1 τὰ τέκνα, ὑπακούετε τοῖς γονεῦσιν ὑμῶν [ἐν κυρίῳ], τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν δίκαιον. 2 τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ, 3 ἵνα εὖ σοι γένηται καὶ ἔσῃ μακροχρόνιος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 4 καὶ οἱ πατέρες, μὴ παροργίζετε τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν, ἀλλὰ ἐκτρέφετε αὐτὰ ἐν παιδείᾳ καὶ νουθεσίᾳ κυρίου. 1 Children, obey your parents in the Lord; for this is just. 2 Honour thy father and thy mother, which is the first commandment with a promise; 3 That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest be long lived upon earth. 4 And you, fathers, provoke not your children to anger; but bring them up in the discipline and correction of the Lord. Supra monuit virum et uxorem, quae est una connexio familiae, hic monet patrem et filios, quae est secunda connexio domus. He had previously given advice to husband and wife which is one relationship in the family (5:22). Now he cautions the fathers and children, which is the home’s second relationship:
Et primo facit mentionem, quomodo filii se debeant habere ad parentes;
secundo quomodo, e converso, patres ad filios, ibi nolite, et cetera.
First, he mentions how the children should behave toward their parents.
Secondly, how, conversely, fathers should be related to their children (6:4).
Prima in duas. The first has two sections:
Primo proponit monitionem;
secundo ostendit rationem, ibi hoc enim est iustum, et cetera.
First, he sets down the warning.
Secondly, he gives the reason (6:1b). 4
Dicit ergo filii, obedite, et cetera. Notandum est hic quod patres debent naturaliter instruere filios moribus, filii autem, instruentibus parentibus, naturaliter debent eis obedire, sicut infirmi obediunt medicis. Unde proprium filiorum est obedientia. Col. III, v. 20: filii, obedite, scilicet patribus, per omnia, hoc est enim beneplacitum domino, et cetera. Dicit autem in domino, quia non est obediendum parentibus, nec alicui in his quae sunt contra Deum. Act. V, 29: obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. Et per hoc solvitur auctoritas modo allegata: si quis venit ad me, et non odit patrem, etc.; quia hoc intelligitur inquantum sunt contra Deum. He begins, Children, obey your parents. Note here that fathers have a natural duty to instruct their children in moral conduct. The children, on the other hand, have a natural duty, while their parents are instructing them, to be obedient to them—as the sick are to obey doctors. Hence the proper characteristic of children is obedience. “Children, obey your parents in all things; for this is well pleasing to the Lord” (Col. 3:20). He says in the Lord because neither parents, nor anyone else, ought to be obeyed when they command something contrary to God. “It is necessary to obey God rather than men” (Ac. 5:29). The authoritative text previously brought forward (5:29) is to be explained in this way also. “If any man come to me, and hate not his father and mother... he cannot be my disciple” (Lk. 14:26) is to be understood insofar as they are against God. Rationem autem assignat ex duobus, scilicet ex iustitia, et utilitate: quod autem sit iustum patet ac probatur, quia lex divina nihil mandat nisi iustum. Ps. XVIII, 9: iustitiae domini, et cetera. Sed hoc mandat lex divina. Ex. XX, 12 et Deut. V, 16: honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, et cetera. Eccli. III, 8: qui timet Deum, honorat patrem, et cetera. The reason he gives for this arises from two sources: from justice and from a utility. That it is just is evident and proved from the fact that the divine law commands only what is just. “The justices of the Lord are right” (Ps. 18:9). And the divine law commands: “Honor your father and mother, as the Lord your God hath commanded you” (Ex. 20:12 & Deut. 5:16). “He who fears the Lord honours his parents and will serve them as his masters that brought him into the world” (Sirach 3:8). Honor autem importat exhibitionem reverentiae his qui supra nos sunt; sed quia parentes habemus supra nos, utitur nomine honoris. Dicit ergo hoc enim iustum est, honora patrem tuum et matrem, et cetera. Eccli. III, 7: qui honorat patrem suum vita vivet longiore, et qui obedit patri refrigerabit matrem. Et hoc intelligitur tripliciter, quod filii debent parentes honorare, quia debent eis reverentiam sicut maioribus, obedientiam sicut instructoribus, sustentamenta sicut nutrientibus cum fortes erunt. Honor implies a manifestation of reverence to those who are over us; and since we have parents over us, the word “honor” is used. Hence he affirms: for this is just, honor your father and your mother. “He who honors his father shall enjoy a long life; and he who obeys his father shall be a comfort to his mother” (Sirach 3:7). That children ought to honor their parents is to be understood in three ways. They must venerate them as elders; show obedience to them as teachers; and give them sustenance as the ones who had nourished them when they were strong. Deinde assignat dignitatem huius praecepti, dicens quod est mandatum primum. Contra: immo mandatum primum est, quod est colendus unus Deus. Respondeo. Mandata continentur in duabus tabulis. Prima continet ea quae ordinantur ad Deum; secunda ea quae ad proximum: et in hac secunda primum mandatum est de honore parentum. Et hoc duplici de causa. Primo, quia in illa secunda tabula nullum est praeceptum affirmativum nisi istud, quia naturale est nobis ut parentibus serviamus, non autem sic aliis proximis, ideo nullum est aliud affirmativum. Sed natura dictat, ut non inferat homo proximis nocumentum, et ideo prohibetur. Quia ergo primum plus et prius habet de debito, ideo primum. Secundo, quia Deus honorandus est sicut principium nostri esse, et quia parentes sunt etiam principium nostri esse, et quia, ut dicitur VI Ethic., tria habemus a parentibus, scilicet esse, vivere, et disciplinam, ideo conveniens est, ut post mandata ordinata ad Deum, primum esset ordinatum ad parentes. He goes on to indicate the dignity of this precept, saying which is the first commandment. On the contrary, the first commandment is that the One God must be worshipped. I reply. The commandments were contained on two tablets. The first contained those whose reference was to God; the second those which referred to one’s neighbors. On this second tablet the first commandment is to honor one’s parents. And this is for two reasons. First, it is the only affirmative precept on the second tablet since it is natural for us to serve our parents, which is not true of our other fellow men, and hence there is no other affirmative command. Rather, nature dictates that a man should not harm his neighbors, and hence this is forbidden. Therefore, the first possesses a prior and greater obligation and so is the first. The second reason is that God must be honored as the source of our existence, and our parents also as the source of our existence. The Sixth Book of the Ethics points out that we have three things from our parents: existence, life and education. Thus it is fitting that after the commandments related to God, the first would be in reference to our parents. Vel, primum quo ad promissionem, quia isti soli additur promissio. Et huius est duplex ratio. Una est, quia homines in aliis quae agunt quaerunt utilitatem propriam, et quia a parentibus iam senibus nullam expectant utilitatem, nisi a Deo provenientem. Secunda ratio est, ne aliquis credat quod honoratio parentum non sit meritoria quia naturalis est, ideo addit ut sit longaevus super terram. In veteri autem testamento promittebantur promissiones temporales, quia populus ille parvulus erat et ideo gratiose instruendus sub paedagogo, sicut parvulus. Tamen in illis parvis munusculis populum illum parvum decentibus, figurabantur magna bona, scilicet spiritualia. Et ideo potest hoc referri secundum sensum litteralem ad bona temporalia. Et sic dicit in promissione, ut bene sit tibi; id est ut bonis promissis abundes. Or, first may refer to the promise which is annexed to this one only. There are two reasons for this. One is that men, in doing things for others, seek their own good; and they can expect no advantage from parents who have already grown old, unless a reward come from God. The second reason is lest anyone imagine that honoring one’s parents was not meritorious because it is natural; on this account he adds that you may live long upon the earth. In the Old Testament temporal promises were pledged because the people then were immature and hence were graciously taught as children under a tutor. Nevertheless, in those little gifts which were suited to a young people, great spiritual favors were symbolized. Therefore this text can refer, according to its literal meaning, to temporal goods; which is why he says with a promise, that it may be well with you, that is, that you may abound in the promised benefits. Nam qui gratus est in minoribus beneficiis, meretur maiora recipere; maxima autem beneficia habemus a parentibus, scilicet esse, nutrimentum et disciplinam. Quando ergo quis gratus est his, fit dignus ut maiora recipiat. Et ideo dicit ut bene sit tibi; quia, ut dicitur I Tim. IV, 8: pietas ad omnia utilis est, promissionem habens vitae, quae nunc est, et futurae. Et ideo addit et sis longaevus super terram, quasi super gratiam et beneficium vitae, quam habes a parentibus. Prov. III, 16: longitudo dierum in dextera eius, et in sinistra illius divitiae et gloria. For he who is grateful in receiving lesser favors deserves to receive greater ones. Now we have the greatest of benefits from our parents: existence, nourishment, and education. Therefore, when anyone is grateful for these, he becomes worthy to receive greater-thus he remarks that it may be well with you. For, as 1 Timothy 4 (8) affirms, “godliness is profitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is and of that which is to come.” He joins that you may live long upon earth as though [to add it over and] above the grace and favor of life which you enjoy from your parents, “Length of days is in her [wisdom’s] right hand: and in her left hand riches and glory” (Prov. 3:16). Sed contra. Multi devoti parentibus cito moriuntur. Et ideo sciendum quod haec temporalia non sunt bona absolute, nisi inquantum ordinata ad spiritualia, et ideo intantum homini bona, inquantum per ea iuvatur ad spiritualia. Unde fortuna non est dicenda bona, si est impediens a virtute. Et ideo longitudo vitae intantum est bona, inquantum ad servitia Dei est ordinata. Et ideo quandoque subtrahitur ne impediat. Sap. IV, 11: raptus est, ne malitia mutaret intellectum eius. Vel potest referri ad sensum spiritualem, ut sis longaevus in terra viventium. Ps. CXLII, v. 10 s.: spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam; propter nomen tuum, domine, vivificabis me. Yet it is objected: Many who are devoted to their parents die quickly. Therefore it must be realized that these temporal goods are not absolute except insofar as they are related to spiritual benefits. They are good for a man to the degree that he is aided by them towards spiritual realities. If it is an obstacle to virtue, fortune must not be termed good. Hence, a long life is good in the measure that it is related to the service of God. It is sometimes not given lest it thwart [this service]. “He was taken away lest wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul” (Wis. 4:11). Or, he could be referring to a spiritual meaning, that you may be long lived in the land of the living. “Your good spirit shall lead me into the right land; for your name’s sake, O Lord, quicken me” (Ps. 142:10-11). Consequenter instructis filiis, instruuntur parentes. Circa quod duo facit: After he has instructed the children, he counsels the parents. Regarding which he makes two points:
primo ponit unum prohibitivum;
secundo aliud inductivum, ibi sed educate eos, et cetera.
