1 παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ ὁ δέσμιος ἐν κυρίῳ ἀξίως περιπατῆσαι τῆς κλήσεως ἧς ἐκλήθητε, 2 μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πραΰτητος, μετὰ μακροθυμίας, ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ, 3 σπουδάζοντες τηρεῖν τὴν ἑνότητα τοῦ πνεύματος ἐν τῷ συνδέσμῳ τῆς εἰρήνης: 4 ἓν σῶμα καὶ ἓν πνεῦμα, καθὼς καὶ ἐκλήθητε ἐν μιᾷ ἐλπίδι τῆς κλήσεως ὑμῶν: 1 I, therefore, a prisoner in the Lord, beseech you that you walk worthy of the vocation in which you are called; 2 With all humility and mildness, with patience, supporting one another in charity; 3 Careful to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace; 4 One body and one spirit; as you are called in one hope of your calling. Supra commemoravit apostolus divina beneficia, per quae unitas Ecclesiae constituitur et conservatur, hic monet eos apostolus ad permanendum in Ecclesiae unitate. Circa quod duo facit, The Apostle recalled above the divine blessings through which the Church’s unity has originated and been preserved (Ch. 1-3). Now he admonishes the Ephesians to remain within this ecclesial unity. Regarding this he does two things:
quia primo monet eos ut in ipsa unitate perseverent;
secundo instruit eos quomodo in ea permaneant, ibi hoc ergo dico et testificor in domino, et cetera.
First, he exhorts them to persevere in unity.
Secondly, he instructs them how to remain in it (4:17).
Item prima in duas, The first section is again divided into two parts:
quia primo monet eos ad servandam ecclesiasticam unitatem;
secundo proponit ipsius ecclesiasticae unitatis formam, ibi unus dominus, una fides, et cetera.
First, he cautions them to keep ecclesial unity.
Secondly, he sets forth the pattern of this Church unity (4:5 ff.).
Prima iterum in tres. The first part has three divisions:
Primo praemittit quaedam inductiva ad servandam ecclesiasticam unitatem;
secundo ponit monitionem, ibi cum omni humilitate, etc.;
tertio ostendit monitionis finem, ibi solliciti servare, et cetera.
First, he offers certain incentives to maintain ecclesial unity.
Secondly, he sets down an admonition (4:2).
Thirdly, he shows the purpose of his admonition (4:3).
Inducit autem ex tribus ad servandam ecclesiasticam unitatem. Primo ex charitatis affectu;
secundo ex commemoratione suorum vinculorum;
tertio ex consideratione divinorum.
Three incentives are given for them to maintain the Church’s unity. First is the devotedness of Paul’s love, second is the remembrance of his chains, and third is the consideration of the divine favors. Charitatis autem affectum insinuat per obsecrationem. Unde dicit itaque, ex quo tot beneficia a domino recepistis, obsecro vos, cum tamen imperare possem, sed propter humilitatem non impero, magis autem obsecro. Prov. XVIII, 23 dicitur: cum obsecrationibus loquitur pauper. Item propter charitatem, quae magis movet ad opus, quam timor. Phil. I, 8: fiduciam multam habens in Christo imperandi tibi quod ad rem pertinet, propter charitatem magis obsecro, et cetera. Ex commemoratione vero suorum vinculorum inducit eos, dicens ego vinctus in domino. Ex quibus inducit eos ad servandam sic unitatem, propter tria. The affection of his love is intimated by his entreaty. Therefore because you have obtained so many blessings from the Lord, I beseech you. I do not command you even though I could; on account of my lowliness I do not command but plead with you. Proverbs 18 (23) remarks: “The poor will speak with supplications.” Charity is another reason [for such a procedure], it prompts men to action more than fear: “Wherefore, though I have much confidence in Christ Jesus to command thee that which is to the purpose, for charity’s sake I rather beseech” (Phm. 1:8). He stirs them by recalling his chains: I, a prisoner in the Lord. With these words he urges them to remain united, giving them three motives. Primo quia amicus magis compatitur amico afflicto, et nititur in pluribus facere voluntatem suam, ut vel sic eum consoletur. Eccli. XII, 8 s.: non agnoscetur in bonis amicus, et non abscondetur in malis inimicus. In bonis viri, inimici illius in tristitia, et in malitia illius, amicus agnitus est. First, a friend sympathizes with a suffering friend and more readily tries to fulfill his wishes so that be might thereby console him. “A friend shall not be known in prosperity, and an enemy shall not be hidden in adversity. In the prosperity of a man, his enemies are grieved; and a friend is known in his adversity” (Ecclus. 