibus serenatur.
- Septima ut animus occupatus circa sancta verba retrahatur a superfluis cogitationibus.
Jerome and Rabanus ask: If God knows before we ask, what is the purpose in asking one who knows? The answer is that there are a number of reasons for speaking and praying to one who knows.
- First, to confess and recognize that what we ask we obtain from him; hence Rabanus: "There is no need to inform but to petition.
- Secondly, that an example be given; hence Rabanus: "God wants to be asked, so that his goodness be derived to the people."
- Thirdly, to arouse our mind; hence Jerome: "We arouse ourselves during the time of prayer."
- Fourthly, to arouse devotion in by-standers; hence Jerome: "We speak, not to show what our will is, but to arouse the compliance of pious devotion."
- Fifthly, to inflame desire.
- Sixthly, to purify the heart. Concerning these two a Gloss says: "By words the heart is inflamed, and by prayers it is calmed."
- Seventhly, that the mind, occupied with holy words be drawn away from superfluous thoughts.
Reportatio Leodegarii Bissuntini
9 οὕτως οὖν προσεύχεσθε ὑμεῖς: πάτερ ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, ἁγιασθήτω τὸ ὄνομά σου, 10 ἐλθέτω ἡ βασιλεία σου, γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, ὡς ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς. 11 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δὸς ἡμῖν σήμερον: 12 καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν: 13 καὶ μὴ εἰσενέγκῃς ἡμᾶς εἰς πειρασμόν, ἀλλὰ ῥῦσαι ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. 14 ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, ἀφήσει καὶ ὑμῖν ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος: 15 ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, οὐδὲ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ἀφήσει τὰ παραπτώματα ὑμῶν. 9. Thus therefore shall you pray: Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. 10. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. 11. Give us this day our supersubstantial bread. 12. And forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 13. And lead us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil. Amen. 14. For if you will forgive men their offences, your heavenly Father will forgive you also your offences. 15. But if you will not forgive men, neither will your Father forgive you your offences. Dominus dicit sic orabitis, non hoc orabitis. Non prohibet aliud ab hoc orare, sed docet sic orare. Unde haec oratio habet tria: est enim brevis, perfecta et efficax. Brevis est, ut omnes possent capere tam docti quam indocti. Item ut daret fiduciam de facile impetrando; unde Is. X, 23: verbum abbreviatum faciet dominus. Item perfecta est; ipse enim Deus tradidit hanc, et Dei perfecta sunt opera. Item efficax; unde apostoli dicebant: doce nos orare. Ipse autem sic dixit sic orabitis: pater noster qui es in caelis et cetera. (9) The Lord says Pray like this, not "Pray for this." He does not forbid praying differently from this, but he teaches us to pray like this. Hence this prayer has three qualities: for it is brief, perfect and efficacious. It is brief, so that both the learned and the unlearned can grasp it; also, so that it might engender confidence of obtaining easily: "The Lord will make a brief word" (Is 10:23). It is perfect, for God gave it, and God's works are perfect. And it is efficacious; hence, the apostles said: "Teach us to pray." But he answered: Pray, then, like this: Our Father, who art in heaven. Et in hac oratione, sicut in oratione rhetorum, duo facit. Primo captat benevolentiam; secundo docet quid petendum. Captat benevolentiam, sed alio modo quam captet homo hominis benevolentiam, ut scilicet flectat eum ad se. Captamus autem nos Dei benevolentiam, ut elevemur ad eum. Requiruntur duo ad dantem: quod possit, et velit. Et ut velit, dicit pater: si enim est pater, vult utilitatem filiorum. Quod possit, ostendit subdens qui es in caelis: si enim est in caelis, potest quod vult. Hoc autem quod dicit pater noster, valet ad fidei instructionem. In this prayer, as in the orations of rhetoricians, he does two things: first, he strives to obtain good will; secondly, he teaches what to ask (v. 9b). He strives to obtain good will, but in a way different from the way man strives to obtain the good will of a man, namely, to bend him to himself. But we strive to obtain God's good will, in order to be raised toward him. Two things are required of a donor, namely, that he is able and willing. And in order that he be willing, he says, Father: for if he is a Father, he wills what is beneficial to his children. That he is able is shown when he adds, who art in heaven; for if he is in heaven, he can do what he wills. That he says, Our Father, has the effect of bolstering faith. Et removet duos errores, qui destruebant orationem. Quidam enim dicebant Deum non habere curam de humanis, ut habetur Ez. IX, v. 9: dereliquit dominus terram, et dominus non videt. Quidam autem dixerunt quod habet curam, et providet de omnibus; sed providentia dat necessitatem rebus; et sic non oportet orare, quia si providet Deus, ita erit. Sed istas opiniones destruit cum dicit pater:
- si enim est pater, providet filiis, ut habetur Sap. XII, 13: non est autem alius Deus quam tu, cui est cura de omnibus. Item pater dicitur ad filium, ut dominus ad servum. In eo enim quod ipse pater est, dicimus nos liberos: non enim dicitur pater aliarum rerum. Si ergo sumus liberi, habemus libertatem arbitrii. Ergo aliquid est a nobis. Per hoc vero quod dicit qui es in caelis, ostendit omnia impetrabilia, quando ipse ibi immobilis est. Quia sicut ipse qui est in caelis, disposuit effectus produci ex causis, ita providit talem petitionem per talem orationem nobis dari. Unde valet ad sublevandum spem. Lc. XI, 13: si vos, cum sitis mali, nostis bona data dare filiis vestris, quanto magis pater vester caelestis et cetera.
- Item pater valet ad exercitandum caritatem: naturale enim est, quod a patre diligatur filius; Eph. VI, 1: filii, obedite parentibus vestris in domino.
- Item invitamur ad imitandum; supra V, 45: ut sitis filii patris vestri et cetera.
- Item ad humilitatem provocamur; Mal. c. I, 6: filius honorat patrem et dominum servus. Si ergo pater ego sum, ubi est honor meus? Et si dominus ego sum, ubi est timor meus?
- Item dicens pater noster: affectus ordinatur ad proximum, quia si unus pater omnium, non debet contemnere quis proximum ratione generis.
- Item dicit pater noster, non dicit. Pater meus, quia Christus voluit servare quod sibi proprium est, quia quadam singularitate est filius Dei; unde dicit Io. XX, 17: ascendo ad patrem meum, et patrem vestrum, quia aliter meum, aliter vestrum.
- Item docuit pro toto populo orare. Chrysostomus: dulcior est apud Deum oratio quam non transmittit necessitas, sed fraternitas.
And it removes two errors which destroyed prayer. For some said that God has no concern about humans: "The Lord has forsaken the land, and the Lord does not see" (Ez 9:9). Others said that he does have concern and takes care of all things; but his providence imposes necessity on things. Therefore, it is useless to pray, because if God takes care of all things, so will it be. But he destroys those opinions, when he says, Father;
- For if he is a Father, he provides for his children, as it says in Wisdom (12:13): "'for neither is there any God besides you, whose care is for all men." Furthermore, Father implies son, as lord implies servant. For in that he is our Father, we call ourselves sons, since he is not the Father of other things. If, therefore, we are sons, we have free will. Accordingly, something is from us. By saying, Who art in heaven, he shows that all things can be obtained, since he is there permanently. For as he who is in heaven arranged for effects to be produced by causes, so he arranges that such a request be given to us for such a prayer. Hence it has the effect of raising our hope: "If you, who are evil, know how to give good things to your children, how much more your heavenly Father" (Lk 11:13).
- Furthermore, Father has the effect of arousing charity, since it is natural for a son to be loved by a Father: "Children, obey your parents in the Lord" (Eph 5:7).
- We are also invited to imitate: "That you may be children of your Father" (Mt 5:45).
- Then we are encouraged to be humble: "A son honors his father, and a servant his master. If then I am a Father, where is my honor? And if I am master, where is my fear?" (Mal 1:6).
- Again, by saying, Our Father, he directs our affection toward our neighbor, because if he is the one Father of all, no one should despise his neighbor by reason of ancestry.
- Furthermore, he says, Our Father, and not "My Father," because Christ wanted to preserve what is proper to himself, for he is the Son of God in a special way: "I ascend to my Father and your Father," because he is mine in one way and yours in another.
- Finally, he taught us to pray for all people. Chrysostom: "More pleasing to God is a prayer which necessity does not send forth, but brotherhood."
Secundo ad captandum benevolentiam dicitur qui es in caelis, non pro corporali loco, quia caelum et terram ego impleo, dicit dominus, Ier. XXIII, 24, sed propter eminentiam. Unde per hoc infirmis providetur, ut considerent per id quod supremum est in corporibus, quod Deo debent obsequi. Propter hoc versus orientem oramus, quia ab oriente vertitur caelum. Et sicut caelum supra corpus, ita Deus supra spiritum. Unde sicut corpus convertitur ad caelum, ita spiritus convertitur ad Deum. Ut ergo spiritus revocetur a terrenis, dicit pater noster, qui es in caelis. Aliter per caelos sancti intelliguntur: Is. I, 2: audite, caeli, et auribus percipe, terra; et Ps. XXI, 4: tu autem in sancto habitas. Dat enim fiduciam impetrandi, quia non longe sunt a nobis. He strives for good will in a second way, when he says, Who art in heaven, not as a corporeal place, because "I fill heaven and earth, says the Lord" (Jer 23:24), but on account of his eminence. Hence by this is provision made for the weak to consider in the light of what is supreme among bodies, that they should submit to God. For this reason we turn toward the east to pray, because the heavens are turned from the east And just as the heavens are above bodies, so God is above the spirit. Therefore, so that the spirit be called away from earthly things, he says, Our Father, who art in heaven. In another sense, by heavens are understood the saints: "Hear, O heavens, and perceive with your ears, O earth" (Is 1:2); "But you dwell in the holy place" (Ps 22:4). For he gives confidence that we shall obtain, because the heavens are not far from us. Sanctificetur nomen tuum. Hic, captata benevolentia, accedit ad petitiones. Sed omnis petitio habet desiderium. Unde in hac oratione continetur omne quod homo desiderare potest, et eo ordine quo petere debet: homo enim desiderat consequi bonum, et vitare malum. Quatuor autem petuntur desideranda.