First, he places one restriction.
Secondly, he gives an incentive, at but bring them up.
Dicit ergo: et vos, patres, nolite provocare filios vestros ad iracundiam, non quod in omnibus assentiatis voluntati eorum. Ubi notandum est quod alius est principatus patris ad filium, et domini ad servum, quia dominus utitur servo suo ad utilitatem propriam, sed pater utitur filio ad utilitatem filii. Et ideo est necesse quod patres instruant filios propter utilitatem suam, non tamen minis arcendo aut subiiciendo. Et ideo dicitur Col. III, 21: patres, nolite ad indignationem provocare filios vestros, ut scilicet non pusillo animo fiant, quia talis provocatio non animat ad bonum. When he says And you, fathers, provoke not your children to anger, it is not that the fathers must give in to their will in all matters. Here it must be noted that the authority of a father with respect to his child is different from that of a master with respect to his servant. For the master employs his servant to his own advantage, but the father manages his child for the child’s advantage. It is necessary that fathers educate their children for the children’s own good; not, however, by excessively restricting or subjecting them. Thus Colossians 3 (21) states: “Fathers, provoke not your children to indignation, lest they be discouraged.” Because such provocation does not inspire them to good. Quomodo ergo? Subdit sed educate illos in disciplina, scilicet verberum, et correctione, scilicet verborum, id est corripite eos et educate, ut serviant domino. Vel: in disciplina, eos ad bonum inducendo, et correctione a malis retrahendo. How then should they? He adds but bring them up in the discipline of spankings and the correction of words. That is, correct and educate them that they might be of service to the Lord. Or, in the discipline may designate that they should encourage them to do good, and correction to restrain them from evils.
5 οἱ δοῦλοι, ὑπακούετε τοῖς κατὰ σάρκα κυρίοις μετὰ φόβου καὶ τρόμου ἐν ἁπλότητι τῆς καρδίας ὑμῶν ὡς τῷ Χριστῷ, 6 μὴ κατ' ὀφθαλμοδουλίαν ὡς ἀνθρωπάρεσκοι ἀλλ' ὡς δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ ποιοῦντες τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκ ψυχῆς, 7 μετ' εὐνοίας δουλεύοντες, ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις, 8 εἰδότες ὅτι ἕκαστος, ἐάν τι ποιήσῃ ἀγαθόν, τοῦτο κομίσεται παρὰ κυρίου, εἴτε δοῦλος εἴτε ἐλεύθερος. 9 καὶ οἱ κύριοι, τὰ αὐτὰ ποιεῖτε πρὸς αὐτούς, ἀνιέντες τὴν ἀπειλήν, εἰδότες ὅτι καὶ αὐτῶν καὶ ὑμῶν ὁ κύριός ἐστιν ἐν οὐρανοῖς, καὶ προσωπολημψία οὐκ ἔστιν παρ' αὐτῷ. 5 Servants, be obedient to them that are your lords according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, as to Christ; 6 Not serving to the eye, as it were pleasing men, but, as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart; 7 With a good will serving, as to the Lord, and not to men; 8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man shall do, the same shall he receive from the Lord, whether he be bond or free. 9 And you, masters, do the same things to them, forbearing threatenings;, knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven. And there is no respect of persons with him. Instructis duabus connexionibus, scilicet viri et mulieris, patris et filii, hic instruit connexionem servi ad dominum. Et circa hoc facit duo. Once he has given advice concerning the two relationships of husband to wife, and father to children (5:22), he now instructs them regarding the relation of servant to master. In reference to this he does two things:
Primo instruit servum;
secundo dominum, ibi et vos, domini, et cetera.
First, he instructs the servant.
Secondly, the master (6:9).
Iterum prima in tres. The first has three parts:
Primo enim ponit monitionem;
secundo exponit, ibi non ad oculum servientes, etc.;
tertio ostendit retributionem, ibi scientes quoniam unusquisque, et cetera.
First, he sets down the admonition.
Secondly, he explains it (6:6).
Thirdly, he indicates the reward (6:8).
Iterum prima in tres. Again, the first part has three subdivisions; he admonishes them:
Quia primo monet ad obedientiam; secundo ad reverentiam; tertio ad cordis simplicitatem.
Secunda, ibi cum omni timore, et cetera.
Tertia, ibi in simplicitate, et cetera.
First, to obedience.
Secondly, to reverence.
Thirdly, to simplicity of heart.
Monet enim eos ad obedientiam ex imperio domini. Unde dicit servi, obedite dominis carnalibus. Monet eos ad reverentiam, dicens cum timore, interius. Mal. I, 6: si ego dominus, ubi est timor meus? Et tremore, exterius. Ps. II, 11: servite domino in timore, et cetera. Et in simplicitate cordis. Sap. I, 1: in simplicitate cordis quaerite illum. Lc. XII, v. 42: fidelis servus, et cetera. Iob I, 8: numquid considerasti servum meum Iob, etc., et, paulo post: vir simplex, et cetera. For he instructs them to obey as by a command of the Lord. Hence be states Servants, be obedient to your lords according to the flesh. He cautions them regarding reverence, saying with interior fear: “if I be a master, where is my fear?” (Mal. 1:6). And exterior trembling: “serve ye the Lord with fear; and rejoice unto him with trembling” (Ps. 2:11). And this must be in the simplicity of your heart: “Seek him in simplicity of heart” (Wis. 1:1); “Have you considered my servant Job... a simple and upright man, and fearing God, and avoiding evil?” (Job 1:8). Sic enim serviendum est Christo. Unde dicit sicut Christo. Sap. I, 1: in simplicitate cordis quaerite illum. I Par. XXIX, 17: domine Deus, in simplicitate cordis mei laetus obtuli universa. Dicit etiam sicut Christo, quia a domino Christo est quod dominus aliquid possit. Rom. XIII, 2: qui potestati resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit. Et ideo serviendum est eis sicut Christo, in his quae non sunt contra fidem, nec contra ipsum. In this way is Christ to be served; thus he says as to Christ. “Seek him in simplicity of heart” (Wis. 1:1); “O Lord God, I also in the simplicity of my heart have joyfully offered all these things” (1 Par. 29:17). He also mentions as to Christ since whatever power a master has comes from Christ the Lord. “Therefore, he who resists the power resists the ordinance of God” (Rom. 13:2). They must be served as Christ is in whatever is not contrary to faith nor contrary to Christ himself. Exponit autem in simplicitate, He explains in simplicity of heart:
et primo removet quod simplicitati contrariatur;
secundo docet modum convenientem, ibi facientes voluntatem Dei, et cetera.
First, he repudiates what is against simplicity.