12:8-9). Secundo quia apostolus ipse vincula patiebatur pro ipsorum utilitate, et ideo inducit eos ad memoriam, quasi volens eos obligare. II Cor. I, 6: sive autem tribulamur pro vestra exhortatione et salute, sive consolamur pro vestra consolatione, sive exhortamur pro vestra exhortatione et salute; quae operatur tolerantiam earumdem passionum, quas et nos patimur. Secondly, the Apostle himself suffers imprisonment for their own utility. Hence he urges them to remember this, as though he wanted to put them under certain obligations. “Now, whether we be in tribulation, it is for your exhortation and salvation; or whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation; or whether we be exhorted, it is for your exhortation and salvation, which worketh the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer” (2 Cor. 1:6). Tertio quia, ut supra dictum est cap. III in illa parte: quae est gloria vestra, huiusmodi erant eis ad magnam gloriam, dum Deus pro eis amicos et electos suos exposuit tribulationibus pro ipsorum salute. Et ideo addit in domino, id est, propter dominum. Vel ideo dicit hoc, quia erat ad gloriam apostoli, quod non ut fur, aut homicida, sed ut Christianus et propter dominum nostrum Iesum Christum vinculatus erat, iuxta illud Ezech. III, 25: ecce data sunt super te vincula, et ligabunt te in eis, et cetera. Thirdly, as was mentioned previously in Chapter Three (v. 13) where he writes “my tribulations for you, which is your glory,” these sufferings were for the Ephesians’ own immense glory. For God exposed his own chosen friends to adversities in behalf of their salvation. Therefore he adds in the Lord which means, on account of the Lord. Or, he annexes in the Lord since it was the Apostle’s glory to be imprisoned, not as a thief or murderer, but as a Christian and for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ, in accordance with Ezechiel 3 (25): “And thou, O son of man, behold, they shall put bands upon thee, and they shall bind thee with them: and thou shalt not go forth from the midst of them.” Ex consideratione vero divinorum beneficiorum inducit eos, dicens ut digne ambuletis vocatione qua vocati estis, id est attendentes dignitatem ad quam vocati estis, ambuletis secundum quod ei convenit. Si enim quis vocatus esset ad nobile regnum, indignum esset quod faceret opera rusticana. Sic monet Ephesios apostolus, quasi dicat: vocati estis ut sitis cives sanctorum et domestici Dei, ut dictum est supra cap. II, 19, non est ergo dignum ut faciatis opera terrena, nec ut de mundanis curetis. Ideo dicit digne, et cetera. Col. I, 10: ambuletis digne, Deo per omnia placentes. Phil. I, 27: digne Evangelio Christi conversamini. Et quare? Quia vocavit vos de tenebris in admirabile lumen suum, I Petr. II, 9. He also stimulates them by a consideration of the divine blessings: that you walk worthy of the vocation in which you are called. You should be attentive to the dignity to which you are summoned, you ought to behave in a way conformable to it. If someone had been chosen to a rank of nobility in a kingdom, it would be an indignity for him to perform peasant work. Hence the Apostle warns the Ephesians, as though he said: You are called to be fellow citizens with the saints of God’s household (cf. Eph. 2:19), henceforth it is unworthy of you to engage in earthly affairs or worry about worldly matters. “You should walk worthy of God, in all things pleasing” (Col. 1:10 ); “let your conversation be worthy of the gospel of Christ” (Phil. 1:27). And why? Because “he hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light” (1 Pet. 2:9). Consequenter cum dicit cum omni humilitate, etc., ponit modum suae monitionis, docens quomodo digne poterunt ambulare. Ponit ergo quatuor virtutes, et excludit quatuor vitia eis opposita. Subsequently, when he says with all humility and mildness, with patience, supporting one another in charity, he expresses the way [to fulfill] his admonition, teaching them how they can behave in a worthy manner. Four virtues must be cultivated, and their four opposite vices shunned. Primum autem vitium quod excludit est superbia. Dum enim unus superbiens vult alii praeesse et alius similiter superbus non vult subesse, causatur dissensio in societate et tollitur pax. Unde Prov. XIII, 10: inter superbos semper iurgia sunt. Ad quod excludendum dicit cum omni humilitate, scilicet interiori et exteriori. Eccli. III, 20: quanto magnus es, humilia te in omnibus, et cetera. Phil. II, 3: in humilitate superiores invicem arbitrantes. Iac. IV, 6: Deus superbis resistit, humilibus autem dat gratiam. The first vice which he rejects is pride. When one arrogant person decides to rule others, while the other proud individuals do not want to submit, dissension arises in the society and peace disappears. Whence Proverbs 13 (10): “Among the proud there are always contentions.” To eliminate this he says with all interior and exterior humility. “The greater thou art, the more humble thyself in all things: and thou shalt find grace before God” (Ecclus. 