- Desiderium enim tendit in finem: unde in unoquoque quod primo desiderandum est, est finis. Finis autem est Deus: unde honor Dei primo est petendus: et hoc tangitur sanctificetur nomen tuum.
- Item petenda sunt quae ad nos pertinent: et primum est gloria Dei: et haec tangitur adveniat regnum tuum. Item virtutes et merita bona: et hoc tangitur fiat voluntas tua et cetera.
- Item subsidia mortalis vitae, sive temporalia, sive spiritualia; et hoc tangitur panem nostrum quotidianum: sive intelligas panem temporalem, sive spiritualem, vel sacramentalem.
- Item malum est vitandum. Contra bona sunt quaedam impedimenta. Contra primum non est impedimentum, quia semper est honorandus Deus, sive velis, sive nolis habere.
- Beatitudinem impedit peccatum; ideo petit dimitte nobis debita nostra et cetera.
- Virtutes etiam et operationes bonas impedit tentatio: ideo dicitur et ne nos inducas in tentationem.
- Habere necessaria huius vitae impedit malum; ideo dicitur sed libera nos a malo.
(10) Hallowed be thy name. Having obtained good will, he now proceeds to the petitions. But every petition implies a desire. Hence in this prayer is contained everything man can desire and in the order in which he should ask, for man desires to obtain good and avoid evil. But four things to be desired are requested.
- For desire seeks an end; hence in all things it is the end that is first to be desired. But the end is God; hence, God's honor is the first thing to be sought. This is mentioned in v. 9b.
- Then, things pertaining to ourselves should be sought: the first is God's glory mentioned in v. 10; then, virtues and good merits in v. 10b.
- After that, helps to our mortal life, either temporal or spiritual, in v. 11: our daily bread, temporal bread, or spiritual, or sacramental.
- Then, evil must be avoided. Against good things are temporal obstacles: against the first there is no obstacle, because God must always be honored, whether you will or not will it.
- Sin is an obstacle to happiness; therefore, he asks, Forgive us our trespasses.
- Virtues and good works are impeded by temptation; therefore, he says, And lead us not into temptation.
- Finally, evil prevents our having the necessities of this life; therefore, he says, But deliver us from evil.
Sanctificetur nomen tuum. Semper sanctificatum est, quomodo ergo petimus? Exponitur sic. Sanctificetur, idest quod in se sanctum est manifestetur in nobis; non quod accrescat sibi, sed nobis accrescit manifestatio gloriae suae. Aliter Chrysostomus: sanctificetur etc., idest sanctificetur ex operibus nostris, idest det nobis talia opera facere ut sanctificetur. Secundum Cyprianum: sanctificetur, idest sanctifica nos in nomine tuo. Is. VIII, 14: et erit vobis in sanctificationem. Sed sanctificari est, ut qui non sunt sancti sanctificentur, et ut sancti in sanctitatem perseverent; et si quidem sanctificati non sint, contrarium amoveatur. Hallowed be thy name. But it is always hallowed. Why, therefore, request it? It is explained thus: let it be hallowed, i.e., let what is holy in itself be manifested in us; not that it adds to him, but that the manifestation of his glory be added to us. Chrysostom: "Hallowed, i.e., by reason of our works, i.e., may he enable us to do such works as will hallow his name." Cyprian: "Hallowed, i.e., sanctify us in your name: 'And he will be your holiness' (Is 8:14)." But to be hallowed is for those not holy to become holy, and for the holy to persevere in holiness; and if some are not holy, that the obstacle be removed. Sequitur adveniat regnum tuum,
- idest fac nos ad regnum tuum pervenire, ut dicitur (infra XXV, 34): venite, benedicti, percipite paratum vobis regnum a constitutione mundi.
- Aliter Augustinus in Serm. domini in monte: Deus regnare incepit, cum mundum redemit. Adveniat; idest veniat consummatio regni tui; Lc. XXI, 31: prope est regnum Dei.
- Vel sic. Adveniat regnum tuum, idest regnes in nobis, non peccatum. Unde Rom. VI, 12: non regnet peccatum in vestro mortali corpore. Sed non potest venire quis ad regnum caeleste nisi fiat caelestis; ideo petimus ut fiamus caelestes. Fiat voluntas tua sicut in caelo, idest fac nos caelestes. Unde petimus ut voluntas Dei impleatur per nos. Et hoc frustra, nisi a Deo esset; et ideo dicitur fiat voluntas tua, quia Deus operatur in nobis.
Thy kingdom come,
- i.e., make us arrive at your kingdom, as it says below (25:34): "Come, O blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world."
- In another way, Augustine in The Lord's Sermon on the Mount: "God began to reign, when he redeemed the world." Come, i.e., may the consummation of your kingdom arrive: "The kingdom of God is near" (Lk 21:31).
- Or, another way: Thy kingdom come, i.e., may you and not sin reign in us. Hence Romans (6:12): "Let not sin reign in your mortal body." But one cannot arrive at the heavenly kingdom, unless he becomes heavenly; therefore, we ask to become heavenly. They will be done on earth as in heaven, i.e., make us heavenly. But this would be to no avail, if it were not from God. Accordingly, he says, They will be done, because God works in us.
Sed quid? Sicut in caelo et in terra,
- idest sicut Angeli faciunt voluntatem in caelo, sic nos terreni faciamus in terra.
- Vel aliter. Fiat voluntas tua sicut in Christo, sic in Ecclesia. Unde fiat voluntas tua sicut in caelo, idest in Christo, et in terra, idest Ecclesia.
- Vel aliter. Per caelum sancti, per terram peccatores. Unde fiat voluntas tua etc., idest converte peccatores, ut serviant tibi ut iusti. Unde Ps. XVII, 29: illuminans lucernam meam, domine, illumina tenebras meas.
- Vel aliter: quia spiritus comparatus ad carnem, ita contrariatur. Unde apostolus: video aliam legem in membris meis repugnantem legi mentis meae. Unde, fiat etc., idest sicut spiritus concordat voluntati tuae, sic et caro.
But how? On earth as it is in heaven,
- i.e., as the angels do his will in heaven, so may we do it on earth.
- Or, another way: They will be done as in Christ, so in the Church. Hence They will be done on earth, i.e., the Church, as in heaven, i.e., in Christ.
- Or again: by heaven, the saints; by earth, sinners. Hence They will be done..., i.e., convert sinners, so that they may serve you as do the just: "Lighting my lamp, O Lord, enlighten my darkness" (Ps 18:28).
- Or, another way: because the spirit is compared to the flesh, so they are contrary. Hence the Apostle: "I see another law in my members, fighting against the law of my mind" (Rom 8:23). Hence Thy will..., i.e., as the spirit is in accord with your will, so too the flesh.
Et nota quod dicitur sanctificetur nomen tuum, et non sanctificemus. Et hoc est, quia ad salutem requiritur persona Dei, et liberum arbitrium. Sed si in prima persona peteretur, iam videretur quod solum ad liberum arbitrium pertineret. And note that it says, Hallowed by thy name, and not "Let us hallow." This is because the person of God and free will are required for salvation. But if it were asked in the first person, it would seem that it depended solely on free will. Panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie. Postquam docuit petere gloriam, et beatitudinem, et operationes virtutum; hic docet petere quae sunt necessaria ad praesentem vitam, cum dicit panem nostrum et cetera. Hoc autem exponitur quatuor modis.
- Primo exponitur de pane qui est Christus, qui dicit de seipso, Io. VI, 52: panis quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita. Sed dicit nostrum, quia non cuiuscumque, sed fidelium solum; Is. IX, 6: parvulus natus est nobis et cetera. Unde ex quo quis baptizatus est, ius habet in isto pane. Sed hoc quod dicit supersubstantialem, loco eius habetur in Graeco usion, idest peculiarem; et quod sit supersubstantialis, habetur ad Ephes. I, 20: constituens ad dexteram suam in caelestibus supra omnem principatum, potestatem, et virtutem, et dominationem. Iste panis est quotidianus, qui quotidie debet sumi non a quocumque, sicut in libro de ecclesiasticis dogmatibus dicit Augustinus, quod quotidie recipere nec laudo, nec vitupero: sed in Ecclesia quotidie debet sumi a fidelibus, et percipiatur si non sacramentaliter, tamen spiritualiter. Sed Orientales aliam consuetudinem habent, quia in aliquorum Ecclesiis non celebratur nisi semel in hebdomada. Et Augustinus in Serm. domini in monte dicit, quod illud sustinetur. Da nobis. Sed qualiter dicitur da nobis, si nostrum est? Cyprianus: da nobis, idest da ita vivere, quod per peccatum non reddamur non idonei ad habendum istum panem. Non enim datur ei qui indigne recipit, sed assumit in damnum suum. Qui enim manducat et bibit indigne, iudicium sibi manducat et bibit, ut habetur I ad Cor. XI, 29. Sed quid est quod dicit hodie? Dicendum quod hodie aliquando accipitur pro praesenti die, aliquando pro tota vita nostra. Unde da nobis hodie, idest ut in tota vita nostra possimus percipere, quia in hac vita tantum est necessarius: in alia enim, habita veritate, non indigebimus. Unde in hac vita et nunc peculiaris est, tunc continuus.