Secondly, he teaches the appropriate way of acting (6:6b).
Contrarium autem simplicitatis est, quod servus habeat respectum ad oculum et non ad complacentiam domini. Talis enim servus non habet simplicitatem et rectam intentionem. Et ideo hoc prohibet, dicens non ad oculum servientes, scilicet domino propter lucrum temporale tantum, quasi hominibus placentes, id est complacere volentes. Gal. I, 10: si adhuc hominibus placerem, Christi servus non essem. Sed ut servi Christi. Col. III, 24: domino Christo servite. Et quomodo? Facientes voluntatem Dei, scilicet implendo mandata eius opere. Ps. CII, 20: facientes verbum illius, sicut Christus Io. VI, 38, descendi de caelo, non ut facerem voluntatem meam, sed voluntatem eius, qui misit me. Haec est enim voluntas eius qui misit me, scilicet ut obediam hominibus propter Deum. Et ideo dicit sicut servi Christi, et sicut servientes domino, non hominibus, scilicet non propter se, sed propter dominum. It is against simplicity that a servant be concerned with what the eye sees instead of what pleases the Lord. For such a servant does not possess simplicity and rectitude of intention. Hence he forbids this saying not serving to the eye, namely, the master, on account of a temporal advantage only, as it were pleasing men. “If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ” (Gal. 1:10). But, as the servants of Christ, “Serve the Lord Christ” (Col. 3:24). And how? Doing the will of God, by carrying his commands into action. “Carry out his word” (Ps. 102:20 *), just as Christ did: “I came down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him that sent me. Now this is the will of the Father who sent me” (Jn. 6:38-39), that I obey men for the sake of God. And thus he states as servants of Christ, being of service to the Lord and not to men; that is, not for their own sakes but for that of the Lord. Quomodo? Ex animo. Col. III, v. 23: quodcumque facitis, ex animo operamini, sicut domino, et non hominibus. Item, idem subiungit hic dicens sicut domino et non hominibus. Cum bona voluntate, id est recta intentione. Col. IV, 12: stetis perfecti et pleni in omni voluntate Dei. How should this be done? From the heart. “Whatsoever you do, do it from the heart, as to the Lord, and not to men” (Col. 3:23). You should act with a good will, that is, with the right intention; “that you may stand perfect and full in all the will of God” (Col. 4:12). Deinde subiungit remunerationem, dicens scientes. I Io. V, 13: scripsi vobis ut sciatis, et cetera. Quoniam unusquisque, (...) sive servus sive liber. Sine personarum acceptione. Non enim est personarum acceptio apud Deum. Gal. III, 28: non est servus neque liber, non est masculus neque foemina, omnes enim vos unum estis in Christo Iesu. Act. X, v. 34 s.: in veritate comperi quoniam non est personarum acceptor Deus, sed in omni gente, qui timet Deum et operatur iustitiam, et cetera. Next, he mentions the reward, saying knowing—“These things I write to you that you may know” (I Jn. 5:13)—that any man... whether he be bond or free is not favored because of his status. For there is no respect of persons with God. “There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither bond nor free; there is neither male or female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:28). “In very deed I perceive that God is not a respecter of persons. But, in every nation, he that feareth him and worketh justice is acceptable to him” (Ac. 10: 34-35). Eccle. IX, 10: quodcumque potest facere manus tua, instanter operare, et cetera. Recipiet a domino pro remuneratione. Col. III, 24: scientes quod a domino accipient retributionem haereditatis. Whatsoever good thing any man shall do it must be accomplished for the universe: “Whatever your hand is able to do, do it earnestly: for neither work, nor reason, nor wisdom, nor knowledge, shall be in hell, whither you are hastening” (Eccl. 9:10). What he does the same shall he receive from the Lord, as a recompence. “Knowing that you shall receive of the Lord the reward of inheritance” (Col. 3:24). Deinde cum dicit et vos, domini, etc., instruit dominos, et facit duo. Then he goes on to give advice to masters, and he makes two points:
Primo ponit monitionem;
secundo subdit rationem, ibi scientes quia et illorum, et cetera.
First, he sets down a warming.
Secondly, he adds the reason (6:9b).
Dicit ergo et vos, domini, eadem faciatis, eadem scilicet identitate proportionis, ut sicut illi ex animo et bona voluntate, ita et vos faciatis. Eccli. XXXIII, 31: si est tibi aliquis servus fidelis, sit tibi sicut anima tua. Remittentes minas, non solum verba, vel flagella. He states, therefore, And you, masters, do the same, namely, with a proportional identity: as servants act from the heart and with a good will, so also should you act. “If you have a faithful servant, let him he to you as your own soul” (Sirach 33:31 )—forbearing threatenings and not only [refraining from] blows and whippings. Et quare? Rationem subdit, dicens scientes quia et illorum et vester dominus est in caelis. Nam idem dominus omnium, Rom. X, v. 12. Quasi dicat: conservi estis, et ideo debetis vos bene habere ad eos. Matth. XVIII, v. 33: oportuit et te misereri conservi tui. Et personarum acceptio non est apud Deum. Rom. II, 11 idem dicitur; Lc. XX, 21: non accipis personam hominum; Act. X, 34 idem. Why? He gives the reason when he says knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven. For the same is Lord over all” (Rom. 10:12). it is as though he were, saying: You are fellow servants, and hence you ought to behave well towards them. “Should not you then have had compassion also on your fellow servant? (Mt. 18:33). And there is no respect of persons with him. Romans 2 (11) makes the same statement, as also Acts 10 (34). “you doe not respect any person” (Lk. 20-21).
10 τοῦ λοιποῦ ἐνδυναμοῦσθε ἐν κυρίῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ κράτει τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ. 11 ἐνδύσασθε τὴν πανοπλίαν τοῦ θεοῦ πρὸς τὸ δύνασθαι ὑμᾶς στῆναι πρὸς τὰς μεθοδείας τοῦ διαβόλου: 12 ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμῖν ἡ πάλη πρὸς αἷμα καὶ σάρκα, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὰς ἀρχάς, πρὸς τὰς ἐξουσίας, πρὸς τοὺς κοσμοκράτορας τοῦ σκότους τούτου, πρὸς τὰ πνευματικὰ τῆς πονηρίας ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις. 10 Finally, brethren, be strengthened in the Lord and in the power of his virtue. 11 put you on the armour of God, that you may be able to stand against the deceits of the devil. 12 For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against principalities and powers, against the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirit, of wickedness in the high places. Supra posuit apostolus multa praecepta generalia, et specialia ad destruendam vetustatem peccati, et inducendam novitatem gratiae, hic ostendit qua virtute debent uti ad praecepta haec implenda, quia fiducia auxilii divini. The Apostle has previously written down many general and particular instructions aimed at destroying the old man of sin and encouraging the newness of grace (1:1 & 4:17). Now he speaks of the power by which we must carry out these precepts, for we must trust in divine assistance. Concerning this he does two things:
Circa quod duo facit. Primo, ponit monitionem;
secundo, in speciali explicat eam, ibi quoniam non est nobis colluctatio, et cetera.
First, he sets down the advice.
Secondly, he explains it in detail” (6-12).
Prima in duas, The first has two sections:
quia primo ostendit, de quo debemus confidere, sicut de interiori;
secundo ostendit de quo debemus confidere sicut de exteriori, ibi induite vos, et cetera.
First, he shows what interior reality we ought to trust in.
Secondly, then he shows what exterior reality we must trust in (6:11).