3:20); “let nothing be done through contention, neither by vain glory; but in humility, let each esteem others better than themselves” (Phil. 2:3). “God resisteth the proud and giveth grace to the humble” (Jas. 4:6). Secundum est ira. Iracundi enim sunt propinqui ad iniuriam inferendam verbis vel factis, ex quo turbationes oriuntur. Prov. XV, v. 18: vir iracundus provocat rixas; qui patiens est, mitigat suscitatas. Ad hoc excludendum dicit et in mansuetudine, quae mitigat rixas, et pacem conservat. Prov. III, 34: mansuetis dabit gratiam. Ps. XXXVI, 11: mansueti autem haereditabunt terram. Eccli. III, 19: fili, in mansuetudine opera tua perfice, et super gloriam hominum diligeris. Anger is the second vice. For an angry person is inclined to inflict injury, whether verbal or physical, from which disturbances occur. “A passionate man stirreth up strifes: he that is patient appeaseth those who are stirred up” (Prov. 15:18). To discard it he says with all mildness; this softens arguments and preserves peace. “To the meek he will give grace” (Prov. 3:34); “The meek shall inherit the land” (Ps. 36:11). “My son, do thy works in meekness: and thou shalt be beloved above the glory of men” (Ecclus. 3:19). Tertium est impatientia. Quandoque enim aliquis humilis est et mansuetus in se, abstinens a molestiis inferendis, non tamen patienter sustinet molestias sibi illatas, vel attentatas. Ideo subdit cum patientia, scilicet adversorum. Iac. I, 4: patientia autem opus perfectum habet. Eccli. II, 4: in humilitate tua patientiam habet. Hebr. X, 36: patientia vobis necessaria est, ut voluntatem Dei facientes, et cetera. The third is impatience. Occasionally, someone who himself is humble and meek, refraining from causing trouble, nevertheless will not endure patiently the real or attempted wrongs done to himself. Therefore, he adds with patience in adversities. Patience hath a perfect work” (Jas. 1:4), “in thy humiliation keep patience” (Ecclus. 2:4). “For patience is necessary for you; that, doing the will of God, you may receive the promise” (Heb. 10: 36). Quartum inordinatus zelus. Cum enim inordinate zelantes, omnia quae vident iudicant, nec tempus, nec locum servantes, concitatur turbatio in societate. Gal. V, 15: si mordetis invicem et comeditis, videte ne ab invicem consumamini. Et ideo dicit supportantes invicem in charitate, scilicet mutuo sustinentes defectus aliorum, et hoc ex charitate. Quia quando deficit aliquis, non debet statim corrigi, nisi adsit locus et tempus, sed misericorditer expectari, quia charitas omnia sustinet, I Cor. XIII, 7. Non autem debent huiusmodi defectus supportari ex negligentia vel ex consensu et familiaritate, vel carnali amicitia, sed ex charitate. Gal. VI, 2: alter alterius onera portate, et cetera. Rom. XV, 1: debemus nos firmiores imbecillitates infirmorum sustinere. An inordinate zeal is the fourth vice. Inordinately zealous about everything, men will pass judgment on whatever they see. Not waiting for the proper time and place [to voice their criticisms], a turmoil arises in society. “If you bite and devour one another, take heed that you be not consumed one of another” (Gal. 5:15). Hence he says supporting one another in charity; mutually bearing with the defects of others out of charity. When someone falls he should not be immediately corrected—unless it is the time and the place for it. With mercy these should be waited for since “charity beareth all things” (1 Cor. 13:7). Not that these failings are tolerated out of negligence or consent, nor from familiarity or carnal friendship, but from charity. “Bear ye one another’s burdens; and so you shall fulfull the law of Christ” (Gal. 6:2). “Now, we that are stronger ought to bear the infirmities of the weak” (Rom. 15:1). Consequenter cum dicit solliciti servare, etc., ostendit monitionis finem, qui quidem est ut servetur unitas inter fideles. Circa quod tria facit. After this he shows the purpose of his admonition which is to maintain unity among the faithful. Three points are made:
Primo ponit ipsam unitatem, quae est finis;
secundo describit modum unitatis, ibi in vinculo pacis;
tertio ponit rationem servandae unitatis, ibi sicut vocati estis, et cetera.