- Alia expositio, ut per panem Deus vel divinitas intelligatur. Lc. XIV, 15: beatus qui manducat panem in regno caelorum; Ps. LXXVII, 25: panem Angelorum manducavit homo. Unde da nobis hodie: da ut in praesenti vita possimus ea frui.
- Item aliter potest exponi de pane sapientiae; unde: venite, comedite panem meum: ille enim comedit panem sapientiae, qui inquirit documenta salutis, qui facit divina praecepta.
- Quarto exponitur de pane corporali. Dixerat sanctificetur nomen tuum, et fiat voluntas tua et cetera. Unde docuerat nos caelestes esse; sed memor fragilitatis nostrae docet nos petere terrena ad vitam necessaria, et non superflua, sed necessaria. Unde: habentes alimenta, et quibus tegamur, his contenti sumus. Idem petiit patriarcha Iacob: si dederit mihi panem quo vescar, et vestes quibus operiar et cetera. Sed dicit nostrum, quia de proprio, non de rapina. Alia ratio quare dicit nostrum, quia hoc datur ad necessitatem. Unde debemus accipere ut communia, ut dicebat Iob: si comedi buccellam panis solus.
(11) Give us this day our daily bread. After teaching us to ask for glory and happiness an virtuous acts, he now teaches to ask for things required for the present life, when he says, our daily bread. This is explained in four ways:
- first, of the bread, which is Christ: "The bread that I shall give is my flesh for the life of the world" (Jn 6:52). But he says, our, because it is not just anyone's, but only the faithful's: "A child is born to us..." (Is 9:5). Hence by baptism he has a right to that bread. That this bread is [supersubstantial] is gathered from Ephesians (1:20): "He made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, above all rule and authority and power and dominion." This bread is daily, which should be eaten every day not by just anyone; as Augustine says in Dogmas of the Church: "I neither praise nor condemn receiving every day." But in the Church it should be taken daily by the faithful and received, if not sacramentally, then spiritually. But the Oriental Church has another custom, because it is celebrated in certain churches only once a week. Give us. But how can he give us, if it is ours? Cyprian: Give us, i.e., give us so to live that by sin we are not rendered unworthy to have that bread. For it is not given to one who receives unworthily, but he takes it to his harm." "Anyone who eats and drinks unworthily, eats and drinks judgment upon himself" (1 Cor 11:20). But why does he say, today? The answer is that today is sometimes taken for the present day, sometimes for our whole life. Hence give us today, i.e., to be able to receive through our whole life, because it is necessary only in this life. For we will not need it in the other, when we possess truth. Hence in this life and now it is interrupted, but then it will be continuous.
- Another explanation is that God or divinity is understood by bread: "Blessed is the man who eats bread in the kingdom of God" (Lk 11:15); "Man has eaten the bread of angels" (Ps 78:25). Hence, give us today, i.e., grant that we may enjoy it in the present life.
- Thirdly, it can be explained of the bread of wisdom; hence "Come, eat of my bread" (Pr 9:5). For he eats of the bread of wisdom who searches the doctrine of salvation and who fulfills the divine precepts.
- Fourthly, it is explained of material bread. He had said, Hallowed by thy name and They will be done...; hence he had taught us to be godlike. But mindful of our weakness, he teaches us to ask for the material things required for life; not what is superfluous, but what is necessary. Hence 1 Tim (6:8): "If we have food an clothing, with these we shall be content." The patriarch, Jacob ,also looked for this: "If God will give me bread to eat and clothing to war" (Gen 28:20). But he says, our, because it is from our own and not from stealing. Anther reason why he says our is that it is given as a necessity. Hence we should receive it in common, as Job (31:7): "If I have eaten my morsel along."
Sed quid est quod dicit supersubstantialem? Hoc ideo dicit, quia (ut dicit Augustinus in Lib. de orando Deum ad Probam) id quod est praecipuum in vita hominis est panis. Eccli. XXIX, 28: initium vitae hominis aqua et panis. Unde per hunc omnia quae sunt substantialia ad vitam intelliguntur. Sed dicit quotidianum, idest pro hac vita brevi: si enim peteret ad longum tempus, contrariaretur petitioni suae, quae dixit adveniat regnum tuum, idest ad nos veniat. Si ergo longa petitio esset, contrariaretur orationi praecedenti. Item ut superfluitatem tollat, quia quod necessarium, est ad diem; contra quosdam qui plus expendunt uno prandio quam necesse esset in multis diebus. Item dicit da nobis. Chrysostomus: temporalia habent boni et mali: boni ad utilitatem, mali ad damnum: boni igitur a Deo, mali a Diabolo. Alia ratio. Sicut si aliquis offerret panem sacerdoti ad sanctificandum, postea peteret a sacerdote iam sanctificatum; sic dicitur da nobis, idest sanctifica nobis, et sanctificatur per orationem. Et quia noluit ut petatur ad longum tempus, ideo dicit hodie: vel hodie, idest in vita ista. But what is meant by supersubstantial? He says this, as Augustine writes in the book to Proba, On praying to God, because bread is so essential in man's life: "The essentials for life are water and bread" (Sir 29:21). Hence by this is understood everything essential for life. But he says, today, i.e., for this brief life. For if he asked it for a long time, it would be in opposition to his petition they kingdom come, i.e., come to us. If, therefore, the petition were for a long time, it would be contrary to the previous petition. Also to remove superfluities, because what is necessary is for the day, contrary to the practice of those who spend more on one meal than would be needed for many days. Again, he says, give us. Chrysostom: "The good and the evil have temporal goods: the good to their advantage, the evil to their harm; the good from God, the evil form the devil." Another reason: just as if someone should offer bread to the priest to be sanctified and later requested it from the priest, after it had been sanctified. So he says, give us, i.e., sanctify for us, and it is sanctified by prayer. And because he did not wish that the request be for a along time, he says, today or this day, i.e., in this life. Sed quaeritur quare dominus prohibuit sollicitudinem; unde dicit nolite solliciti esse et cetera. Hic autem docet petere. Sed homo licite potest desiderare quae necessaria sunt ad vitam; et non solum quae ad vitam, sed quae ad statum, quia plura sunt necessaria regi quam comiti: unde licet haec petere. Sed aliud est desiderare, et aliud sollicitum esse. Item videtur quod non petendum sit nisi ad unum diem, quia dicit hodie. Solutio. Non intendit quin cogites de futuro: sic enim periret populus Dei, quia sic non esset congregandum in aestate quod comedendum est in hieme; sed sollicitudinem removet de futuro. But why did the Lord forbid anxiety? For he says below (v. 31) "Be not anxious"; whereas here he teaches us to ask. But a man can lawfully desire what is necessary for life; and not only for life but for his station, because more is necessary for a king than for a count Hence it is lawful to seek these things. But it is one thing to desire and other to be anxious. Again, it seems that nothing should be sought except for one day, because he says, this day. The answer is not that you take no thought for the future; otherwise, God's people would perish, because then one should not gather in the summer what is to be eaten in the winter: but he does forbid anxiety about the future. Sequitur dimitte nobis debita nostra et cetera. Hic intendit ponere petitiones quae fiunt ad remotionem mali, et primo magis principalis quod magis impedit. Hoc autem est peccatum; ideo dicit et dimitte nobis debita nostra: quia contra eum peccavimus; nos enim indigemus de bono Dei. Hieronymus: indignum est quod agamus aliquid contra Deum. Quando tu peccas, tu usurpas quod Dei est: quia voluntas Dei est regula omnium. Si ergo dimittis voluntatem Dei pro voluntate tua, usurpas quod Dei est. Ideo dimitte nobis peccata. Et hoc ille petebat Ps. XXXVIII, 14: dimitte mihi, ut refrigerer prius quam abeam, et amplius non ero. Et per hoc duos errores excludit.
- Error scilicet Pelagii, qui dicebat, quod sine peccato poterat homo vivere: et hoc est falsum, quia esset aliquis qui non posset dicere hanc orationem; sed hanc dominus dedit omnibus; omnes ergo peccatum habent. Et Ioannes in prima canonica I, 8: si dixerimus quod peccatum non habemus, nos ipsos seducimus et cetera.
- Item, alius error, quod si quis peccavit, non potest agere poenitentiam; sed hoc non doceret dominus petere, nisi vellet remittere. Unde Io. I, 12: dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri: quod non fieret nisi remitterentur peccata.
(12) He continues, Forgive us our trespasses [debts]. Here he intends to present the petitions for the removal of evil; first, the most important and greatest obstacle, which is in. Therefore, he says, Forgive our trespasses, because we have sinned against him; for we have need of God's good. Jerome: "It is unbecoming to do anything against God. When you sin, you usurp what is God's, because god's will is the rule for all. If, therefore, you put aside God's will in favor of your own, you usurp what is God's." Therefore, forgive our trespasses. This is what the Psalmist sought: "Look away from me, that I may know gladness, before I depart and be no more" (Ps 39:13). By this he excludes two errors, namely,
- that of Pelagius, who said that a man can live without sin. This is false, because there would be someone who could not say this prayer. But the Lord gave this prayer to all; therefore, all have sin. And John says: "If we say that we are without sin, we deceive ourselves" (1 Jn 1:8).
- The other error is that if one has sinned, he cannot do penance; but the Lord would not have taught us to pray thus, unless he were willing to forgive: "He gave them power to become sons of God" (Jn 1:12), which would not happen, unless sins were forgiven.
Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Debitores dicuntur duobus modis: vel quia peccant contra nos; vel quia aliquid nobis debent, ut pecuniam, et huiusmodi. Non ergo docet ut dimittam debita pecuniae, sed debitum quo peccavit quis contra me; vel etiam si offendit me pro solvenda pecunia, offensam teneor dimittere, non pecuniam: indignum enim esset quod peterem misericordiam, si remittere non vellem; unde Eccli. XXVIII, 3: homo homini servat iram, et a Deo petit medelam. As we forgive those who trespass against us. They are called trespassers [debtors] in two ways: either because they sin against us, or because they owe us something, as money and the like. He does not teach us to forgive money debts, but the debt whereby one has sinned against us; or even if he offends me for collecting the money, I am obliged to forgive the offense, not the money. For it would be unbecoming to seek mercy, if I were unwilling to forgive: "Does a man harbor anger against another, and yet seek for healing from the Lord"?" (Sir 28:3). Sed sunt multi qui nolunt dimittere, debentne dicere pater noster? et cetera. Quidam enim subtrahebant verbum illud sicut et nos etc., sed talis omittens peccat, quia formam Ecclesiae non servat. Dicendum ergo quod, licet sit in peccato, debet dicere, quia debet facere quicquid boni potest; quia licet non sint meritoria ad vitam aeternam, tamen sunt proficua ad impetrandam gratiam. Item oratio dicitur in persona Ecclesiae: unde licet ipse non remittat, tamen Ecclesia remittit. Item quaerit Augustinus, si solum illis qui remittunt offensas, dominus remittit. But many are unwilling to forgive. Should they say the "Our Father"? For some omit the part, as we forgive; but omitting this is a sin, because it does not preserve the Church's form. Therefore, it must be said that, although he be in sin, he should say it, because he ought to do all the good he can; for although it is not meritorious of eternal life, it nevertheless contributes toward obtaining grace. Furthermore, prayer is said in the person of the Church; hence even though he does not forgive, the Church forgives. Et vult Augustinus quod eo tenore dimittamus, quo dimittit dominus: dominus enim rogantibus dimittit. Qui ergo paratus est roganti dimittere, fructum recipit orationis. Augustine asks whether the Lord forgives only those who forgive. And he answers that we forgive in the manner Christ forgives, for Christ forgives those who ask. Therefore, one prepared to forgive another who asks, receives the fruit of the prayer. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. Cyprianus exponit sic: et ne nos, idest non sinas nos perduci in tentationem; tentatio enim utilis est, sed ille inducitur in tentationem, qui tentationi succumbit: multi volunt igne calefieri, sed non igne comburi. Fidelis Deus qui non permittit vos tentari ultra quam possitis. Et per hoc amovetur error Pelagii, qui dicebat, quod homo poterat perseverare per liberum arbitrium. Et hoc amovet, cum docet non consentire tentationi. Ad Phil. II, 13: Deus operatur in nobis velle et perficere pro bona voluntate. (13) And lead us not into temptation. Cyprian explains it this way: Do not permit us to be conveyed into temptation; for temptation is useful, but he is led into temptation who succumbs to it. Many desire to be warmed by fire but not burned by it: "God is faithful and will not let you be tempted beyond your strength" (1 Cor 10:13). And by this, Pelagius' error is removed, for he said that a man could persevere by free will. He removes this, when he teaches not to consent to temptation: "God works in us both to will and to accomplish" (Phil 2:13). Ultimum est sed libera nos a malo, praesenti vel futuro, poenae vel culpae. Unde Augustinus in hoc verbo: omnis homo lacrimas fundit. Ita dicebat ille Ps. LVIII, 2: eripe me de inimicis meis, Deus meus. Sequitur autem amen, idest ita fiat. Hebraeum est. Datur securitas impetrandi, si tales fuerimus quod dimittamus et cetera. In Graeco adduntur tria verba: quoniam tuum regnum, et veritas, et gloria. Et haec tria tribus praemissis respondent. Vel sic. Tu potes, quia tuum regnum, tua est virtus, quae potest donare. Item totum ad gloriam Dei; Ps. CXIII, 1: non nobis, domine, non nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam. The last one is But deliver us from evil, present or future, of punishment or of guilt. Hence, Augustine: "Every man sheds tears"; and the Psalmist (59:1): "Deliver me from my enemies, O my God." He concludes with Amen, i.e., let it come to pass. The confidence of obtaining is given, if we are such as forgive others. In Greek three words are added: "For yours is the kingdom and the truth and the glory." These three correspond to the three mentioned before. Or, thus: You can, because your is the kingdom, yours is the truth, which can grant. And it is to the glory of God: "Not to us, O Lord, not to us; but to your name give glory" (Ps 115:1).
Petri de Scala
16 ὅταν δὲ νηστεύητε, μὴ γίνεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταὶ σκυθρωποί, ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύοντες: ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 17 σὺ δὲ νηστεύων ἄλειψαί σου τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου νίψαι, 18 ὅπως μὴ φανῇς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύων ἀλλὰ τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ: καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ ἀποδώσει σοι. 16. And when you fast, be not as the hypocrites, sad. For they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Amen I say to you, they have received their reward. 17. But thou, when thou fastest anoint thy head, and wash thy face; 18. That thou appear not to men to fast, but to thy Father who is in secret: and thy Father who seeth in secret, will repay thee. Cum autem ieiunatis et cetera. Haec est tertia pars ab illo loco cum facis eleemosynam etc.; in qua excludit appetitum humani favoris a ieiunio. Ubi primo excludit a ieiunio modum indebitum; secundo subiungit modum ieiunandi debitum ibi tu autem cum ieiunas et cetera. (16) When you fast... This is the third part of the outline presented at v. 2, When you give an alms. In this part he excludes the desire for human praise for fasting. First, he excludes from fasting the improper way; secondly, he presents the correct way (v. 17). In prima dicuntur tria. Primo dissuadet hypocritarum simulationem; secundo ponit suae ostentationis perversam intentionem, ibi exterminant enim facies suas; tertio subiungit eorum condemnationem, ibi amen dico vobis, quia receperunt mercedem suam. In the first are said three things: first, he disapproves of the pretense of the hypocrites; secondly, he discloses the perverse intention behind their display (v. 16b); thirdly, he subjoins their condemnation (v. 16c). Dicit ergo cum ieiunatis, nolite fieri sicut hypocritae. Per hoc quod dicit nolite, prohibet non solum facere, sed velle, quia in voluntate radix merendi et demerendi est. Tristes; signanter dicit fieri tristes, et non esse, quia ista tristitia, sive simulatio, solum in apparentia est. Chrysostomus: dum fingunt se ieiunare, non sunt tristes, sed fiunt. Exterminant. Ecce perversa intentio, quia exterminant, idest extra proprios terminos humanae conditionis ponunt, secundum Augustinum et Rabanum, facies suas, in quibus magis apparent boni. Augustinus: sicut de nitore vestium iactantia, sic de nimio squalore et macie. Ut appareant hominibus, qui vident solum exteriora, I Reg. XVI, 7, ieiunantes, idest abstinentes. Isidorus super Amos: qui cibis abstinent, et mala agunt, Daemones imitantur, quibus culpa adest, et cibus abest. Chrysostomus: si quis ieiunat, et tristem se facit, hypocrita est. Quanto nequior est qui non ieiunat, sed in facie sua argumentis quibusdam fingit venalem pallorem? Amen dico vobis. Hic subiungitur eorum condemnatio; unde dicit amen, idest vere, dico vobis, receperunt mercedem suam, non Dei, idest laudem quam intendebant. Gregorius in Hom.: incassum caro atteritur, si a suis voluptatibus animus non refraenatur. He says, therefore, When you fast, do not become sad as the hypocrites. By saying, Do no, he not only forbids doing but wishing, because the root of merit and demerit is in the will. Sad: it is significant that he says, become sad, and not be sad, because that sadness or pretense is only apparent. Chrysostom: "While they pretend to fast, they are not sad but become sad." They disfigure. Behold the perverse intention, because they disfigure, i.e., place it beyond the normal limits of our human condition, according to Augustine and Rabanus. Their faces, in which they seem good all the more. Augustine: "Just as there is boasting in attractive vesture, so in excessive squalor and emaciation." That their fasting, i.., abstaining, may be seen by men, who see only appearances. Isidore on Amos: "One who abstains form food and does evil imitates the devil, in whom guilt is present and food absent." Chrysostom: "If one fasts and makes himself sad, he is a hypocrite. How much more wicked is one who does not fast but by certain evidence assumes an unseemly color in his face?" Amen, I say to you. Her is subjoined their condemnation; hence he says, Amen, i.e., truly, I say to you, they have received their reward, not God, but the praise they sought. Gregory: "In vain is the flesh afflicted, if the mind is not restrained from its pleasures." Tu autem, cum ieiunas, unge caput tuum. Hic subdit debitum ieiunandi modum. Et primo hortatur ad ipsum; secundo ponit promissum, ibi et pater tuus et cetera. (17) But when you fast, anoint your head. Here he teaches the correct way to fast. First, he urges it; secondly, he makes a promise (v. 18b). Quantum ad primum dicit tu autem, cum ieiunas, unge caput tuum, quadrupliciter. Primo caput, idest mentem, oleo nitoris conscientiae, ne Diabolus per capillos, idest cogitationes, teneat. Esther II, 12 virgines oleo myrrhino ungebantur. Secundo oleo caritatis. Hoc inunguntur pugiles, idest activi boni. Infra XXV, 4: prudentes virgines acceperunt oleum in vasis suis cum lampadibus. Item oleo compassionis et misericordiae, quo debent inungi praelati; Eccle. IX, 8: oleum de capite tuo non deficiat. Chrysostomus: caput tuum Christum est. Esurientem ciba, sitientem pota, et sic caput tuum unxisti oleo misericordiae, qui clamat in Evangelio: quod uni ex minimis meis fecistis, mihi fecistis. Item oleo spiritualis laetitiae, quo inunguntur reges, idest contemplativi. Ex. XVII, 19: sanctificabis vasa tabernaculi oleo. Unde Hieronymus et Augustinus: Palaestinis mos erat caput ungere. Ergo Caput unge, idest hilarem et festivum te exhibe. Et faciem tuam lava, Chrysostomus: facies est conscientia. Lava ergo faciem tuam quadruplici lotione.
