|Dixit insipiens in corde suo, Non est Deus. Corrupti sunt et abominabiles facti sunt in studiis suis: non est qui faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum.||The fool has said in his heart, There is no God. They have been corrupted and made abominable in their pursuits: there are none that do good, not even one.
||Dominus de caelo prospexit super filios hominum, ut videat si est intelligens, aut requirens Deum. Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt: non est qui faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum.
||The Lord has looked down from heaven upon the sons of men to see if there are any who understand or seek God. They have all turned away, and together have become useless: there are none that do good, not even one.
||Sepulcrum patens est guttur eorum: linguis suis dolose agebant, venenum aspidum sub labiis eorum.
||Their throat is an open grave: with their tongues they have acted deceitfully, the poison of asps is under their lips.
||Quorum os maledictione et amaritudine plenum est; veloces pedes eorum ad effundendum sanguinem.
||Their mouth is filled with curses and bitterness; their feet are quick to shed blood.
||Contritio et infelicitas in viis eorum, et viam pacis non cognoverunt; non est timor Dei ante oculos eorum.
||In their ways are destruction and unhappiness, and they have not known the way of peace; there is no fear of God before their eyes.
||Nonne cognoscent omnes qui operantur iniquitatem, qui devorant plebem meam sicut escam panis? Dominum non invocaverunt, illic trepidaverunt timore ubi non erat timor. Quoniam Dominus in generatione iusta est, consilium inopis confudistis; quoniam Dominus spes eius est.
||Will they not understand, all those who work iniquity, who devour my people as though they were eating bread? They have not called upon the Lord: there they have trembled for fear, where there was no fear. For the Lord is among a just generation: you have confounded the counsel of the poor man, but the Lord is his hope.
||Quis dabit ex Syon salutare Israel? cum averterit Dominus captivitatem plebis suae, exultabit Iacob, et laetabitur Israel.
||Who will bring out of Sion salvation for Israel? when the Lord turns away the captivity of his people, Jacob shall exult, and Israel shall be glad.
||Supra Psalmist exprobravit dolositatem inimicorum; hic ponit eorum malitiam. Titulus, In finem Psalmus David. Et circa hoc duo facit. Primo manifestat eorum malitiam. Secundo ponit spem liberationis suae ab eis, ibi, Nonne cognoscent etc. Et circa primum duo facit. Primo proponit eorum malitiam. Secundo certificat hanc malitiam eis inesse, ibi, Dominus de caelo etc. Prima in duo. Primo proponit radicem malitiae eorum. Secundo processum malitiae, Corrupti sunt etc. sicut dicitur Eccl. 10. Initium omnis peccati superbia, et initium superbiae hominis apostatare a Deo. Quod homo ergo non habeat Deum in corde, principium malitiae est; et ideo dicit, Dixit insipiens in corde suo, non est Deus: Sap. 1. In malevolam animam non introibit sapientiae, aut habitabit in corpore subdito peccatis.
||In the previous Psalm, the Psalmist condemned the deceitfulness of his enemies. Here he considers their malice. The title is Unto the end, a Psalm for David. And in connection with this he does two things. First, he clearly demonstrates their malice. Second, he expresses his hope that he will be liberated from them, therein, Shall not all they know etc. And in connection with the first aspect he does two things. First, stipulates their malice. Second, he verifies that this malice dwells within them, therein, The Lord [hath looked down from] from heaven etc. He accomplishes the first task in two ways. First of all, he sets forth the basis of their malice. Second, the manner in which their malice proceeds, They are corrupt etc. Just as it is said in Sir 10:14-15, For pride is the beginning of all sin, and the beginning of the pride of man is to fall off from God. So it is that malice begins when a man does not have God in his heart; and this is why he says, The fool hath said in his heart: There is no God. Wis 1:4 says, for wisdom will not enter into a malicious soul, nor dwell in a body subject to sins.
||Sed numquid potest dicere? Dicere in corde est cogitare. Sed numquid potest cogitare Deum non esse? Anselmus dicit, quod nullus potest. Item Damascenus. Cognitio Dei naturaliter omnibus est inserta: naturaliter cognita nullus potest cogitare non esse.