Illud autem interius, de quo debemus confidere, est auxilium divinum, et ideo dicit de caetero, fratres, confortamini. Ier. XVII, 7: benedictus vir, qui confidit in domino, et erit dominus fiducia eius, et cetera. Duplici autem ratione confidit quis de aliquo. Una est, quia ad eum pertinet sua defensio; alia est, quia potens est, et paratus est eum defendere. Et haec duo sunt in Deo respectu creaturae suae, quia cura est Deo de vobis, ut dicitur I Petr. ult.: omnem sollicitudinem vestram proiicientes in eum, quoniam ipsi cura est de vobis. Item, ipse potens est, et promptus auxiliari. The inner reality we should have confidence in is the divine help, thus he states Finally, brethren, be strengthened. “Blessed is the man that trusteth in the Lord, and the Lord shall be his confidence “ (Jer. 17:7). There are two reasons why anyone would trust in another person. One is that this person is charged with protecting him; and the other reason is that he is strong and prepared to defend him. These two are realized in God with respect to his creatures; for God is concerned with you: “Casting all your care upon him, for he hath care of you” (1 Pet. 5:7). Moreover, he is powerful and prompt to grant assistance. Et ideo dicit de caetero, fratres, etc., quasi dicat: postquam vos instruxi supra de praeceptis implendis, iam confortamini, non in vobis, sed in domino, qui curam habet de vobis. Ps. LXXII, 28: mihi autem adhaerere Deo bonum est, et cetera. Is. XXXV, 4: dicite pusillanimis: confortamini, et cetera. Ier. XX, 11: dominus mecum est tamquam bellator fortis, idcirco qui me persequuntur, cadent, et cetera. Et in potentia, et cetera. Lc. I, 49: qui potens est. Et licet in Deo virtus et potentia sint idem, tamen, quia virtus est ultimum de potentia, et, quasi perfectio potentiae, ideo dicit in potentia virtutis eius, id est, in potentia virtuosa. Phil. IV, 13: omnia possum in eo, qui me confortat. Iob XVII, 3: pone me iuxta te, et cuiusvis manus pugnet contra me. Therefore he asserts finally brethren, as if to say: Now that I have advised you above concerning the fulfillment of the precepts, be strengthened, not in yourselves, but in the Lord who has care of you. “It is good for me to adhere to my God, to put my hope in the Lord God” (Ps. 72-28). “Say to the fainthearted. Take courage, and fear not... God himself will come and will save you” (Is. 35-4). “The Lord is with me as a strong warrior: therefore they that persecute me shall fall and shall be weak” (Jer. 20-11). And in his power “for he is mighty” (Lk. 1:49). Although in God virtue and power are identical, nonetheless, since virtue is the ultimate of power, and as it were the perfection of power, on this account he says in the power of his virtue, that is, in his virtuous power. “I can do all things in him who strengthens me” (Phil. 4:13). “O Lord, set me beside you; and let any man’s hand fight against me” (Job 17: a). Sed posset dici: si Deus potest et vult, debemus esse securi. Ideo respondens, dicit quod non, imo debet quilibet facere quod in se est, quia si inermis iret ad bellum, quantumcumque rex protegeret eum, esset in periculo. Et ideo dicit induite vos armaturam Dei, id est dona et virtutes. Rom. c. XIII, 12: abiiciamus ergo opera tenebrarum, et induamur arma lucis, et cetera. Col. III, v. 12: induite vos ergo sicut electi Dei sancti et dilecti viscera misericordiae, benignitatem, humilitatem, modestiam, et cetera. Quia per virtutes homo protegitur contra vitia. Someone might say: if God is powerful and wills [to protect us], we ought to be unconcerned. He replies that this is not so; indeed, everyone must do what he can since, if an unarmed man went into battle, no matter how much the king protected him he would still be in danger. Hence he says Put you on the armour of God, that is, the gifts [of the Holy Spirit] and virtues. “Let us therefore cast off the works of darkness and put on the armour of light” (Rom. 13:12). “Put ye on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, the bowels of mercy, benignity, humility, modesty, patience” (Col. 3:12). For the virtues protect man from vices. Sed contra: dominus est rex ita potens, quod nullus potest eum impugnare. Respondeo. Verum est per violentiam, sed per insidias et fallaciam impugnat eum Diabolus in membris suis, non in se, quia, ut dicitur Eccli. XI, 31: multae sunt insidiae dolosi, et cetera. Et ideo subdit ut possitis stare contra insidias Diaboli. I Petr. V, 8: sobrii estote, et vigilate, et cetera. Ps. IX, 30: insidiatur in abscondito, quasi leo, et cetera. An objection: the Lord is so powerful a king that no one can attack him. I reply. This is true concerning violence; yet the devil does attack him, not in himself, but in his members through deceit and illusions. “For many are the snares of the deceitful” (Sirach 11:31). Thus he adds that you may be able to stand against the deceits of the devil. “Be sober and watch; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, goes about seeking whom he may devour” (1 Pet. 5:8). “He lies in wait in secret like a lion in his den” (Ps. 9:30). Consequenter cum dicit quia non est nobis colluctatio, etc., explicat in speciali monitionem. He then goes on to explain this warning in detail:
Et primo de insidiis inimicorum;
secundo de armatura sumenda, ibi propterea accipite, etc.;
tertio de fiducia Christi habenda ibi per omnium orationem, et cetera.
First, concerning the snares of the enemies.
Secondly, what arms should be taken up (6:13).
Thirdly, the confidence which must be had in Christ (6:18).
Describit autem insidias, quia quando aliquis hostis imminet, si sit debilis, stultus et huiusmodi, non est multum cavendum nec timendum de eo; sed quando est potens, nequam et callidus, tunc est timendus. Haec tria sunt in Diabolo. Primo quia non est debilis. Et propter hoc dicit, quod non est nobis colluctatio adversus carnem et sanguinem, et cetera. Per carnem et sanguinem intelliguntur vitia carnis, I Cor. c. XV, 50: caro et sanguis regnum Dei non possidebunt, et homines carnales. Gal. I, 16: continuo non acquievi carni et sanguini, id est, hominibus carnalibus. Dicit ergo non est nobis colluctatio, et cetera. Quod videtur esse falsum qualitercumque accipiatur; quia, ut dicitur Gal. V, 17: caro concupiscit adversus spiritum, et cetera. Ps. CXVIII, v. 157: multi qui persequuntur me. He describes the snares because, when an enemy is near at hand, there is not much reason to be on one’s guard or fear him if he is weak, stupid and the like. But when he is strong, evil and shrewd, then he ought to be dreaded. These latter are found in the devil. Firstly, he is not weak. For this reason he states that our wrestling is not against flesh and blood. By flesh and blood sins of the flesh are to be understood: “flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God” (1Cor. 15:50), nor can carnal men. “Immediately I condescended not to flesh and blood” (Gal. 1:16), that is, to carnal men. But, his saying our wrestling is not against flesh and blood seems to be false no matter how it is understood since, as Galatians 5 (17) holds, “For the flesh lusts against the spirit; and the spirit against the flesh.” “Many [sinners] are they that persecute me and afflict me” (Ps. 118:157). Respondeo dupliciter. Primo ut dicamus non est nobis colluctatio adversus, etc., supple tantum, quin etiam adversus Diabolum. Vel aliter, quia actio quae instrumento attribuitur, est principaliter agentis, sicut accipitur illud Rom. IX, 16: non est volentis, neque currentis, sed miserentis Dei, quasi dicat: quod vultis aliquid, vel facitis, a vobis non est, sed aliunde, scilicet a Deo; sic hic non est nobis colluctatio, etc., exponatur, id est quod nos impugnent, scilicet caro et sanguis, hoc non est eorum principaliter, sed a superiore movente, scilicet a Diabolo. I reply in two ways. First, supply “only” so that we could say our wrestling is not only against flesh and blood without it also being against the devil. A second answer is that an action which is attributed to an instrument is principally of the agent. As Romans 9 (16) holds: “It is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.” He seems to say: When you will or do anything, it is not from yourself, but from God. Thus here, our wrestling is not against flesh and blood would be interpreted: When flesh and blood attack us, it is not of themselves principally but from a higher moving force, namely, from the devil. Consequenter describitur a potentia, quia adversus principes et potestates tenebrarum harum. Io. XIV, 30: venit enim princeps huius mundi, et cetera. Dicitur autem princeps mundi, non creatione sed imitatione mundanorum. Io. I, 10: et mundus eum non cognovit, id est principes mundani. Vel dicitur princeps, quasi primatum capiens. Unde principes quasi primi duces ad aliquid. Ps. LXVII, 26: principes coniuncti psallentibus. Gen. XXIII, 6: princeps Dei es apud nos. Next, the devil’s power is described, for we fight against principalities and powers... of this darkness. “The prince of this world cometh, and in me he hath not any thing” (Jn. 14:30). He is called the prince of the world, not by reason of creation, but because worldly minded people imitate him. “And the world knew him [Christ] not” (Jn. 1:10), that is, the worldly princes. Or, he is called the prince as though he had captured the primacy. Hence princes are, as it were, the first leaders in something. “Princes went before