- Primo per veram contritionem; Ier. IV, 14: lava a malitia cor tuum, Ierusalem, ut salva fias.
- Secundo per confessionem; Is. I, 16: lavamini, mundi estote et cetera.
- Tertio per tribulationum perpessionem; Apoc. VII, 14: laverunt stolas suas, et dealbaverunt eas in sanguine agni.
- Quarto per devotam orationem; Gen. XVIII, 4: afferam pauxillum aquae ut laventur pedes vestri. Vel lava faciem, idest intellectum a curiositate, et affectum ab illicito amore.
As to the first he says, But when you fast, anoint your head in four ways. First, the head, i.e., the mind, with the oil of a clear conscience, lest the devil snatch you by the hair, i.e., of thoughts. Esther (2:12) anointed the maidens with oil and myrrh. Secondly, with the oil of charity. Pugilists are anointed with this, i.e., good followers of the active life: "But the wise maidens took flasks of oil with their lamps" (Mt 25:4). Also with the oil of sympathy and mercy, with which prelates are anointed: "Let not oil be lacking on your head" (Ec 9:8). Chrysostom: "Your head is Christ. Feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty; and in this way you anoint your head with the oil of mercy. For he said in the Gospel: 'What you have done to the least of these, you have done to me'" Finally, with the oil of spiritual joy, with which kings are anointed, i.e., contemplatives: "You shall bless the vessels of the tabernacle with oil" (Ex 17:19). Hence Jerome and Augustine: "It was the custom among Palestinians to anoint the head." therefore, anoint your head, i.e., present yourselves cheerful and pleasant. And wash your face. Chrysostom: "The face is conscience." Therefore, wash your face with four washings:
- first, by true contrition: "O Jerusalem, wash your face from wickedness, that you may be saved" (Jer 4:14).
- Secondly, by confession: "Be washed, be clean... (Is 1:16).
- Thirdly, by enduring tribulations: "They have washed their garments and made them white in the blood of the Lamb" (Rev 7:14).
- Fourthly, by devout prayer: "Let a little water be brought and wash your feet" (Gen 18:4). Or, wash your face, i.e., the intellect, from curiosity and the affections from illicit love.
Ne videaris hominibus ieiunans. Non prohibet simpliciter videri, sed velle videri; quasi dicat, ne velis favorem, vel laudem pro ieiunio ab hominibus captare, (18) That your fasting may not be seen by men. He does not forbid being seen, but to wish to be seen. As if to say: Do not seek the praise or favor of men for fasting, but by your Father by creation and recreation and preservation, who is in secret. A Gloss: "i.e., in the heart by faith"; "Truly, you are a hidden God" (Is 45:15). sed patri tuo, per creationem, et recreationem, et conservationem, qui est in abscondito, Glossa: idest in corde per fidem. Is. XLV, 15: vere tu es Deus absconditus. Et pater tuus (ecce promissum) qui videt in abscondito, idest in humili et pura conscientia, reddet tibi; Sap. X, 17: reddet Deus laborem sanctorum suorum. And your Father (behold the promise), who sees in secret, i.e., in the humble and pure conscience, will reward you: "God will reward the labor of his holy ones" (Wis 10:5).
Reportatio Leodegarii Bissuntini
19 μὴ θησαυρίζετε ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅπου σὴς καὶ βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται διορύσσουσιν καὶ κλέπτουσιν: 20 θησαυρίζετε δὲ ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐν οὐρανῷ, ὅπου οὔτε σὴς οὔτε βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται οὐ διορύσσουσιν οὐδὲ κλέπτουσιν: 21 ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρός σου, ἐκεῖ ἔσται καὶ ἡ καρδία σου. 22 ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός. ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτεινὸν ἔσται: 23 ἐὰν δὲ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου πονηρὸς ᾖ, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτεινὸν ἔσται. εἰ οὖν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἐν σοὶ σκότος ἐστίν, τὸ σκότος πόσον. 24 οὐδεὶς δύναται δυσὶ κυρίοις δουλεύειν: ἢ γὰρ τὸν ἕνα μισήσει καὶ τὸν ἕτερον ἀγαπήσει, ἢ ἑνὸς ἀνθέξεται καὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου καταφρονήσει: οὐ δύνασθε θεῷ δουλεύειν καὶ μαμωνᾷ. 25 διὰ τοῦτο λέγω ὑμῖν, μὴ μεριμνᾶτε τῇ ψυχῇ ὑμῶν τί φάγητε [ἢ τί πίητε,] μηδὲ τῷ σώματι ὑμῶν τί ἐνδύσησθε: οὐχὶ ἡ ψυχὴ πλεῖόν ἐστιν τῆς τροφῆς καὶ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ ἐνδύματοσ; 26 ἐμβλέψατε εἰς τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὅτι οὐ σπείρουσιν οὐδὲ θερίζουσιν οὐδὲ συνάγουσιν εἰς ἀποθήκας, καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τρέφει αὐτά: οὐχ ὑμεῖς μᾶλλον διαφέρετε αὐτῶν; 27 τίς δὲ ἐξ ὑμῶν μεριμνῶν δύναται προσθεῖναι ἐπὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν αὐτοῦ πῆχυν ἕνα; 28 καὶ περὶ ἐνδύματος τί μεριμνᾶτε; καταμάθετε τὰ κρίνα τοῦ ἀγροῦ πῶς αὐξάνουσιν: οὐ κοπιῶσιν οὐδὲ νήθουσιν: 29 λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδὲ σολομὼν ἐν πάσῃ τῇ δόξῃ αὐτοῦ περιεβάλετο ὡς ἓν τούτων. 30 εἰ δὲ τὸν χόρτον τοῦ ἀγροῦ σήμερον ὄντα καὶ αὔριον εἰς κλίβανον βαλλόμενον ὁ θεὸς οὕτως ἀμφιέννυσιν, οὐ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ὑμᾶς, ὀλιγόπιστοι; 31 μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε λέγοντες, τί φάγωμεν; ἤ, τί πίωμεν; ἤ, τί περιβαλώμεθα; 32 πάντα γὰρ ταῦτα τὰ ἔθνη ἐπιζητοῦσιν: οἶδεν γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος ὅτι χρῄζετε τούτων ἁπάντων. 33 ζητεῖτε δὲ πρῶτον τὴν βασιλείαν [τοῦ θεοῦ] καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην αὐτοῦ, καὶ ταῦτα πάντα προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν. 34 μὴ οὖν μεριμνήσητε εἰς τὴν αὔριον, ἡ γὰρ αὔριον μεριμνήσει ἑαυτῆς: ἀρκετὸν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἡ κακία αὐτῆς. 19. Lay not up to yourselves treasures on earth: where the rust, and moth consume, and where thieves break through, and steal. 20. But lay up to yourselves treasures in heaven: where neither the rust nor moth doth consume, and where thieves do not break through, nor steal. 21. For where thy treasure is, there is thy heart also. 22. The light of thy body is thy eye. If thy eye be single, thy whole body shall be lightsome. 23. But if thy eye be evil thy whole body shall be darksome. If then the light that is in thee, be darkness: the darkness itself how great shall it be! 24. No man can serve two masters. For either he will hate the one, and love the other: or he will sustain the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. 25. Therefore I say to you, be not solicitous for your life, what you shall eat, nor for your body, what you shall put on. Is not the life more than the meat: and the body more than the raiment? 26. Behold the birds of the air, for they neither sow, nor do they reap, nor gather into barns: and your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are not you of much more value than they? 27. And which of you by taking thought, can add to his stature one cubit? 28. And for raiment why are you solicitous? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow: they labour not, neither do they spin. 29. But I say to you, that not even Solomon in all his glory was arrayed as one of these. 30. And if the grass of the field, which is to day, and to morrow is cast into the oven, God doth so clothe: how much more you, O ye of little faith? 31. Be not solicitous therefore, saying: What shall we eat: or what shall we drink, or wherewith shall we be clothed? 32. For after all these things do the heathens seek. For your Father knoweth that you have need of all these things. 33. Seek ye therefore first the kingdom of God, and his justice, and all these things shall be added unto you. 34. Be not therefore solicitous for to morrow; for the morrow will be solicitous for itself. Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof. Postquam docuit nos de ieiunio, docet nos de eleemosyna, et dicit nolite thesaurizare vobis thesauros in terra. Sed videtur quod hoc non sit verum, quia regibus convenit thesaurizare. Sed dicendum, quod per thesauros intelligit abundantiam: et haec duplex, necessaria, et superflua: quod non est necessarium uni, est necessarium alteri. Et ideo cum rex multis indigeat, multa potest congregare. Uni simplici peccatum esset quod non est regi, quia indiget defendere regnum. Item prohibet his, qui videntur habere fiduciam in eis; unde I ad Tim. ult., 17: divitibus huius saeculi praecipe non sublime sapere, nec sperare in incerto divitiarum suarum; Baruch III, 16: ubi sunt principes gentium, qui argentum fabricant (sive thesaurizant) et aurum in quo confidunt homines? Item prohibet propter instabilitatem, quia cito amittuntur. Et ponit tria quae in divitiis habentur: metalla, et haec rubigine consumuntur; vestes, et haec tineis: et quaedam quae neutro modo, ut lapides pretiosi. Alia littera habet, nec commestura. Unde tripliciter destruuntur:
- aut ex principio intrinseco; et sic tinea quae innascitur vestibus, unde ubi aerugo et tinea:
- aut ex luxuria possidentis, ideo commestura:
- quandoque ab extraneis, unde dicit ubi fures non effodiunt.