First, he sets forth the unity itself which is the goal (4:3a).
Secondly, he describes bow the unity is kept (4:3b-4a).
Thirdly, he expresses the reason for preserving this unity (4:4b).
Dicit ergo primo: dico quod digne ambuletis, etc., et hoc faciatis solliciti servare unitatem spiritus. Est autem duplex unitas. Una ad malefaciendum, quae est mala, et potest dici unitas carnis. Eccli. XI, 34: a scintilla una augetur ignis, et ab uno doloso augetur sanguis. Alia est unitas spiritus, quae est bona ad faciendum bonum. Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum, et cetera. Io. XVII, 11: ut sint unum, sicut et nos unum sumus. First of all he remarks: You ought to walk worthy of your calling and be careful to keep the unity of the spirit. Two types of unity exist. One whose purpose is to commit evil; it is wicked and might be called a unity of the flesh. “Of one spark cometh a great fire, and of one deceitful man much blood” (Ecclus. 11:34). The other is a unity of the spirit; it is good and its purpose is to do good. “Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!” (Ps. 132: 1). “That they may be one, as we also are” (Jn. 17:11). Modus autem servandae unitatis est in vinculo pacis. Charitas enim est coniunctio animorum. Nulla autem rerum materialium coniunctio stare potest, nisi ligetur aliquo vinculo. Eodem modo nec coniunctio animorum per charitatem stare potest, nisi ligetur; huiusmodi autem verum ligamen est pax, quae est, secundum Augustinum, tranquillitas modi, speciei et ordinis, quando scilicet unusquisque habet quod suum est. Propter quod dicit in vinculo pacis. Ps. CXLVII, v. 14: qui posuit fines tuos pacem, et cetera. Quae quidem pax servatur per iustitiam. Is. XXXII, v. 17: opus iustitiae pax. Eccli. VI, 26: ne acedieris vinculis eius. Et quare? Quia certe, ut dicitur ibidem, vincula illius alligatura salutis. The way to continue in this unity is through the bond of peace. For charity is a union of souls. Now the fusion of material objects cannot last unless it is held by some bond. Similarly, the union of souls through love will not endure unless it is bound. Peace proves to be a true bond; that peace which is, according to Augustine, the balanced harmony between the measure, form, and order of a thing. This is achieved when each possesses what is proper to himself. For this reason he says in the bond of peace. “God hath placed peace in thy borders” (Ps. 147:14). Peace in its turn is maintained by justice: “And the work of justice shall be peace” (Is. 32:17). “Be not grieved with her bands” (Ecclus. 6:26). Why? Because “in her is the beauty of life: and her bands are a healthful binding” (ibid. v. 31). Nunc autem, quia in homine est duplex unitas, una scilicet membrorum ad invicem simul ordinatorum, alia corporis et animae tertium constituentium, apostolus autem loquitur hic de unitate Ecclesiae ad modum unitatis quae est in homine, ideo subiungit unum corpus, quasi dicat: ligemini vinculo pacis, ut sitis unum corpus, quantum ad primam unitatem, ut scilicet omnes fideles sint ordinati ad invicem, sicut membra unum corpus constituentia. Rom. XII, 5: multi unum corpus sumus in Christo, et cetera. Et unus spiritus, quantum ad secundum, ut videlicet unum habeatis spiritualem consensum per unitatem fidei et charitatis. Now in man there is a twofold unity. The first is the ordered structure of the organs among themselves, the second is the union of the body and the soul constituting what neither are separately. Because the Apostle speaks of the Church’s unity after the fashion of the unity found in man, he adds one body as if to say: Be united in the bond of peace that you may be one body—this regards the first type of unity—all the faithful should be ordered among themselves as members making up a single body. “We, being many, are one body in Christ; and every one members one of another” (Rom. 12:5). And one spirit—referring to the second [type of unity in man]—that you might possess a spiritual consensus through the unity of your faith and charity. Vel: unum corpus quoad proximum, et unus spiritus quoad Deum; quia qui adhaeret Deo, unus spiritus est, I Cor. VI, 17. Or: one body designates a unity with other men, and one spirit union with God; because “he who is joined to the Lord is one spirit” (I Cor. 6:17). Deinde cum dicit sicut vocati estis, etc., subdit rationem huius unitatis. Quia, sicut videmus, quod quando aliqui sunt vocati simul ad aliquid pariter habendum et mutuo percipiendum, solent simul etiam manere et simul ire, ita spiritualiter dicit: quia vos estis vocati ad unum, scilicet finale praemium, ideo debetis simul cum unitate spiritus ambulare in una spe vocationis vestrae, id est in unam spem speratam, quae est effectus vocationis. Hebr. III, 1: fratres, facti vocationis caelestis participes. I Cor. I, 26: videte vocationem vestram, et cetera. Sed posset aliquis dicere: quis vocabit nos, et ad quid? Respondetur I Petr. V, 10: Deus autem omnis gratiae, qui vocavit nos in aeternam gloriam suam, etc., ubi est beatitudo vestra. Apoc. XIX, 9: beati qui ad coenam nuptiarum agni vocati sunt. Next, when he says as you are called in one hope of your calling he points out the reason for this unity. We notice that when persons are called together to possess something in common and mutually enjoy it, they usually live and travel together. Thus, in a spiritual way he says: Because you are called to one and the same reality, namely, the final reward, you ought to walk together with a unity of spirit in the one hope of your calling, tending toward the one reality you hope for as a result of your vocation. “Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly vocation” (Heb. 3:1), “consider your vocation” (1 Cor. 1:26 ). If anyone asks: Who will call us? And to what? 1 Peter 5 (10) replies: “The God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory in Christ Jesus” where your true happiness is. “Blessed are they that are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb” (Apoc. 19:9).
5 εἷς κύριος, μία πίστις, ἓν βάπτισμα: 6 εἷς θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ πάντων, ὁ ἐπὶ πάντων καὶ διὰ πάντων καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν. 5 One Lord, one faith, one baptism; 6 One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in us all. Posita eorum exhortatione pro servanda ecclesiastica unitate, in hac parte apostolus formam dictae unitatis ipsis Ephesiis insinuat. Ubi sciendum est, quod cum Ecclesia Dei sit sicut civitas, est aliquod unum et distinctum, cum non sit unum sicut simplex, sed sicut compositum ex diversis partibus. Et ideo apostolus duo facit. After he has exhorted them to secure ecclesial unity (4:1), the Apostle offers the Ephesians, in this section, a glimpse of this unity’s pattern. Since the Church is likened to a city, it is one and distinct, although this unity is not uncomposed but composed of different parts. Thus the Apostle does two things:
Primo ostendit id quod est commune Ecclesiae;
secundo ostendit id quod est distinctum in ipsa, ibi unicuique autem nostrum data est gratia, et cetera.
First, he shows what is common in the Church.
Secondly, he shows what is distinctive [to each member] in her (4:7).