joined with singers” (Ps. 67:26). “you are a prince of God among us” (Gen. 23:6). Ad potestatem autem pertinet iustitiam exercere. Inquantum ergo aliqui Daemones inducunt aliquos ad rebellandum Deo, dicuntur principes, inquantum vero habent potestatem puniendi illos, qui eis subiiciuntur, dicuntur potestates. Lc. XXII, 53: haec est hora vestra, et potestas tenebrarum, et cetera. The exercise of justice pertains to power. Hence, insofar as some demons incite others to rebel against God, they are called Principalities; insofar as they have the power to punish those who are subjected to them, they are called Powers. “But this is your hour and the power of darkness” (Lk. 22:53). Sed cum ex ordinibus omnibus ceciderint aliqui, quare mentionem facit apostolus de illis duobus ordinibus, denominans Daemones? Respondeo. In nominibus ordinum sunt tria in quibusdam enim importatur ordo ad Deum, in quibusdam vero potestas, in quibusdam vero Dei ministerium. In nominibus enim Cherubim et Seraphim et thronorum, importatur conversio ad Deum. Daemones autem adversi sunt Deo, et ideo eis non competunt haec nomina. Item quaedam nomina important ordinem ad ministerium Dei, sicut Angeli et Archangeli: et ista etiam nomina non competunt Daemonibus, nisi cum adiuncto scilicet Satanae. Tertio etiam, quia virtutes et dominationes important ordinem ad servitium Dei: ideo eis non conveniunt haec nomina, sed tantum ista duo, quae communia sunt bonis et malis, scilicet principatus et potestates. But since some angels fell from every one of the ranks, why does the Apostle only mention those two ranks, calling them demons? I reply. There are three characteristics in the names of the ranks. For in some is implied a relation to God, in others power, in still others the service of God. In the names Cherubim, Seraphim and Thrones, a turning toward God is connoted. The devils, on the other hand, are turned away from God, and hence these names do not apply to them. Again, certain names imply an ordination to the service of God, as the Angels and Archangels; these also are not applicable to the demons, unless one joins “of Satan” to the names. Thirdly, since Virtues and Dominations also imply an ordering toward God’s worship these names cannot be applicable to the demons. Only those two, Principalities and Powers, are common to the good and bad angels. Sunt ergo et potentes et magni, ideo habent magnum exercitum, contra quem habemus pugnare adversus mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, scilicet peccatorum. Supra V, v. 8: eratis enim aliquando tenebrae, et cetera. Quia quidquid est tenebrosum, totum est de ordine istorum, et subiectum eis. Glossa: mali homines sunt equi, Diaboli equites, ergo occidamus equites, et equos possideamus. Io. I, 5: et tenebrae eum non comprehenderunt. Hence, they are powerful and great, possessing an immense army against which we must fight as against the rulers of the world of this darkness of sin. “For you were heretofore darkness, but now light in the Lord” (Eph. 5:8). Whatever is darksome is wholly of their rank and subject to them. As a Gloss comments: “Evil men are horses, and the demons the riders; hence, if we kill the riders, the horses will be ours.” “And the darkness did not comprehend it” (Jn. 1:5). Sunt etiam astuti, quia contra spiritualia nequitiae, id est contra spirituales nequitias, emphatice loquendo, per quod intelligitur plenitudo nequitiae. Dicit autem spiritualia nequitiae, quia quanto est altior secundum naturam, tanto, quando convertitur ad malum, est peior et nequior. Unde philosophus dicit, quod homo malus est pessimus omnium animalium. Et ideo dicit spiritualia nequitiae, quia spirituales et nequissimi sunt. They are also cunning, [we must fight] against the spirits of wickedness; this is an emphatic way of saying “Spiritual wickedness,” by which is understood the fullness of evil. He affirms the spirits of wickedness because, the higher one’s nature is, the more terrible and pernicious it is when one turns to evil. Whence the Philosopher states that an evil man is worse than all the animals. Thus he says the spirits of wickedness since they are spiritual and most wicked. Et dicit in caelestibus, duplici de causa. Vel ut ostendat virtutem et avantagium, ad superandum nos: quia nos in terra, ipsi autem in alto, scilicet in aere caliginoso, et ideo habent partem meliorem. Lc. VIII, 5: volucres caeli comederunt illud. Vel dicit in caelestibus, quia pro caelestibus est ista pugna: et hoc debet animare nos ad pugnam. He mentions in the high places for two possible reasons. Either to show the strength and advantage they possess to overcome us; we are on the earth, but they are on high in the dusky atmosphere so that they have the better position. “And the fowls of the air devoured it” (Lk. 8:5). Or, he says in the high places because this struggle is for heaven, and this should urge us on to fight.
13 διὰ τοῦτο ἀναλάβετε τὴν πανοπλίαν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα δυνηθῆτε ἀντιστῆναι ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ πονηρᾷ καὶ ἅπαντα κατεργασάμενοι στῆναι. 14 στῆτε οὖν περιζωσάμενοι τὴν ὀσφὺν ὑμῶν ἐν ἀληθείᾳ, καὶ ἐνδυσάμενοι τὸν θώρακα τῆς δικαιοσύνης, 15 καὶ ὑποδησάμενοι τοὺς πόδας ἐν ἑτοιμασίᾳ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τῆς εἰρήνης, 16 ἐν πᾶσιν ἀναλαβόντες τὸν θυρεὸν τῆς πίστεως, ἐν ᾧ δυνήσεσθε πάντα τὰ βέλη τοῦ πονηροῦ [τὰ] πεπυρωμένα σβέσαι: 17 καὶ τὴν περικεφαλαίαν τοῦ σωτηρίου δέξασθε, καὶ τὴν μάχαιραν τοῦ πνεύματος, ὅ ἐστιν ῥῆμα θεοῦ, 13 Therefore, take unto you the annour of God, that you may be able to resist in the evil day and to stand in all things perfect. 14 Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about with truth and having on the breastplate of justice; 15 And your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace; 16 In all things taking the shield of faith, wherewith you may be able to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one. 17 And take unto you the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. Supra exposuit apostolus, quod dictum est de insidiis Diaboli, hic monet nos de armatura sumenda. Et circa hoc facit duo. The Apostle explained the devil’s snares previously (6:12), and here he advises us to take up arms. In reference to this he does two things:
Primo concludit ex praemissis armaturae necessitatem;
secundo, armorum diversitatem describit, ibi state ergo, et cetera.
First, he concludes from the foregoing that arms are necessary.
Secondly, he describes the variety of weapons (6:14).
Dicit ergo: habetis hostes malos, nequissimos et potentes, et pro re ardua pugnantes, quia pro caelestibus, propterea accipite armaturam Dei, id est armamini spiritualibus armis. II Cor. X, 4: arma militiae nostrae non sunt carnalia, sed potentia Deo ad destructionem munitionum, et cetera. Et hoc ut possitis resistere. I Petr. V, 9: cui resistite fortes in fide, et cetera. Iac. IV, 7: resistite Diabolo, et fugiet a vobis. Quanto magis enim ei ceditur, tanto plus insequitur. In die malo, et hoc propter mala, quae in die fiunt. Supra V, 16: redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. Eccle. VII, 15: diem malam praecave, et cetera. Thus he says: You have evil enemies who are powerful and most wicked, and the struggle is for an exacting object since it is for heaven. Therefore, take unto you the armour of God, that is, be armed with spiritual weapons. “For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty to God unto the pulling down of fortifications, destroying counsels” (2 Cor. 10:4). And this that you may be able to resist. “Resist him, strong in faith” (1 Pet. 5:9). “Resist the devil; and he will fly from you (Jas. 4:7). For the more is conceded to him, the more will he press in upon you. In the evil day indicates that a day is evil from what occurs in it. “Redeeming the time, because the days are evil” (Eph. 5:16). “Beware beforehand of the evil day” (Eccl. 7:15). Item accipite non solum ad resistendum, sed etiam ad proficiendum, et in omnibus perfecti state, id est in adversis et prosperis immobiliter state. Iac. I, 4: sitis perfecti, in nullo deficientes. De hoc I Petr. I, 13: perfecti, sperate in eam, quae offertur vobis, gratiam, et cetera. Take up these [weapons] not only for defense, but also to make progress: and to stand in all things perfect, that is, stand firm in both adversity and prosperity. “That you may be perfect and entire, failing in nothing” (Jas. 1:4). Concerning this 1 Peter 1 (13) affirms: “Trust perfectly in the grace which is offered you in the revelation of Jesus Christ.” Sed numquid omnes debent perfecti esse? Respondeo. Triplex est perfectio. Una sufficientiae, quam habet homo, secundum quod habet quod sibi est necessarium ad salutem, sicut illud: diliges dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo; quasi dicat: ut nihil sit in corde tuo, quod sit contra Deum. Et hoc est de necessitate salutis. Iac. I, 4: ut sitis perfecti et integri in nullo deficientes, et cetera. Alia est perfectio totalis abundantiae, quae est perfectio patriae, quae est consummata gloria, in hoc quod perfectus totaliter inhaereat Deo. Matth. XXII, 30: in resurrectione neque nubent, neque nubentur, sed sunt sicut Angeli Dei in caelo. Et de hac loquebatur apostolus Phil. III, 12: non quod iam acceperim, aut quod iam perfectus sim. Et paulo post: fratres, ego non arbitror me comprehendisse. Alia est media, scilicet