(19) After teaching us about fasting, he passes to almsgiving and says, Do not lay up for yourselves treasures on earth. But this does not seem true, because it is fighting for kings to lay up treasures. The answer is that by treasures he understands abundance, which is twofold: necessary and superfluous; what is necessary for one is superfluous for another. Therefore, since a king needs many things, he can amass many things. For a simple person it would be a sin, but not for a king, because he needs it to defend his kingdom. Again, he forbids it for those who seem to put their trust in them; hence 1 Timothy (6:17): "As for the rich of this world, charge them not to be haughty, nor to set their hopes on uncertain riches"; "Where are the princes of the nations, and those who hoard up silver and gold in which they trust?" (Bar 3:17). Furthermore, he forbids it on account of instability, because they are quickly lost. And he mentions three things included among riches: metals, which are consumed by rust; clothing, by moths, and some by neither way, namely, precious stones. Another text has waste. Hence, they are destroyed in three ways:
- from an intrinsic principle, and thus the moth which is hatched in cloth; hence where moth and rust consume;
- or from the lavish expense of the possessor; hence he says, waste.
- Sometimes from without; hence he says, where thieves break in and steal.
Si aliquis dicat quod haec non fiunt: dicendum, etsi non fiant, tamen saepe contigit; et si non contingit, possibile tamen est contingere: ideo arguit eas incertas esse. If someone says that these do not happen, the answer can be given that even if they do not occur or not often, they are possible. Therefore, he shows that they are unstable. Item exponitur mystice. Aerugo apparet, tinea latet. Unde per aeruginem peccata corporalia, per tineam spiritualia. Item quaedam sunt peccata quae per seipsos faciunt homines, quaedam quae cum alio, et illa magis nocent. Dicit nec fures effodiunt. Vel dicit propter thesauros absconditos. Item per aeruginem superbi; Eccli. XII, 10: sicut aeramentum aeruginat nequitia eorum. Tinea corrodit vestimenta: et haec significat exteriora opera, quae per invidiam corroduntur; Prov. XXV, 20: sicut tinea vestimento, et vermis ligno, ita tristitia viri nocet cordi. Item fures per vanam gloriam. Fures, idest Daemones, qui cum non possint decipere homines per alia peccata, decipiunt per vanam gloriam. It is also explained in a mystical sense. The rust is evident; the moth is hidden. Hence, by rust is understood bodily sins; by moth, spiritual sins. Again, there are some sins which men commit by themselves, some with another; and the former are more harmful. He says, nor thieves break in for hidden treasures. By rust is signified the proud: "As the rusting of copper is the wickedness of an enemy" (Sir 12:10). The moth destroys garments. This signifies external works, which are corroded by envy: "As a moth harms a garment, and a worm wood, so sadness harms the man's heart" (Pr 25:20). Finally, thieves signify vainglory. Thieves, i.e., demons who, when they cannot deceive a man by other sins, deceive by vainglory. Item ponit stabilitatem divitiarum caelestium, ubi dicit thesaurizate vobis thesauros in caelo. Et hic Augustinus: thesaurizate vobis in caelo, non in aliquo loco corporali, sed in caelo, idest in spiritualibus bonis, idest abundantiam bonorum meritorum acquirite. Et dicit vobis, non Deo, quia nihil accrescit ei; Iob XXXV, 7: si iuste egeris, quid donabis ei, aut quid de manu tua accipiet? Docet autem dominus, unde hoc acquiritur, scilicet per eleemosynam, dicens Lc. c. XVIII, 22: vende omnia quae habes, et da pauperibus, et habebis thesaurum in caelo. Ibi enim, idest in caelo, nulla erit corruptio, quia corruptibile hoc induet incorruptionem, I Cor. c. XV, 53. (20) Then he states that heavenly riches are stable, when he says, Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven. Augustine: "Lay up to yourselves treasure in heaven, not in any earthly place but in heaven, i.e., in spiritual goods, i.e., obtain an abundance of good merits." He says, for yourselves, not for God, because nothing adds to him: "If you are righteous, what do you give to him, or what does he receive from your hand?" (Jb 35:7). But the Lord teaches how they are acquired, namely, by almsgiving: "Sell all you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven" (Lk 18:22). For there, i.e., in heaven, is where nothing perishes, because "this perishable nature puts on the imperishable" (1 Cor 15:53). Sequitur ubi est thesaurus tuus, ibi est et cor tuum. Docet contrariam conclusionem esse nocivam; et hoc quia cordis distractionem habet, quia si terrena diligis, ibi erit cor tuum; ubi enim amor, ibi oculus: oculi stultorum in finibus terrae. (21) He continues, for where our treasure is, there will your heart be also. He teaches that the contrary conclusion is harmful, because it involves the heart in distraction; for if you love earthly things, your heart will be there. Where love is, the eye is; and the eyes of fools stop at the ends of the earth. Sed quia pauci sunt qui considerent istud, ideo ostendit quantum sit periculum, per exemplum, lucerna corporis tui. Et hoc primo exponitur de oculo corporali; sicut enim lucerna dirigit gressus hominis, sic oculus. Unde si oculus tuus fuerit simplex, idest fortis ad videndum, corpus totum erit lucidum, idest dirigetur ad faciendum; (22) But because few consider this, he shows the greatness of the danger with an example: The eye is the lamp of the body. This is explained, first, of the bodily eye; for as a lamp guides a man's steps, so also the eye. Hence If your eye is sound, i.e., sharp for seeing, your whole body will be full of light, i.e., directed for action. si nequam, idest lippus et obscurus, totum corpus tuum tenebrosum erit, idest omnia opera tua fient ad modum tenebrarum. Si ergo lumen quod in te est, tenebrae sunt, ipsae tenebrae quantae erunt. Lumen quod in te est, est cor et mens. Si ergo ad terram dirigatur, et omnes sensus hominis ad terram dirigentur. Aliter exponitur de oculo spirituali: lumen enim inducit ad probandum, sicut hominis ratio; Prov. XX, 27: lucerna domini spiraculum hominis. Unde si oculus tuus fuerit simplex, sic quod ratio tua dirigatur in Deum, totum corpus tuum, idest omnia membra tua a peccato servabuntur: si non, involventur in operibus tenebrarum. Vel lucidum, in resurrectione sanctorum. Infra XIII, 43: tunc iusti fulgebunt sicut sol. Item, per oculum significatur intentio. Unde qui vult operari, aliquid intendit: unde si intentio tua sit lucida, idest ad Deum directa, totum corpus, idest operationes tuae erunt lucidae. Et hoc intelligitur in simpliciter bonis. Item, per oculum intelligitur fides; unde si simplex est, ita quod tendat in Deum, idest non vacillet etc.; ad Rom. XIV, 23: quod non est ex fide peccatum est. Item, per oculum significatur praelatus, qui est oculus subditorum. Unde cum praelati boni dirigunt plebes, tota populi congregatio lucet virtutibus et cetera. Eccli. X, 2: secundum iudicem populi, sic et ministri eius. (23) If it is not sound, i.e., bleary and dim, your whole body will be full of darkness, i.e., all your works will be done after the manner of darkness. If then, the light in you is darkness, how great is the darkness! The light in you is the heart and mind. Therefore, if it is directed toward earth, all the man's senses will be directed toward earth. In another way it is explained of the spiritual eye; for light leads to proof, as man's reason: "The spirit of a man is the lamp of the Lord" (Pr 20:27). Hence if your eye is sound, such that your reason is directed by God, your whole body will be full of light, i.e., all your members will be preserved from sin; if it is not, they will be involved in works of darkness. Or, full of light in the resurrection of the just: "Then the just will shine as the sun" (Mt 13:43). By the eye is also signified intention. Hence one who wills to act intends something; therefore, if your intention is full of light, i.e., directed to God, your whole body, i.e., your actions will be full of light. And this is understood of things absolutely good. Again, by eye is understood faith; hence if it is sound, so that it tends toward God, i.e., does not waver... "Whatever does not proceed from faith is sin" (Rom 14:23). Finally, by eye is signified prelate, who is the eye of his subjects. Hence, when good prelates direct the people, the entire assembly grows with virtues and so on: "Like the judge of the people, so are his ministers" (Sir 10:2). Sequitur nemo potest duobus dominis servire et cetera. Quia dixerat quod thesaurizatio distrahit a Deo, ideo fugienda dicitur, quia non solum distrahit, sed alienat a Deo, quia nemo potest duobus dominis servire. Servus est qui ipsum quod est, alterius est; sed impossibile est quod animus feratur ad duos fines simul et semel (dico contrarios et dissentientes). Item nota quod quidam dominantur, ut subditi dirigantur; quidam autem, ut timeantur. Dominus et divitiae sunt contrarii domini; ideo non potestis Deo servire et mammonae. Sed nota quod aliud est habere divitias ut dominus, aliud ut servus: habet enim ut dominus, qui bene utitur illis, et inde facit fructum; sed ille est servus divitiarum, qui fructum inde non accipit; Eccle. V, 12: est aliud malum quod vidi sub sole: divitiae conservatae in malum domini sui. Omne autem in quo quis ponit finem suum, Deus suus est. Unde qui ponit finem suum in divitiis, Deus suus est, sicut dicitur de illis quorum Deus venter est, Phil. III, 19. Non potestis Deo servire et mammonae. Per mammonam potest intelligi Diabolus, qui praeest divitiis, et quasi Deus suus est; non quia possit dare, sed quia nititur divitiis homines decipere. Unde sicut est quidam spiritus fornicationis, sic est spiritus divitiarum. Aliter exponit Augustinus: nemo potest etc. scilicet contrariis. Sed Deus et Diabolus contrarii sunt. Quae conventio Christi ad Belial? II ad Cor. VI, 15, et in Lib. III Reg. c. XVIII, 21: quid claudicatis in duas partes? Et sequitur aut unum sustinebit, idest Diabolum. Et non dicit, diliget, quia Diabolus naturaliter diligi non potest. Deus naturaliter diligitur; Diabolus vero sustinetur, sicut ponit exemplum Augustinus: si aliquis cupit ancillam alicuius, servit ei amore ancillae, non ipsius: unde sustinet servitium domini propter ancillam; sic aliquis sustinet servitium