||Is it possible to say this, however? To speak in one's heart is to think. Yet is it possible to conceive of God as not existing? Anselm says that no one is capable of doing this, and Damascene says the same. For the concept of God is naturally implanted in all of us. And that which is naturally conceived of, no one is able to conceive of as not existing.
||Sed sciendum, quod de cognitione Dei dupliciter loqui possumus, scilicet secundum se, vel quod nos. Si primo modo, sic procul dubio non potest cogitari non esse: nulla enim propositio potest cogitari falsa ex sua natura, cuius praedicatum includitur in definitione subiecti. Notandum est autem, quod in Deo est aliter esse quam in aliis, quia esse Dei est eius substantia. Ergo qui dicit Deum secundum se, dicit ipsum esse: et ideo secundum se non potest cogitari non esse, et verbum Damasceni solvitur: quia quod naturaliter insertum est, indeterminate scitur, scilicet quod Deus sit, sed non idem, quod Deus, sed per fidem habetur: Deus dicitur a theos quod est ardere omnem malitiam. Tunc ergo dicit aliquis, quod non est Deus, quando cogitat quod non est omnipotens: et quod non habet curam rerum humanarum: Iob 21. Quis est omnipotens ut serviamus ei? Potest referri ad Iudaeos dicentes Christum hominem purum esse, non Deum: Io. 10. Tu homo cum sis, facis teipsum Deum. Qui Iudaei, non credentes ipsum qui promissus erat in lege, dicunt, Non est Deus, iste scilicet qui nobis praedicat. Et hoc dixit, Insipiens, quia Dei sapientiam recipere noluerunt habentes oculos mentis excaecatos: Ps. 81. Nescierunt neque intellexerunt: Sap. 2. Excaecavit enim eos malitia eorum.
||Nevertheless, one should know that we can speak of the conception of God in two ways. That is, according to himself, or with respect to ourselves. If it is in the first manner, there is thus no doubt that he cannot be conceived of as not existing. Indeed, no proposition whose predicate is included in the definition of the subject can be conceived of as false by its own nature. It must be noted, however, that existence in the case of God is of a different order than it is with others, since the being of God is his substance. Therefore, anyone who speaks of God according to himself speaks of being itself. Hence, with respect to himself he cannot be conceived of as not existing. And this is solved by the discourse of Damascene. For what is naturally implanted is indeterminately known, namely that God exists. But this is not the same thing as knowing what God is, since that is only grasped by faith. God is called 'a theos,' which is the burning of all malice. Someone says that there is no God at that time when he thinks that he is not omnipotent, and that he has no concern for human affairs; Job 21:15, Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him? This can refer to the Jews who say that Christ is merely human, and not God; Jn 10:33, because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. And so the Jews, not believing that he was the one promised in the law, declare, There is no God, namely this one who is preaching to us. And on this account he said, The fool, for as the eyes of their mind are blind they did not want to accept the wisdom of God; Ps 81:5, They have not known nor understood. And Wis 2:21, for their own malice blinded them.