consilii, qua homo nititur se abstrahere ab his, et ire ad illas. However, must everyone be perfect? I reply that there are three types of perfection. There is one of sufficiency when a man has what is necessary for his salvation; for instance, “you shalt love the Lord your God with your whole heart,” as if to say: Let there be nothing in your heart which is contrary to God. This much is necessary for salvation. “That you may be perfect and entire, failing in nothing” (Jas. 1:4). Another is the total and overflowing perfection proper to the fatherland; there glory is consummated in this, that the perfect totally inhere in God. “For in the resurrection they shall neither marry nor be married; but shall be as the angels of God in heaven” (Mt. 22:30). The Apostle speaks of this in Philippians 3 (12:13): “Not as though I had already attained, or were already perfect... Brethren, I do not count myself to have apprehended.” The third perfection is between the above two, it is that of the counsels in which a man strives to withdraw himself from these [passing realities] and make progress towards those [which remain forever]. Deinde cum dicit state ergo, etc., describit diversitatem armorum. Est autem triplex genus spiritualium armorum, ad similitudinem corporalium: quorum quaedam sunt similia indumento ad tegendum, quaedam vero ad protegendum, et quaedam ad impugnandum. Then he goes on to describe the variety of weapons. There are three kinds of spiritual armour, paralleling bodily arms. Some are like clothes and are meant to cover one; others are to protect him (6:16); and still others are for fighting (6:17). Indumento autem tria sunt necessaria. Primo quod cingatur; et quantum ad hoc dicit state ergo succincti lumbos vestros, et cetera. Sed prius induit se homo quam se cingat. Apostolus autem accipit haec secundum ordinem armaturae spiritualis. In bello autem spirituali prius est necesse concupiscentias carnis restringere, sicut vicinus hostis est prius vincendus: hoc autem fit per restrictionem lumborum, in quibus viget luxuria, quod fit per temperantiam, quae gulae et luxuriae contrariatur. Lc. XII, 35: sint lumbi vestri praecincti, et cetera. Iob XXXVIII, 3: accinge sicut vir lumbos, et cetera. Sed in veritate, id est in rectitudine intentionis, et non simulate. Alia littera habet: in charitate. I Cor. ult.: omnia vestra in charitate fiant. Three things are necessary for clothing. Firstly, it must be bound with a belt; regarding this he says Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about. However, a man clothes himself before he puts his belt on. Here the Apostle follows the order of spiritual armour. In spiritual warfare it is first necessary to check carnal desires, just as the nearest enemy must be conquered first. This is done by bridling the loins in which sensuality thrives; such girding is done through temperance which is opposed to gluttony and sensuality. “Let your loins be girt” (Lk. 12:35); “gird up your loins like a man” (Job 38:3). But this must be done with truth, that is, with the right intention and not with pretense. A variant reading gives “with charity”; as 1 Corinthians 16 (14) states: “Let all that you do be done in charity.” Secundo monet vincere cupiditates rerum. Duplex autem invenitur armatura contra eas, scilicet iustitia, et abrenuntiatio rerum temporalium. Et ideo primo praecipit ut eas non iniuste usurpemus, quod facit iustitia. Et ideo dicit induti loricam iustitiae, scilicet propter quam homo abstinet a rebus alienis. Dicitur autem iustitia lorica, quia sicut lorica tegit membra, ita iustitia virtutes omnes. Sap. V, 19: induet pro thorace iustitiam, et accipiet pro galea iudicium certum. Secundo praecipit ut rerum temporalium curam superfluam deponamus, quia dum his nimis intendimus, non habemus pedes paratos ad divina negotia et mysteria annuntianda. Et propter hoc dicit et calceati pedes, id est affectus dispositi sint supple, in praeparatione Evangelii pacis. In signum huius misit apostolos dominus, Mc. VI, 9, calceatos sandaliis, quae habent subtus soleas, per quod significatur elevatio mentis a terrenis: et aperta sunt superius, per quod significatur promptitudo ad divinam sapientiam. Dicit autem pacis, quia per Evangelium pax nobis annuntiatur. Matth. X, 12: in quamcumque domum intraveritis, dicite: pax huic domui. Secondly, he warns them to overcome greed for created things. Two weapons can be found against it: justice and the renunciation of temporalities. First, he commands us not to unjustly usurp property; justice will look after this. Thus he says and having on the breastplate of justice, on account of which a man keeps out of other people’s property. justice is referred to as a breastplate because it covers all the virtues just as a breastplate does the members [of the body]. “He will put on justice as a breastplate, and will take true judgment instead of a helmet” (Wis. 5:19). Second, he commands us to get rid of an excessive care about temporal realities. When we are too caught up in these, our feet are not ready to carry out divine pursuits and proclaim its mysteries. For this reason he says and your feet shod—understand by this that one’s inclinations should be determined—with the preparation of the gospel of peace. As a symbol of this the Lord sent the Apostles (cf. Mk. 6:9) shod with sandals. These have soles underneath, by which the raising of the mind from earthly matters is signified; and they are open above, in which an eagerness for divine wisdom is signified. He adds of peace since through the gospel peace is proclaimed to us. “When you come into the house, salute it, saying: Peace be to this house” (Mt. 10:12). Item secundo, sunt arma ad protegendum. Duo autem in nobis sunt protegenda, quae sunt principia vitae, scilicet pectus in quo est cor et caput in quo est cerebrum. Pro pectore autem est scutum. Et ideo dicit in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, quia sicut scutum supponitur omnibus armis, ita fides omnibus aliis virtutibus. The second function of weapons is to protect. Two areas which contain the mainsprings of our life must be guarded: the chest in which the heart is situated, and the head which contains the brain. The chest is protected by a shield; thus he states in all things taking the shield of faith because faith is presupposed to all the other virtues just as a shield is basic to all weapons. Alia sunt enim arma virtutum moralium, scilicet temperantiae, id est succinctio lumborum, et iustitiae, id est induitio loricae: et hoc genus armorum, scilicet scutum, est virtutis theologicae, scilicet fidei: quia sicut per scutum repelluntur tela, ita per fidem omnia contraria et habetur victoria. Hebr. XI, v. 33: sancti per fidem vicerunt regna, sicut per virtutes morales vincimus potestates terrenas. Et ideo ait in quo possitis omnia tela ignea nequissimi extinguere, scilicet Diaboli, cuius tela sunt quaedam immissiones per Angelos malos. For there is a difference between the armour of the moral virtues, such as temperance which is to gird one’s loins and justice which is to put on a breastplate, and this type of armament—the shield—which consists of the theological virtue of faith. just as a shield wards off the arrows, so faith repels what is aimed against it and gains the victory. The saints “by faith conquered kingdoms” (Heb. 11:33), whereas we conquer the powers of darkness by the moral virtues. Thus he says wherewith you may be able to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one, the devil, whose arrows are certain interferences from evil angels (cf. Ps. 77:49). Ignea sunt, quia adurentia pravis concupiscentiis. Ps. LVII, 9: supercecidit ignis, et cetera. Haec autem per fidem extinguuntur: quae tentationes praesentes et transitorias extinguit per bona spiritualia et aeterna, quae promittit sacra Scriptura. Unde dominus Diabolo tentanti producebat et opponebat auctoritates sacrae Scripturae. Et sic debemus facere, si tentat de gula, secundum illud Deut. VIII, 3: non in solo pane vivit homo, vel illud: non est regnum Dei, esca et potus. Si de luxuria: non moechaberis. Si de furto: non furtum facies; et sic de aliis. They are fiery since evil desires burn: “Fire has fallen on them, and they shall not see the sun” (Ps. 57:9). These are extinguished through faith; it quenches present and transitory temptations with the eternal and spiritual blessings promised in Holy Scripture. Thus the Lord brought forward authoritative texts of Holy Scripture to oppose the devil’s temptations. We ought to do the same; if tempted to gluttony, [counter it with] “Not in bread alone doth man live” (Deut. 8:3), or “The kingdom of God is not meat and drink” (Rom. 14:17). If tempted to sensuality, “you shall not commit adultery” (Ex. 20:14); if to theft, “you shall not steal” (Ex. 20:15)and so on with any others. Dicitur autem scutum fidei, quia sicut scutum protegit totum pectus, ita fides debet esse in pectore. Spes autem dicitur galea, quia sicut galea est in capite, ita caput virtutum moralium est finis; et de hoc est spes, scilicet de fine. Et ideo dicitur et galeam salutis assumite. Faith is called a shield since, as a shield protects the entire chest, so faith must be in our heart. Hope, on the other hand, is referred to as a helmet because, as a helmet is on the head, so the head of the moral virtues is the end, and hope is concerned with this end. Hence he states And take unto you the helmet