Diaboli propter divitias. (24) He continues, No man can serve two masters. Because he had said that piling up riches distracts from God, it should be avoided, because it not only distracts but estranges from God, since no man can serve two masters. A servant is one who, as such, is another's; but it is impossible for the mind to be borne to two ends at the same time (I mean contrary and conflicting ends). Note also that some rule, so that their subjects be directed; but some, so that they be feared. The Lord and riches are contrary masters; therefore, you cannot serve God and mammon. But note that it is one thing to have riches as a master and another as a servant. For he has them as a master who uses them well and acquires fruit from them; but a servant of riches is one who receives no fruit from them: "There is another evil which I have seen under the sun: riches were kept by their owner to his hurt" (Ec 5:13). Now everything in which a person places his end is his god. Hence, one who places his end in riches is his own god, as is said of those "whose god is their belly" (Phil 3:19). You cannot serve God and mammon. By mammon can be understood the devil, who presides over riches and is, as it were, his own god; not because he can give, but because he tries to deceive men by riches. Hence as there is a spirit of fornication, so there is a spirit of riches. Augustine explains it another way: No man can serve..., i.e., contrary. But God and the devil are contrary: "What accord has Christ with Belial?" (1 Cor 6:15); "How long will you go limping in two different directions? " (1 Kg 18:21). And he continues: He will be devoted to [uphold] the one, i.e., the devil. He does not say "love", because the devil cannot naturally be loved. God is naturally loved; but the devil is upheld, as Augustine's example shows: If someone desires another's handmaid, he serves him on her account, not his. Hence he upholds the service of the Lord on the handmaid's account In the same way one upholds the service of the devil for the sake of riches. Item posset aliquis dicere: non pono finem in divitiis superfluis, sed necessariis. Et hoc prohibet dominus dicens ideo dico: ne solliciti sitis animae vestrae etc., non quia anima manducet, sed quia homini convenit, anima existente in eo. Vel animae, idest vitae animae. Et destruit hic error Euticharum, qui dicebant quod viri apostolici non debebant laborare. Sed hos reprehendit Paulus dicens II Thess. III, 10: qui non vult laborare, non manducet. Secundum ergo apostolum omnes tenentur. (25) Someone could say: I do not put my end in superfluous riches, but necessary. But the Lord forbids this: Therefore, I say, do not be solicitous about your life..., not because life [the soul] eats, but because it befits man, in whom the soul exists. This destroys Eutyches' error who said that apostolic men should not labor. Bug Paul rejects this in 2 Thessalonians (3:10): "He that does not work, let him not eat." According to the Apostle, therefore, all are bound. Sed quaero, aut est consilium, aut praeceptum. Si praeceptum, ergo omnes tenentur; si consilium, constat quod non omnes, quia ad consilia non tenentur nisi homines perfecti. Dico quod aliquid est praeceptum propter se, aliquid propter aliud: ut cum aliquis cepit crucem ut eat ultra mare, quod eat ultra mare tenetur, sed non potest ire nisi quaerat navem: unde quaerere navem est ei necessarium. Sic omnes tenentur ad conservandum vitam, ideo tenentur ad omnia quae faciunt ad istum finem; unde tenetur quilibet qui non habet unde conservet vitam, laborare ut conservet. But I ask: Is it a counsel or a precept? If a precept, then all are bound; if a counsel, then not all, because only perfect men are bound by the counsels. I answer that something is a precept on its own account, something on account of something else; as when someone joined the crusaders to go across the sea, then he is bound to cross the sea, which he cannot cross, unless he finds a ship. Hence, it is necessary for him to find a ship. In like manner, all are bound to preserve their lives; therefore, they are bound to everything they do for that end. Hence, everyone who does not have the means to preserve his life is bound to work, in order to preserve it. Quid ergo dicit nolite solliciti esse? et cetera. Dicendum quod sollicitudo nominat providentiam cum studio; studium autem est vehemens applicatio animi. In ista autem vehementi applicatione potest esse peccatum, quando scilicet ponit animum ibi ut ad finem; et sic non debemus solliciti esse. Et ideo habetur Prov. XI, 7: expectatio sollicitorum peribit. Item potest esse quod mens intendat ad superflua acquirenda: et sic prohibetur, ut habetur Eccle. II, 1: dixi ego in corde: vadam, et affluam divitiis. Item sollicitudo potest esse, quia animus nimis sollicitatur ad temporalia acquirenda et necessaria: et de hoc habetur I ad Cor. II. Item quidam solliciti sunt cum quodam timore et desperatione, quia timent sibi deficere; et haec sollicitudo prohibetur. Why, therefore, does he say: Do not be solicitous...? The answer is that solicitude is timely care with study; but study is the intense application of the mind. But there can be sin in that intense application, namely, when it places the mind in that state as an end. This is the sense in which we should not be solicitous. Therefore, it says in Proverbs (11:7): "The expectation of the solicitous comes to naught." It can also happen that the mind aims at acquiring superfluities. Then it is forbidden, as it says in Ec (2:1): "I said in my heart: 'I will go and abound in riches.'" Again, solicitude can exist when the mind is over-attracted to acquiring temporal and necessary things, and this is mentioned in 1 Cor (c. 2). Finally, some are solicitous along with being fearful and despairing, because they fear being in want. This solicitude is forbidden. Sequitur nonne anima plus est quam esca? Docuit vitare sollicitudinem etiam necessariorum. Ponit rationes. Et primo talem: qui dedit maiora, dabit minora; sed Deus dedit animam et corpus; ergo qui dedit haec, servabit ea. He continues: Is not life more than food...? He taught us to avoid solicitude even for necessities. The first reason is this: the one who gave greater things will give the lesser; but God gave the soul and the body. Therefore, if he gave them, he will preserve them. Respicite volatilia caeli et cetera. Est haec alia ratio. Qui providet minoribus, providebit maioribus; sed Deus providet brutis; ergo et cetera. Primo deducit in cibo; secundo in vestimento. Docet ergo vitare sollicitudinem, dicens respice, idest considerate, volatilia caeli, quia ex his est sapientia; unde Iob XII, 7: interroga iumenta, et docebunt. Unde cum non habeant operationem ad acquirendum panem, attamen et cetera. Et tria dicit quoad tria quae requiruntur, scilicet serere, metere et congregare. Et quantum ad hoc tria dicit non serunt, neque metunt, neque congregant in horrea, et tamen pater vester caelestis pascit illa. Et dicit vester, non illorum, quia proprie pater est rationalis creaturae. Pascit ea, de quo in Psalmo CXLVI, 9: qui dat iumentis escam ipsorum et cetera. Nonne vos magis pluris estis illis? Idest maioris valoris? Homo enim omnibus praeponitur, ut habetur Gen. I, 26: faciamus hominem etc.; et sequitur, ut praesit piscibus maris, et volatilibus caeli. Et non est intelligendum quin apostolici viri non congregent, sed est intelligendum, quod Deus in congregatione a tribulatione liberat iustos, ut Danielem liberavit de lacu leonum, et tres pueros de fornace. Et non dico, quod existentes in tribulatione non debeant facere ut eruantur, quia praecepit dominus ut ex una civitate fugerent in aliam; sed est intelligendum, quod si faciant iusti quod in se est, quod liberabit eos dominus. Et ista exempla inducuntur ad sciendum quod dominus habet providentiam de omnibus, et dat unicuique secundum modum suum: avibus enim dedit quomodo necessaria acquirerent: dedit enim eis naturalem instinctum quo moverentur ad inquirendum unde viverent; ideo non debemus esse nos nimis solliciti. (26) Look at the birds of the air... This is another reason: One who takes care of the lesser things will provide for the greater; but God provides for animals. Therefore... First, he instructs us concerning food; secondly, clothing. He teaches, therefore, to avoid solicitude, saying, look at, i.e., consider, the birds of the air, because there is wisdom from them: "Ask the beasts and they will teach you; the birds of the air and they will tell you" (Jb 12:7). Hence, although they have no action for acquiring bread, nevertheless... And he says three things in regard to the three things required, namely, to sow, to reap, to gather. Regarding these three he says, They neither sow, nor reap, nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. He says, your, not their, because he is properly the Father of the rational creature. He feeds them, as the Psalmist says (147:9): "He gives to the beats their food." Are you not of more value than they? For man is placed ahead of them: "Let us make man.." and it continues, "and let him rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air" (Gen 1:2;6). It is not to be supposed that apostolic men do not gather, but that God in gathering frees the just from trouble, as he freed Daniel from the lions' den and the three boys from the fiery furnace. And I do not say that persons in trouble should not do all they can to free themselves, because the Lord commanded them to flee from one city into another; but it is to be understood as meaning that if they do what they can, God will free them. And those examples are cited to teach that the Lord's providence includes all and grants to each according to its own manner; for he gave to the birds the ability to acquire their essentials, for he gave them a natural instinct by which they are moved to obtain their needs for living. Therefore, we should not be over-solicitous. Quis autem vestrum cogitans potest adiicere ad staturam suam cubitum unum? Hic probat experimento, quod sicut providet avibus, ita et nobis: quaedam enim est pars animae quae subiacet rationi, ut motiva et sensitiva: quaedam quae non, ut augmentativa et nutritiva; et in his convenit homo cum brutis; et sicut providet brutis in augmento et nutrimento, sic et hominibus. Unde augmentum non est nobis ex nobis, sed ex Deo: unde de providentia Dei non debetis desperare. (27) And