||Vel hic reprehenditur peccator. Primo de peccato cordis in consensu, ibi, Dixit insipiens. Secundo peccato operis, ibi, Corrupti sunt. Tertio peccato consuetudinis, ibi, Et abominabiles. Primo vocat peccatorem insipientem, quia sapientiam non habet, ut dicit etc. Item quia non sapiunt ei spiritualia: 1 Cor. 2. Animalis homo non percipit quae Dei sunt. Consequenter ponitur processus malitiae, Corrupti sunt et abominabiles. Sicut duae partes iustitiae sunt facere bonum, et vitare malum, sic iniustitiae duae partes sunt, facere malum, et vitare bonum. Et primo ponit primam partem. Secundo secundam. Circa primam duo ponit. Primo perversitatem vitiorum. Secundo abominationem eorum. In corporibus sequitur corruptio per exhalationem naturalis caloris expulsi ab extraneo calore: calor namque naturalis animae est amor Dei. Quando ergo subintrat extraneus amor concupiscentiae, et aliorum peccatorum, recedit Deus. Et ideo cum dixit, Non est Deus, statim subdit, Corrupti sunt: Hier. 5. Negaverunt Deum, et dixerunt non est ipse, scilicet peccatorum damnator, iustorum remunerator: Eccl. 21. Cor fatui, scilicet peccatoris, quasi vas confractum,
||Or perhaps the sinner is rebuked here. First, concerning the sin of his heart in consent, therein, The fool hath said. Second, with respect to sinful deeds, therein, They are corrupt. Third, regarding the sinful habits, therein, And are become abominable. First of all, he calls the sinner a fool, because he does not possess wisdom, as he says etc. Likewise, because they do not understand spiritual things; 1 Cor 2:14, The sensual man perceiveth not these things that are of the Spirit of God. Consequently, he sets forth the manner in which their malice proceeds: They are corrupt and are become abominable. Just as the two aspects of righteousness are doing good and abolishing evil, so the two aspects of unrighteousness are doing evil and abolishing goodness. He considers the primary aspect first; and the secondary aspect follows. With regard to the first aspect he establishes two points: first of all, the baseness of vices, and secondly, their abomination. In bodies corruption results from the exhalation of the natural heat expelled by extraneous heat. For indeed, the natural heat of the soul is the love of God. So it is that whenever the extraneous love of concupiscence, or that of other sins, enters in, it turns away from God.
||Corrupti ergo sunt, peccatores per malum actum: Io. 3. Erant autem eorum mala opera: quia postquam per consensum amittunt bona gratuita, corrumpuntur in eis naturalia; et ideo sequitur eos poena: Ps. 96. Ignis ante ipsum praecedet, et inflammabit in circuitu inimicos eius. Item quando corpus putrescit, redditur abominabile. Sic anima hominis quamdiu amor Dei est in ea, est Deo accepta; sed quando corrumpitur per peccatum, fit abominabilis. Abominabile est, quod humanus appetitus refugit:
||Therefore, when he says, There is no God, he immediately adds, They are corrupt; Jer 5:12, They have denied the Lord, and said, It is not he. That is, the one who condemns sinners and rewards the righteous; Sir 21:17, The heart of a fool, namely of a sinner, is like a broken vessel. Therefore, it is through their evil actions that sinners are corrupt. Jn 3:19 states, their works were evil, because after they had consented to discard the freely given good things, their natural capacities were then corrupted within them. This is why punishment follows them; Ps 96:3, A fire shall go before him, and shall burn his enemies round bout. Likewise, when a body rots it is rendered abominable. So it is that as long as the love of God abides in a man's soul he is acceptable to God. But when he is corrupted by sin he becomes abominable, for it is abominable that the human appetites strive to avoid him.
||et ideo dicit, Et abominabiles facti sunt, scilicet Deo et hominibus peccatores per consuetudinem peccandi: Hier. 2 Quam vilis facta es nimis, iterans vias tuas? Osee 9. Alienati sunt in confusione, et facti sunt abominabiles, sicut ea quae dilexerunt. Et dixit, In studiis, quia per ea deveniunt abominabilia. Vel studiose faciunt secundum Hieronymum. Plus enim abominatur Deus studosam voluntatem peccandi, quam ipsum peccatum: Iob 34. Quasi de industria recesserunt ab eo: et vias eius intelligere noluerunt. Alia litera habet, Corrumpunt et abominati sunt studium, scilicet sapientiae et disciplinae: Prov. 1. Exosam habuerunt disciplinam, et timorem Domini non susceperunt: Ezec. 8. Adhuc videbis abominationes maiores. Consequenter agit de vitatione boni, Non est qui faciat bonum, quia non est iustus in terra qui faciat bonum, et non peccet, Eccl. 7. Usque ad unum, idest Christum, quia ipse solus nec peccatum contractum habuit, nec commissum. Beata Virgo habuit contractum peccatum: Eccl. 7. Virum de mille unum reperi, mulierem ex omnibus non inveni. Vel, Usque ad unum, quia nec unus est qui perfecte faciat bonum. Verum est, supposito quod dixerunt, Non est Deus, Et corrupti sunt.