of salvation. Item tertio, sunt arma ad impugnandum, quia non solum sufficit se defendere, sed etiam oportet adversarium impugnare. Hoc autem sicut fit per gladium materialem corporaliter, ita per verbum Dei, quod est spiritus sancti gladius, spiritualiter. Et propter hoc dicit et gladium spiritus, quod est verbum Dei, scilicet assumite. Hebr. c. IV, 12: vivus est sermo Dei et efficax, et penetrabilior omni gladio ancipiti, pertingens usque ad divisionem animae et spiritus. Et praedicatio dicitur gladius spiritus, quia non penetrat usque ad spiritum, nisi ducatur a spiritu sancto. Matth. X, 20: non enim vos estis, qui loquimini, sed spiritus patris vestri, qui loquitur in vobis. Finally, the third function of weapons is for attack. It is not enough to simply defend one’s self, it is also necessary to assault the enemy. Physically, this is done with a material sword; it is done spiritually through the word of God which is the sword of the Holy Spirit. On this account he affirms and take up the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. “For the word of God is living and effectual and more piercing than any two-edged sword and reaching unto the division of the soul and the spirit” (Heb. 4:12). Preaching is called the sword of the Spirit because it will not penetrate to the spirit unless it is disposed by the Holy Spirit. “For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaks in you” (Mt. 10:20). Sic ergo habemus arma quibus defendamur a carnalibus hostibus, scilicet a gula et luxuria, quod fit per temperantiam, ibi state ergo succincti lumbos vestros, et cetera. Item, quibus vincamus cupiditates terrenas, scilicet arma iustitiae, quae abstinere nos faciunt ab illicitis, ibi induti loricam iustitiae. Et puritatem affectus seu paupertatem, quae nos retrahit etiam a licitis, ibi calceati pedes, et cetera. Item, habemus arma quibus protegamur ab erroribus, scilicet arma fidei, ibi in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, et etiam ab hostibus generis humani, ibi quo, scilicet scuto fidei, possitis omnia tela nequissimi ignea extinguere. Item, habemus arma quibus in bonis spiritualibus confirmamur, scilicet arma spei, ibi et galeam salutis assumite. Galea ponitur in capite, sic spes in fine. Nunc autem caput virtutum moralium est ipse finis, de quo est spes. Unde nihil est aliud galeam salutis assumere, quam spem de ultimo fine habere. Item, habemus arma ad impugnandum ipsos Daemones, scilicet gladium spiritus, quod est verbum Dei: quod fit frequenter in sermonibus, in quibus verbum Dei penetrans corda peccatorum expellit congeriem peccatorum et Daemonum. Therefore, we possess weapons to defend ourselves against carnal adversaries, namely, gluttony and sensuality, through temperance: Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth. By the arms of justice, which make us refrain from what is unlawful, we can conquer also earthly greed: and having on the breastplate of justice. This is aided by purity of heart or poverty which withdraw us even from things which are lawful: and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace. Moreover, we have weapons by which we are guarded from error, the armour of faith: in all things taking the shield of faith; and also protected from the enemies of the human race: wherewith, meaning the shield of faith, you may be able to extinguish all the fiery darts of the most wicked one. We likewise possess armour by which we are strengthened in spiritual blessings, the armour of hope: and take unto you the helmet of salvation. A helmet rests on the head, and so does hope in its end. Now the head of the moral virtues is the very end with which hope is concerned. Thus, to take up the helmet of salvation is nothing less than to have hope in the ultimate end. Finally, we have weapons to assault the demons themselves: the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. This happens frequently during sermons when the word of God, penetrating into the hearts of sinners, thrusts out the chaos of sins and demons.
18 διὰ πάσης προσευχῆς καὶ δεήσεως προσευχόμενοι ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ ἐν πνεύματι, καὶ εἰς αὐτὸ ἀγρυπνοῦντες ἐν πάσῃ προσκαρτερήσει καὶ δεήσει περὶ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων, 19 καὶ ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ, ἵνα μοι δοθῇ λόγος ἐν ἀνοίξει τοῦ στόματός μου, ἐν παρρησίᾳ γνωρίσαι τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ εὐαγγελίου 20 ὑπὲρ οὗ πρεσβεύω ἐν ἁλύσει, ἵνα ἐν αὐτῷ παρρησιάσωμαι ὡς δεῖ με λαλῆσαι. 21 ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε καὶ ὑμεῖς τὰ κατ' ἐμέ, τί πράσσω, πάντα γνωρίσει ὑμῖν τυχικὸς ὁ ἀγαπητὸς ἀδελφὸς καὶ πιστὸς διάκονος ἐν κυρίῳ, 22 ὃν ἔπεμψα πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἵνα γνῶτε τὰ περὶ ἡμῶν καὶ παρακαλέσῃ τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν. 23 εἰρήνη τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς καὶ ἀγάπη μετὰ πίστεως ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 24 ἡ χάρις μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἀγαπώντων τὸν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ. 18 By all prayer and supplication, praying at all times in the spirit; and in the same watching with all instance and supplication for all the saints; 19 And for me, that speech may be given me, that I may open my mouth with confidence, to make known the mystery of the gospel, 20 For which I am an ambassador in a chain; so that therein I may be bold to speak according as I ought. 21 But, that you also may know the things that concern me and what I am doing, Tychicus, my dearest brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make known to you all things; 22 Whom I have sent to you for this same purpose, that you may know the things concerning us, and that he may comfort your hearts. 23 Peace be to the brethren and charity with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 24 Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in incorruption. Amen. Supra posuit apostolus quae dixerat de insidiis et armaturis, hic exponit illud quod etiam dixerat de confirmatione et confortatione in potentia Dei: et hoc fit per orationem ad Deum super auxilio divino. Facit autem tria. Previously the Apostle set down what he had to say about snares and weapons (6:12), now he explains what he had also said concerning a confirmation and strengthening in the power of God. He does this through a prayer to God for divine assistance. He does three things:
Primo monet eos ad orandum pro seipsis,
secundo pro aliis,
tertio pro ipsomet apostolo.
First, he cautions them to pray for themselves.
Secondly, for others.
Thirdly, for the Apostle himself.
Circa primum ponit septem conditiones orationis. Primo quod debet esse perfecta. Unde dicit omnem orationem, quod fit cum in omnibus recurrit quis ad orationem, vel orat pro omni bono. In reference to the first he determines seven conditions for prayer. First, it must be complete. Whence he says By all prayer; this occurs when someone has recourse to prayer in everything, or prays for every good. Secundo quod sit humilis, non praesumptuosa. Ps. ci, 18: respexit in orationem humilium, et cetera. Quod fit quando homo non putat se exaudiri propter merita sua, sed propter misericordiam divinam. Et ideo dicit obsecrationem, id est per sacrae rei acceptionem. Phil. IV, 6: in omni oratione et obsecratione, cum gratiarum actione petitiones vestrae innotescant apud Deum. Secondly, it must be humble and not presumptuous. “He hath had regard to the prayer of the humble: and he hath not despised their petition” (Ps. 101:18). This happens when a man does not imagine that he is going to be heard on account of his own merits, but on account of the divine mercy. And so he adds and supplication, that is, through an accepting of a sacred reality. “In every thing, by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your petitions be made known to God” (Phil. 4:6). Tertio quod sit continua, ibi omni tempore. I Thess. V, 17: sine intermissione orate, in omnibus gratias agite. Ps. XXXIII, 2: benedicam dominum in omni tempore, scilicet statuto. Thirdly, prayer must be continual, at all times. “Pray without ceasing, in all things give thanks” (1 Thess. 