which of you by being anxious can add one cubit to his stature? Here he proves by experience that as he provides for the birds, so for us. For there is a part of the soul which is subject to reason, such as the motive and sensitive faculty; and another which is not, as the growth and nutritive faculty (in this, man is like the brute; and as he provides for the brutes in the growth and nutritive faculty, so also for man. Hence, growth is not in us from ourselves but form God. Consequently, we should not lose trust in God's providence. Considerate lilia agri et cetera. Instruxit nos de cibo, modo de vestimento: unde habentes alimenta, et quibus tegamur, his contenti sumus. Dicit ergo considerate lilia agri. Consideratio creaturarum debet esse ad laudem Dei; Ps. CXLII, 5: meditabor in omnibus operibus tuis et cetera. Non laborant, neque nent: ad vestimentum enim requiritur et opus virorum, et mulierum. Ideo ad amovendum opus virorum dicit non laborant; ad excludendum opus mulierum dicit neque nent. Dico enim quod neque Salomon in omni gloria sua coopertus est sicut unum ex istis, quia etsi ars imitetur naturam, non tamen consequitur. Unde numquam ars faceret colores ita puros, sicut in natura fiunt in floribus. Et dicit in gloria, quia inter notos apud Iudaeos Salomon gloriosior fuit; et tamen vestimentum non potuit ita adaptari ei sicut lilio. Item dicit Chrysostomus, quod lilium habet ista sine sollicitudine; Salomon autem saltem oportuit praecipere. Hieronymus retorquet ad resurrectionem, quia per lilia Angeli: et sicut Angeli non indigent vestimento, sic in resurrectione, qui reformabit corpus, providebit de vestimento. (28) Consider the lilies of the field... He instructed us about food, now about clothing; hence "having food and clothing, with these we are content" (1 Tim 6:8). He says, therefore, Consider the lilies of the field. Meditation on his creatures should lead to praise of God: "I will meditate on all his works" (Ps 148:5). They neither toil nor spin, for vesture requires the labor of men and women. Therefore, to exclude the labor of men he says, they do not labor; to exclude the labor of women, nor spin. (29) Even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as one of these, because even though art imitates nature, it does not attain it. Hence, art can never make colors as pure as nature makes them in flowers. And he says, in glory, because among the famous men among the Jews Solomon was the most glorious; and yet clothing could not be provided him as it is for the lily. Chrysostom: He says that the lily has this without solicitude, but Solomon at least had to issue orders. Jerome refers to the resurrection, because by the lilies are signified angels; and as the angels do not need clothing, so in the resurrection the one who will reform the body will provide for the clothing. Si enim foenum agri et cetera. Hic commutat lilium in foenum, et argumentatur, quia si minoribus providet, providebit et nobis, qui potiores sumus quoad dignitatem substantiae, quia nos super ista sumus. Item quoad durationem, quia nos aeterni quoad animam, istud vero hodie est, et cras in clibanum mittitur et cetera. Is. XL, 7: exsiccatum est foenum, et cecidit flos. Item quoad finem: quia homo est propter beatitudinem, foenum vero propter usum hominis; Ps. CXLVI, 8: qui producit in montibus foenum et herbam servituti hominum et cetera. Et ad vilem usum, scilicet ut in clibanum mittatur quoad aliquas terras, ubi fit ignis de stipulis. Et si hoc sic vestit, idest dat necessarium ornatum, quanto magis vos modicae fidei? Vel sic: ut per foenum intelligantur infideles. Si ergo infidelibus, qui parati sunt ad clibanum ignis, multo magis electis. (30) But if God so clothes the grass of the field. here he turns from lilies to grass and argues that if he provides for lesser things, he will also provide for us, who are greater in the order of essence, because we are above all these. Likewise, as to duration, because we are eternal in regard to our soul, but that is alive and tomorrow is thrown into the oven... "The grass withers, the flower fades" (Is 40:7). Likewise, as to the end, because man lives for happiness, the grass for man's use: "He makes grass grow upon the hills, and herbs for men's use" (Ps 147:8); and for a mean use, namely, to be cast into the oven, where fire is made from the stubble. And if he so clothes this, i.e., gives them their necessary adornment, how much more you, O men of little faith? Or, another way: by grass is understood unbelievers. If, therefore, unbelievers, who are prepared for the oven of fire, are taken into account by God, much more the elect. Nolite ergo solliciti esse et cetera. Hic concludit de utraque; et debes exponere sollicitudinem quatuor modis, ut superius dictum est. Vel sic. Si vivis in aliqua societate, non sis sollicitus de cibo ampliori, vel vestimentis amplioribus, immo esto in eis quasi unus ex eis. Haec enim omnia gentes inquirunt, quia ibi ponunt finem, quia credunt in eis esse beatitudinem. Et si hoc non credant, ponunt ibi magnam sollicitudinem, quia non credunt providentiam divinam. (31) Therefore, do not be anxious. Here he concludes about both, and you should understand [solicitude] anxiety in the four ways mentioned above. Or, another way: If you live in any society, do not be solicitous about more adequate food or clothing, but live among them as one of them. For the Gentiles seek all these things, because they put their trust in them, because they suppose that happiness lies in them. And if they do not believe this, they expend great care concerning them, because they do not believe in God's providence. Et quia in ordinatione ad finem duo requiruntur, scilicet scientia et voluntas, dicit scit enim pater vester quia his omnibus indigetis. Unde, scit quia Deus: item, quia pater, vult. Quid ergo facietis? Dicit tria. (32) And since in aligning things to their end, two things are required, namely, understanding and will, he says, your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. Hence he knows, because he is God; and being a Rather, he wills. What, then, shall you do? He mentions three things: Primum quaerite regnum Dei, tamquam finem, quia regnum est beatitudo. Regnum dicitur a regendo: tunc enim homo regitur, quando voluntati regentis subditur; hoc autem erit in caelo; unde Lc. XIV, 15: beatus qui manducat panem in regno Dei. Item iustitia perducit ad regnum; Prov. VIII, 20: in viis iustitiae ambulo, in medio semitarum iudicii, ut ditem diligentes me, et thesauros eorum repleam et cetera. Et ideo dicit et iustitiam eius. Et dicit eius, et non hominis, quia per iustitiam propriam nullus potest venire ad regnum. Tertio dicit et haec omnia adiicientur vobis, quasi, ultra forum haec adiicientur; Prov. c. X, 3: non affliget dominus fame animam iusti. Non ergo debeamus haec temporalia quaerere; et hoc verum est tamquam finem, aut mercedem. Unde non debemus evangelizare ut comedamus, sed potius e converso. (33) Seek first the kingdom of God as your end, because the kingdom is happiness. "Kingdom:" is derived from "ruling": for a man is ruled, when he is subjected to the will of the ruler; but this will be in heaven: "Happy is he who eats bread in the kingdom of God" (Lk 14:15); "I will walk in the way of righteousness, in the path of justice, endowing with wealth those who love me, and filling their treasuries" (Pr 8:20) Therefore, he says, and his righteousness [justice], because no one can reach the kingdom by his own righteousness. Thirdly, he says, and all these things will be added to you, as though they will be added independently of the market place: "The Lord will not afflict the life of the just man with hunger" (Pr 10:3). Therefore, we should not seek these temporal things; and this is true as an end or a reward. Hence, we should not preach in order to eat, but rather the converse. Sed contra hoc obiicit Augustinus de Paulo, quia dicit: in fame, et siti, et nuditate laboravi. Et respondet quod sicut medicus aliquando abstrahit cibum et potum infirmo, ut curet eum, sic dominus, qui habet providere, permittit hominem pati, vel ut curetur, si curanda sunt aliqua, vel ut alii exemplum recipiant. But Augustine objects against this from Paul, 2 Corinthians (11:27): "In hunger and thirst and nakedness I have labored." And he answers that as a physician sometimes deprives a sick person of food and drink to cure him, so the Lord, who can provide, permits a man to suffer either to cure him, if something needs curing, or to enable others to receive good example. Nolite ergo solliciti esse in crastinum. Sed hoc non videtur, quia nullus tenetur ad maiorem perfectionem, quam Christus et apostoli. Sed Christus habuit loculos: apostoli etiam congregabant. Augustinus exponit sic in crastinum, idest futurum, cogitando nimis de temporalibus, scilicet ibi finem ponendo, vel etiam superflua congregando. Vel, secundum Hieronymum nolite solliciti esse in crastinum, verum est de his quae ad Deum pertinent, faciendo quae in nobis sunt: non enim debemus dimittere laborare, si timeamus de pluvia, vel huiusmodi quae ad Deum pertinent. Vel sic. Nolite illam sollicitudinem quam debetis in futuro habere, accipere in praesenti, sicut tempore messium accipere curam de vindemiis non est competens. Quare? Sufficit enim diei malitia sua, idest tribulatio et angustia, quam habet homo in die, sufficere debet ei; non autem accipere eam quam debet habere in futuro et cetera. (34) Therefore, do not be anxious about tomorrow. But this appears unseemly, because on one is bound to greater perfection than Christ and the apostles. But Christ has a purse, and the apostles accumulated things. Augustine explains it thus: About tomorrow, i.e., the future, by worrying overmuch about temporal things, namely, by placing one's end in them, or even by accumulating superfluities. Or, according to Jerome, Do not be anxious about tomorrow is true of things that refer to God, so that we do what is in our power; for we should not neglect work, if we fear about rain or things of that sort, which depend on God. Or, in this way: Do not have that anxiety in the present which you should have for the future, as in the time of reaping it is not fitting to be solicitous about the harvest. Why? Sufficient for the day is the evil thereof, i.e., the troubles and difficulties a man has during the day should be enough for him, and he should not add those he might have in the future.