||Therefore, he says, They are become abominable. That is to say, sinners become abominable to God and men through their habit of sinning; Jer 2:36, How exceeding base art thou become, going the same ways over again! And Hos 9:10, They alienated themselves to that confusion, and become abominable, as those things were, which they loved. And he said, in their ways, because it is through these things that they became abominable. Or rather, they eagerly carried them out, according to Jerome. Surely God abhors the will that sins eagerly even more than he abhors sin itself; Job 34:27, Who as it were on purpose have revolted from him, and would not understand all his ways. Another text reads: They corrupted and abhorred their endeavor, namely that of wisdom and instruction; Prov 1:29, They have hated instruction, and received not the fear of the Lord; and Ezek 8:6, Thou shalt see greater abominations. Consequently, he discusses that abolition of the good: There is none that doth good. Eccl 7:21 says, For there is no just man upon earth, that doth good, and sinneth not. Even one, for that is Christ, since he alone had neither contracted sin, nor committed sin. The Blessed Virgin had contracted sin. Eccl 7:29 says, One man among a thousand I have found, a woman among them all I have not found. Or rather, Even one, because there is not one person who would do the good perfectly. The supposition which they have stated is true: There is no God, And they are corrupt.
||Dominus. Hic primo certificat culpam. Secundo exponit, ibi, Sepulcrum. Peccatum certificatur per iniquitatem; et ideo hic ponit Dei inquisitionem dicens, Vos dicitis quod non est Deus; sed falsum est, quia Dominus de caelo prospexit super filios hominum: Prov. 16. Omnes viae hominis patent oculis eius. Prospexit ergo mittendo filium suum Dominus Pater de caelo, idest de sinu pietatis suae: Isa. ult.: Caelum mihi sedes est. Vel de caelo, idest Christus per quem iudicabit peccatores. Vel aliter. Dicunt aliqui quod Deus non cognoscit singularia et mutabilia, quia est immaterialis et simplex et aeternus. Et sic non cognoscit secundum motus rerum, et secundum modum suae cognoscibilitatis. Respondetur: immo: quia cognoscit materialia immaterialiter, ut Dionysius concludit. Et ita etiam cognoscit intellectus: et ideo dicit De caelo, idest de altitudine suae dignitatis et naturae. Prospexit super filios hominum. Et vult invenire in nobis voluntate antecedente, qua vult omnes salvos fieri, id quod pertinet ad salutem, scilicet ut cognoscamus Deum per intellectum, et amemus per affectum, et desideremus. Et ideo dicit, Ut videre faciat, quia ipse semper videat, idest videt, Si est intelligens per intellectum: Deut. 33. Utinam saperent et intelligerent etc. Aut requirens Deum, per affectum. Quid inveniet, cum hic quaesivit contrarium? quia Omnes declinaverunt; et ponit tria, scilicet declinationem a Deo, inutilem operationem, et cessationem a bono. Dicit ergo, Omnes declinaverunt, scilicit a Deo: Deut. 21. Novi quod post mortem meam inique agetis, et declinabitis de via quam praecepi vobis: Osee 4. Non est veritas, non est scientia, non est misericordia Dei in terra: Hier. 8. Nemo quod bonum est loquitur, nullus est qui agat poenitentiam de peccato suo. Item ex hoc quod declinat a Deo, efficitur inutilis: quia illud est inutile, quod non attingit ad id, ad quod factum est. Homo autem factus est ad fruendum Deo: Sap. 4. Multigena impiorum multitudo non erit utilis. Unde dicit Simul inutiles facti sunt. Item cessant a bono, quia Non est qui faciat bonum etc. Hoc iam expositum est.