5:17-18). “I will bless the Lord at all times” (Ps. 33:2), that is, the established times. Quarto quod sit devota, quia in spiritu. I Cor. XIV, 15: psallam spiritu, psallam et mente, id est, non ut vagus. Fourthly, it should be devout since it is in the spirit. “I will sing with the spirit, I will sing also with the understanding” (1 Cor. 14:15), that is, not in a distracted manner. Quinto quod sit vigilans, ibi vigilantes. I Petr. IV, 7: estote prudentes, et vigilate in orationibus. Fifthly, it should be vigilant: and in the same watching. “Be prudent therefore and watch in prayers” (1 Pet. 4:7). Sexto quod sit instans, ibi in omni instantia. Rom. XII, 12: orationi instantes, et cetera. Sixthly, it must be in earnest: with all instance. “Instant in prayer” (Rom. 12:12). Septimo charitativa, ut scilicet fiat pro omnibus aliis sanctis, ibi et obsecratione pro omnibus sanctis. I Tim. II, 1: obsecro enim primum omnium fieri obsecrationes, orationes, postulationes, gratiarum actiones pro omnibus hominibus, et cetera. Seventhly, it should be charitable, done for all the other saints: and supplication for all the saints. “I desire, therefore, first of all, that supplications, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings be made for all men” (1 Tim. 2: 1). Deinde, ultimo, pro se petit orationes fieri, ibi et pro me. Ubi tria petit pro se, quae cuilibet praedicatori sunt necessaria, scilicet quod os aperiat, et ad praedicandum se praeparet quantum in se est, et detur sibi gratia. Lastly, he asks prayers for himself: and for me. He asks three things for himself which are necessary for any preacher: That his mouth would be opened, that he might prepare himself as much as he can for preaching, and that grace be given him. Et ut haec tria sibi dentur, petit ut oretur pro se, dicens ut detur mihi sermo in apertione oris mei. Non enim potero loqui, nisi quod dederit mihi dominus, dicebat ille Balaam, Num. XXII, 18. Unde dominus, Matth. c. X, 20: non enim vos estis qui loquimini, sed spiritus, et cetera. Unde dicitur ibidem 19: dabitur enim vobis in illa hora quid loquamini. Hoc autem dictum primo ponit apostolus. Ut detur, inquit, mihi sermo in apertione oris mei. Col. ult.: orantes simul et pro nobis, ut Deus aperiat nobis ostium sermonis. In order for these to be granted to him he begs them to pray for him, saying that speech may be given me that I may open my mouth. I cannot speak anything else but what the Lord gives me, as Balaam expressed it (Num. 22:38). Hence our Lord affirmed: “For it is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your Father who speaks in you” (Mt. 10:20). He also states there (v. 19): “For it shall be given you in that hour what to speak.” The Apostle places this petition first, that speech may be given me that I may open my mouth. “Praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech” (Col. 4:3). Et ad quid, Paule? Respondet, ut scilicet possim cum fiducia notum facere Evangelii mysterium, pro quo legatione fungor in catena. Et hoc est secundum quod petit, quia non solum est necessarium praedicatori ut detur ei sermo in apertione oris, seu scientiae, sed ut sermonem sibi datum praedicet audacter et cum fiducia. Et hoc est quod dicit cum fiducia, et cetera. Et sic praedicabant apostoli, de quibus Act. IV, 31, quod loquebantur cum fiducia verbum Dei. And for what, Paul? He answers, that I may with confidence make known the mystery of the gospel, for which I am an ambassador in a chain. This is his second petition. For it is not only necessary for a preacher that the word or knowledge be given him when he talks, but also that he preach the word given him boldly and with assurance. This is what he means by with confidence. This is how the Apostles preached, “they spoke the word of God with confidence” (Ac. 4:31). Commendat autem apostolus officium praedicationis ab excellentia et altitudine. Unde dicit mysterium Evangelii. Secundo ostendit, quod pro ipso libenter sustinuit tribulationem et ignominiam. Unde dicit pro quo legatione fungor in catena. De his duobus simul Col. ult.: Deus aperiat nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi, propter quod et vinctus sum. Et quia dicitur Eccli. XX, 22: ex ore fatui reprobatur parabola, non enim dicit eam tempore suo, ideo apostolus non solum petit, quod detur sibi sermo, seu praedicandi scientia, sed gratia loquendi cum fiducia, ut scilicet non desisteret ab incepto pro catenis, quibus catenatus erat ab incepto et commisso sibi officio fiducialiter et fideliter prosequendo. The Apostle praises the duty of preaching for its prominence and grandeur. Thus he says the mystery of the gospel. Then he discloses how he willingly undergoes suffering and ignominy for it, for which I am an ambassador in a chain. These two are linked together in Colossians 4 (3): “That God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ, for which also I am bound.” And because “a parable coming out of a fool’s mouth shall be rejected; for be doth not speak it in due season” (Sirach 20:22). The Apostle does not merely ask that the word or knowledge of preaching be given him. He also prays for the grace of speaking with confidence so that he would not stop what he began on account of the chains by which he was bound; that he might fulfill confidently and faithfully the duty entrusted to him and begun by him. Tertio petit, ut detur sibi temporis seu modi congruentia, quia tempus loquendi et tempus tacendi, ut dicitur Eccle. III, 7. Et ideo dicit ut in ipso audeam, prout oportet me loqui. Et certe in omnibus modus et qualitas facit gratum. Et hoc idem petebat apostolus Col. ult.: ut manifestem illud, ita ut oportet me loqui: quia, ut dicitur Prov. c. XV, 23: sermo opportunus, optimus. In the third place, he asks that the appropriate time and manner be granted him because there is “a time to keep silence, and a time to speak” (Eccl. 3:7). Therefore he asks that therein I may the bold to speak according as I ought. Certainly among all people it is one’s manner and quality [of speaking] which makes it acceptable. The Apostle also asked for this in Colossians 4 (4): “That I may make it manifest as I ought to speak.” As Proverbs 15 (23) expresses it: “A word in due time is best.” In fine autem huius epistolae apostolus statum suum Ephesiis manifestat, cum dicit ut autem et vos sciatis, et cetera. At the end of this letter the Apostle reveals his condition to the Ephesians (v. 21) when he:
Ubi primo facit quod dictum est;
secundo eos more solito salutat, ibi pax fratribus, et cetera.
First, does this; and
Secondly, greets them in the customary way (6:23).
In prima parte tria facit. in the first part he makes three points:
Primo ponitur status sui manifestatio, ibi ut autem et vos sciatis, etc.;
secundo discipuli nuntiantis multiplex commendatio, ibi Tychicus frater meus charissimus et fidelis, etc.;
tertio ostendit finem, pro quo eis manifestat statum suum, quia scilicet est ipsorum consolatio, ibi et consolentur corda vestra.
First, he makes known his condition (6:21a).
Secondly, he recommends, on several accounts, the disciple who brings the news (6:21b).
Thirdly, he gives the purpose why he makes his condition known to them, namely, for their consolation—that he may comfort your hearts.
Dicit ergo: ut autem vos sciatis quae circa me sunt, quid agam, omnia nota vobis faciet, et cetera. Quasi dicat apostolus: pro mysterio Evangelii, pro quo catenatus sum, volo quod sciatis quod catena et omnes tribulationes et omnia supplicia, quae in credito officio inferuntur, non me angunt, nec cor mutant, nec pervertunt interius, nec attingunt; sed certe sic angor de istis, quod omnia circa me sunt, non intra. But, that you also may know the things that concern me and what I am doing. As though the Apostle said: For the sake of the mystery of the Gospel, on account of which I am imprisoned, I. want you to know that chains and all tribulations and all torments, inflicted while discharging the duty entrusted to me, do not cause me anxiety. Neither do they change my heart or ruin me interiorly, nor do they even touch me; but, of course, I am disturbed by what goes on around me, not about what is within me. Et quia non possum ire ad annuntiandum vobis, utpote catenatus, omnia nota faciet vobis Tychicus frater meus charissimus et fidelis minister in domino. Et ideo secure credatis ei de omnibus. Lc. XII, 42: quis, putas, est fidelis servus et prudens, et cetera. Et iste certe est talis, quem misi ad vos in hoc ipsum, ut cognoscatis quae circa nos sunt. Et haec est discipuli commendatio. Et ad quid? Ut consoletur corda vestra. Since I am not able to leave, chained as I am, to ten you, Tychicus, my dearest brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make known to you all things. Thus you can safely believe him about all these matters. “Who do you think is the faithful and wise steward?” (Lk. 12:42). He surely is such whom I have sent to you for this same purpose, that you may know the things concerning us. This is the disciple’s recommendation. And what for? That he may comfort your hearts. Deinde cum dicit pax fratribus, etc., ponit apostolus consuetam salutationem. Et advertendum est, quod licet gratia praecedat pacem et charitatem mutuam hominum ad se invicem, et ad Deum quo ad collationem (quia non est pax impiis, dicit dominus), tamen quo ad executionem gratiae et veritatis et charitatis conservationem, pax praecedit suo modo. Et ideo primo optat eis pacem ad se invicem et charitatem ad Deum, dicens: pax fratribus, et charitas cum fide. Next, when he says Peace be to the brethren the Apostle writes his usual greeting. And notice that although the bestowal of grace precedes peace and the mutual love of men among themselves and with God since “there is no peace to the wicked, saith the Lord” (Is. 57:21), nevertheless, in its own way peace does precede the putting of grace into practice and the preservation of truth and charity. Hence, he first wishes that they have peace with one another and charity toward God—peace be to the brethren and charity with faith. Et quia licet pax et charitas multum faciant ad gratiae conservationem, tamen quia semper supponunt ipsam gratiam, sine qua haberi non possunt, ideo optat eis gratiam. Unde dicit: gratia cum omnibus, qui diligunt dominum nostrum Iesum Christum in incorruptione. Amen. Peace and charity contribute greatly toward the preservation of grace; yet, since they always presuppose grace—they could not be had without it—on this account he prays that they receive grace. Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in incorruption. Amen.