||Lord. Here he verifies their guilt. Second, he explains it, therein, Sepulcher. Sin is verified by wickedness. And it is for this reason that he sets forth God's inquiry here, stating: 'you are saying that there is no God. But this is false, because The Lord hath looked down from heaven upon the children of men.' Prov 16:2 says, all the ways of a man are open to his eyes. By the sending of his own Son, therefore, the Lord Father looks down from heaven, that is from the inmost part of his compassion; Is 66:1, Heaven is my throne. Or, from heaven may even refer to Christ, through whom he will judge sinners. Or perhaps it can be understood in yet another way. Now there are some who argue that God does not discern singular and mutable things, because he is immaterial, simple and eternal. And thus he does not discern in accordance with the movements of things, and in accordance with the manner of his own perceptibility. Yet I respond that, on the contrary, God does indeed discern material things, though he does so in an immaterial fashion, as Dionysius has concluded. Furthermore, he discerns intellects, and thus says, from heaven. That is to say, from the sublimity of his own dignity and nature. He hath looked down upon the children of men. For by means of the preceding will through which he desires that all people would be saved, he wishes to discover in us that which pertains to salvation, specifically that we would perceive him through our intellect, love him through our affections, and earnestly long for him. This is why he says, So that he would see. That is, to make us see, since he always sees. If there be any that understands, through the intellect; Deut. 32:29, O that they would be wise and would understand etc. And seek God, in their affections. What will he find when he has searched here? The very opposite, because they are all gone aside. And so he establishes three points: that they have turned away from God, that their actions are unprofitable, and that they have refrained from doing the good. Therefore, he says, they are all gone aside. That is to say, from God; Deut 31:29, For I know that after my death you will do wickedly and will quickly to turn aside from that I have commanded you; and Hos 4:1, For there is no truth, and there is no mercy, and there is no knowledge of God in the land; and Jer 8:6, No man speaketh what is good, there is none that doth penance for his sin. Likewise, someone who turns away from God in this manner produces what is unprofitable, because something is unprofitable when it does not attain the goal for which it was made. Man, however, was made for the purpose of enjoying God; Wis 4:3, But the multiplied brood of the wicked shall not be profitable. Whereupon he says, They are become unprofitable. Likewise, they refrain from what is good, because, there is none that doth good etc. This has already been explained.
||Sepulcrum. Hieronymus dicit, quod Apostolus utitur testimonio istorum versuum Sepulcrum patens est. Et invenitur alibi in sacra Scriptura Rom. 13. ubi dicit quod aliquam partem accepit ex Isa. 39. aliam ex aliis partibus psalterii, et non ex isto psalmo tantum, cum ipse Hebraeus esset, et sciret hoc in Hebraeo non haberi; habetur tamen meditatione vulgata, qua vulgus utitur, vel quae non attribuitur alicui certae personae. A sepulcro patenti exhalat foetor; et ideo supra psalmista certificavit malitiam, sive culpam inimicorum; hic autem exponit eam: et circa hoc duo facit. Primo ostendit, quomodo sunt peccatores inutiles aliis. Secundo quomodo sibi, ibi, Contritio et infelicitas. Circa primum duo proponit. Primo quomodo noceant aliis verbo. Secundo quomodo facto, ibi, Veloces etc. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ponit promptitudinem oris ad nocendum. Secundo modum nocendi, ibi, Linguis suis dolose agebant. Dicit ergo Sepulcrum patens est guttur eorum. Tale autem ad nihil aliud est paratum nisi ut recipiant cadavera, sic os eius, quod semper est paratum ad mortificandum per detractionem, est sepulcrum patens, Apoc. 9. De ore eorum procedebat ignis, et fumus, et sulphur. Vel nota voracitatem eorum, quia guttur servit etiam ad comestionem, sed quandoque nocent dolo, quandoque malitia, et quandoque iniuria. Et primo ponit dolum quem habent in lingua. Linguis suis exterius blande loquendo: Hier. 9. Sagitta vulnerans lingua eorum dolum locuta est; secundo in corde: Venenum aspidum sub labiis eorum. Occultatum venenum mortificativum est, sed venenum aspidum insanabile est, et incantari non potest: Ps. 57. Sicut aspidis surdae, et obturantis etc. cuius venenum dormiendo interficit: Hier. 5. Inventi sunt in populo meo impii insidiantes, quasi aucupes ad capiendos viros. Ibidem: Sicut decipula plena avibus, sic domus eorum plenae dolo, qui dulci sono attrahunt ad laqueum aves. In quo designatur crudelitas, et pertinacia, et malitia: crudelitas, quia nituntur occidere: pertinacia, quia semper odium est in corde ipsorum; et ideo dicit, Venenum etc.
||Sepulcher. Jerome states that the Apostle employs the testimony of these verses, open sepulcher etc. And it is found elsewhere in Holy Scripture. It is in Rom 3 where he says that he takes one part from Is 59, and another from parts of the Psalter. And not only from this Psalm, since he is himself a Hebrew, and thus would know that this is not contained within the Hebrew text. Nevertheless, it is found in the Vulgate edition which most people use, or that which is not definitively attributed to a particular person. Now a stench is exhaled from an open sepulcher; so the Psalmist verified their malice above, or the guilt of his enemies. Here, however, he explains it. And in connection with this he does two things. First, he demonstrates how sinners are unprofitable to others. Second, how they are unprofitable to themselves, therein, Destruction and unhappiness. Concerning the first point he proposes two aspects. First of all, the way in which they harm others with their speech. Second, how they do so by their actions, therein, Swift [feet] etc. With respect to the first he does two things. First, he states the willingness of their mouth to do harm. Second, the means of doing harm, therein, With their tongues they acted deceitfully. Therefore, he says, Their throat is an open sepulcher. Such a thing as this is prepared for nothing except the reception of a corpse. And in this way the mouth of a person who is always prepared to destroy someone with slander is an open sepulcher; Rev 9:17, and from their mouths proceeded fire and smoke and brimstone. Or if you prefer, one may consider their voraciousness, since the throat also serves to consume. But there are some times when they do harm through deceitfulness, some times when through malice, and still some other times through injury. And so he first considers the deceitfulness which they have on their tongue. Their tongues, by speaking outwardly in flattering tones; Jer 9:8, Their tongue is a piercing arrow, it hath spoken deceit. Second, there abides deceitfulness in their heart, The poison of asps is under their lips. Now hidden poison is deadly, but the poison of asps is even incurable, and incantations are ineffective; Ps 57:5, Like the deaf asp that stoppeth her ears etc., and whose poison kills by putting one to sleep. Jer 5:26 says, For among my people are found wicked men that lie in wait as fowlers, setting snares and traps to catch men, and again: As a net is full of birds, so their houses are full of deceit (Jer 5:27). For they lure the birds into their traps with pleasant sounds. In this way their cruelty, obstinance and malice is denoted: cruelty, because they endeavor to kill; obstinance, because hatred always abides in their hearts; and thus he says, Poison.
||Quorum. Hic ostendit quomodo aperte nocent, quia per verba detractoria: Et amaritudine, idest amara verba: Lev. 9. Non maledices surdo. Vel quando verba contra Deum dicit, provocativa ad iniuriam, vel iram: Isa. 5. Rugitus eius ut leonis. Veloces. Hic ostendit quomodo noceant facto, Ad effundendum sanguinem:Prov. 1. Pedes eorum ad malum currunt, et festinant ut effundant sanguinem.
||Their mouth [is full of] cursing. Here he demonstrates how they openly do harm, since they do so with their slanderous words. And bitterness. That is to say, scathing speech; Lev 19:14, Thou shalt not speak evil of the deaf. Or even, whenever one utters words against God, provoking injury or wrath; Is 5:29, Their roaring like that of a lion. [Their feet are ] Swift. He demonstrates here the manner in which they do harm through their deeds. To shed blood. Prov 1:16, For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.
||Contritio. Hic ostendit quomodo sint nocivi sibi ipsis. Dupliciter aliquis sibi nocet, perdendo scilicet bonum quod habet, et deficiendo ab eo quod sperat. Dicit ergo In viis eorum est contritio, quia conteritur bonum quod habent: et infelicitas, quia non perveniunt ad bonum speratum, scilicet felicitatem: Isa. 39. Vastitas et contritio in viis eorum, et viam pacis nescierunt, non est iudicium gressibus eorum. Vel contritio in mundo isto: infelicitas post mortem, quae felicitati est opposita: Iob 21. In diem perditionis servatur malus, et ad diem furoris ducetur: hoc provenit ex uno quod est contra dilectionem proximi, quia viam pacis non cognoverunt, scilicet quid sit. Vel viam pacis non cognoverunt, scilicet Christum, quia viae eius sunt viae pacis: Prov. 3. Viae eius, viae pulchrae. Non cognoverunt, quia ipsum Christum peccando occiderunt. Aliud contra dilectionem Dei; unde dicit, Non est timor Dei ante oculos eorum, et ex hoc peccant: quia ut dicitur Prov. 17. per timorem Domini declinat omnis homo a malo. Quia ergo hoc non habent, ideo sunt sepulcrum patens.
||Destruction. In this place he demonstrates the way in which they have done harm to themselves. Someone harms himself in a two ways: by destroying the good that he has, and by falling away from what he hopes for. He says, therefore, Destruction is in their ways, because they destroy the good which they have; and unhappiness, since they do not attain the good they had hoped for, namely happiness. Is 59:7-8 says, Wasting and destruction are in their ways. They have not known the way of peace, and their is no judgment in their steps. Or even, destruction in this world, and unhappiness after death, which is the very opposite of happiness; Job 21:30, Because the wicked man is reserved to the day of destruction, and he shall be brought to the day of wrath. This arises together with what is opposed to love of one's neighbor, because the way of peace they have not known, namely its true nature. Or perhaps, the way of peace they have not known refers to Christ, since his ways are the ways of peace; Prov 3:17, Her ways are beautiful ways, and all her paths are peaceable. They have not known, because by sinning they have killed Christ himself. For another way is contrary to the love of God; whereupon he says, There is no fear of God before their eyes. On this account they sin, because, as it is said in Prov 16:6, By the fear of the Lord men depart from evil. And since they do not have this fear they are an open sepulcher.
||Nonne. Hic agit de spe liberationis. Et primo ostendit, quod impii non habent spem: quia Nonne cognoscent. Secundo ostendit quae sit huiusmodi spes, ibi, Quis dabit ex Syon. Circa primum duo facit. Primo ostendit quod non cognoscent spem hanc. Secundo ponit signum, ibi, Consilium inopis. Movet primo quaestionem, et interponit in se culpam impiorum, et loquitur sic. Dico quod sunt sepulcrum patens, et quod non est Deus in corde eorum, sed nunquid cognoscent, quod Dominus est in generatione iusta? quasi dicat, hoc debent cognoscere, et quod Dominus sit in ea: Hier. 14. Tu autem in nobis es Domine, et nomen sanctum tuum etc. Ps. 21. Tu autem in sancto habitas laus Israel. Est ergo Dominus in eo sicut in templo. Et omnes qui operantur iniquitatem, scilicet quantum ad Deum: Et devorant plebem meam sicut escam panis, quantum ad proximos, quos devorant auferendo bona eorum: Zach. 11. Voret unusquisque carnem proximi sui: Mich. 2. Comederunt carnem populi mei, et pellem eorum desuper excoriaverunt: Eccles. 24. Panis egentium vita pauperis, qui defraudat illum, homo sanguinis est. Non invocaverunt Deum, idest non habent spem de Deo: Isa. 59. Deum non invocaverunt. Et sequitur ex hoc, quod habent securitatem, ideo dicit, Illic trepedaverunt etc. Prov. 28. Fugit impius nemine persequente; Iob 15. Sonitus terroris semper in auribus illius, et pax cum sit illi, semper insidias suspicatur. Sed qui invocant Deum salvantur: Ioel 3. Omnes qui invocaverunt nomen Domini, salvi erunt: Prov. 18. Turris fortissima nomen Domini. Non ergo tales cognoscent, Dominus in generatione iusta est. Et ostendit quod non, per signum, quia Confudisti consilium inopis, idest confusibilem reputastis, et blasphemastis quantum in vobis est, et hoc est consilium inopis, ut sciat quoniam Dominus spes eius est: Ps. 21. Speravit in Domino, eripiat eum, salvum faciat eum, quoniam vult eum: Matth. 27. qui dicit, Si vis perfectus esse etc. Item. 19. Hoc consilium semper divites contemnunt: Prov. 1. Despexistis omne consilium meum, et increpationes meas neglexistis. Et unde? Quoniam Dominus spes eius est, quia non habent in mundo unde sperent nisi in Deo, qui spes sanctorum est.
||Shall not. Here he discusses his hope of liberation. And he first demonstrates that the wicked have no hope, because Shall not they know. Second, he demonstrates what sort of hope this would be, therein, Who shall give out of Zion. With respect to the first he does two things. First of all, he demonstrates that they do not know hope. Second, he stipulates a sign, therein, The counsel of the poor man. First, he produces the question, and then he interposes the guilt of the wicked found within themselves. He speaks in the following way: 'I say that they are an open sepulcher, and that there is no God in their heart;' But shall they not know that the Lord is in the just generation? It is as if he were to say, 'they ought to know this and, moreover, that the Lord abides within it.' For Jer 14:9 states, But thou, O Lord, art among us, and thy name etc.; and Ps 21:4, But thou dwellest in the holy place, the praise of Israel. The Lord, therefore, abides within it, just as in the temple. All that work iniquity. That is to say, insofar as it concerns God. Who devour my people as they eat bread, insofar as it concerns their neighbors whom they devour by taking away their goods; Zech 11:9, Let the rest devour every one the flesh of his neighbor; and Mic 3:3, Who have eaten the flesh of my people, and have flayed their skin from off them; and Sir 34:25, The bread of the needy is the life of the poor; whoever defraudeth them thereof is a man of blood. They have not called upon God. That is to say, they have no hope in God; Is 59:13, We went not after our God. And it follows from this that they have no security; therefore, he says, They trembled for fear etc. Prov 28:1 states, The wicked man fleeth, when no man pursueth; and Job 15:21, The sound of dread is always in his ears, and when there is peace, he always suspecteth treason. But the one who calls upon God is saved; Joel 2:32, Everyone that shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved; and Prov 18:10, The name of the Lord is a strong tower. Therefore, such people do not know, precisely because the Lord is in the just generation. And he demonstrates through a sign that this is not such a generation, because you have confounded the counsel of the poor man. That is to say, you reckoned him as one capable of being confused, and you blasphemed as far as it is in you. And yet this is the counsel of the poor man, that he might know the Lord is his hope. Psalm 21:9 says, He hoped in the Lord; let him deliver him, let him save him, seeing that he delighteth in him, as does Matt 27:43. While Matt 19:21 states, And Jesus saith to him, 'If thou wilt be perfect.' But the rich always condemn this counsel; Prov 1:25, You have despised my counsel, and have neglected my reprehensions. And from whence does it come? But the Lord is his hope, for they have nowhere in this world to place their hope except in God, who is the hope of the saints.
||Omnes antiqui expectabant hoc: Gen. 49. Non auferetur sceptrum de Iuda etc. Sed hoc expectabatur ex Syon, idest Iudaeis: Io. 4. Salus ex Iudaeis est. Sed quando? Responsio: hoc habebimus, Cum averterit Dominus captivitatem plebis suae, qui sunt in captivitate peccati et carcere inferni: Isa. 49. Equidem captivitas a forti tolletur, et quod captum fuerit a robusto: et tunc laetetur Iacob, idest populus Dei interius: et exultet Israel exterius.
||All the ancients were waiting for this. Gen 49:10 says, The scepter shall not be taken away from Judah etc. Yet it was expected to come from Zion, that is from the Jews; Jn 4:22, for salvation is of the Jews. But when will it come? The response is that we will attain this, when the Lord shall have turned away the captivity of his people, who abide in the captivity of sin and the prison of hell; Is 49:25, even the captivity shall be taken away from the strong, and that which was taken by the mighty shall be delivered. And at that time Jacob shall rejoice. That is to say, the people of God will rejoice interiorly, and Israel shall be glad exteriorly. |
Latin Text according to the Venice Edition of MDCCLXXV
The Aquinas Translation Project (http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)