In qualibet autem civitate, ad hoc ut sit una, quatuor debent esse communia, scilicet unus gubernator, una lex, eadem insignia, et idem finis: haec autem quatuor dicit apostolus esse in Ecclesia. The solidarity of any city demands the presence of four common elements: one governor, one law, the same symbols, and a common goal. The Apostle affirms that these are present in the Church also. Dicit ergo: dico quod debetis habere unum corpus et unum spiritum, quia estis in unitate Ecclesiae, quae est una. Primo, quia habet ducem unum, scilicet Christum, et quantum ad hoc dicit unus dominus, non plures, pro quorum diversis voluntatibus oporteat vos discordare. Dicitur enim Hebr. III, 6: Christus est tamquam filius in domo sua. Act. II, 36: certissime ergo sciat omnis domus Israel, quia et dominum eum et Christum Deus fecit hunc Iesum, quem vos crucifixistis. I Cor. VIII, 6: unus dominus noster Iesus Christus. Zach. c. XIV, 9: in illa die erit dominus unus, et nomen eius unum. Hence, he says: You ought to have one body and one spirit since you belong to the one unified Church. First, she has one leader, Christ. Obeying one Lord, not many, conflicts do not arise from trying to comply with divergent commands. For Hebrews 3 (6) states: “Christ [is] as the Son in his own house.” “Therefore let all the house of Israel know most certainly that God hath made both Lord and Christ, this same Jesus, whom you have crucified” (Ac. 2:36). “There be lords many; yet to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things... and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things” (1 Cor. 8:5-6). “And the Lord shall be king over all the earth. In that day there shall be one Lord, and his name shall be one” (Zach. 14:9). Secundo quia lex eius est una. Lex enim Ecclesiae est lex fidei. Rom. III, v. 27: ubi est ergo nunc gloriatio tua? Exclusa est. Per quam legem? Factorum? Non, sed per legem fidei. Sed fides quandoque sumitur pro ipsa re credita, secundum illud: haec est fides Catholica, etc., id est, ista debent credi. Quandoque vero sumitur pro habitu fidei, quo creditur in corde. Et de utroque hoc potest dici. Secondly, her law is one. For the law of the Church is the law of faith: “Where then is thy boasting? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? No, but by the law of faith” (Rom. 3:27). Faith is sometimes applied to the reality believed in, as with “This is the Catholic faith...,” meaning this is what must be believed. At other times, faith refers to the habit of faith by which a man believes what he must in his very heart. Faith in both these senses can be called one. De primo, ut sit sensus una est fides, id est, idem iubemini credere et eodem modo operari, quia unum et idem est quod creditur a cunctis fidelibus, unde universalis seu Catholica dicitur. Unde I Cor. I, 10: idipsum dicatis, id est sentiatis, omnes, et cetera. Alio modo una est fides, id est unus habitus fidei quo creditur; una, inquam, non numero, sed specie, quia idem debet esse in corde omnium; et hoc modo idem volentium dicitur una voluntas. In the former, one faith would mean that you are bidden to believe in the same truths and live in the same moral way. For what is believed by all the faithful is one and the same reality, hence [their faith] is termed Catholic or Universal. “Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak,” that is, think, “the same thing and that there be no schisms among you; but that you be perfect in the same mind and in the same judgment” (1 Cor. 1:10). In the second way, one faith designates the unity of the habit of faith by which all believe. I mean that it is specifically one—not numerically one—since the same faith is present in each one’s heart; just as when many persons want the same thing, they are said to be of one will. Tertio eadem sunt insignia Ecclesiae, scilicet sacramenta Christi, inter quae primum Baptisma, quod est ianua omnium aliorum. Et ideo dicit unum Baptisma. Dicitur autem unum triplici ratione. Primo quia Baptismata non differunt secundum baptizantes; quia a quocumque conferantur, uniformem virtutem habent, quia qui baptizat interius, unus est, scilicet Christus. Io. I, v. 33: super quem videris spiritum descendentem, et manentem super eum, hic est qui baptizat in spiritu sancto. Secundo dicitur unum, quia datur in nomine unius, scilicet Trinitatis. Baptizantes eos in nomine patris, et filii, et spiritus sancti. Tertio quia iterari non potest. Poenitentia autem, matrimonium, Eucharistia, et extrema unctio, iterari possunt, non autem Baptismus. Hebr. VI, 4: impossibile est eos qui semel sunt illuminati, scilicet per Baptismum, gustaverunt autem donum caeleste, et participes facti sunt spiritus sancti, gustaverunt nihilominus bonum Dei verbum virtutesque saeculi venturi, et prolapsi sunt, scilicet per peccatum, renovari rursus ad poenitentiam. Non iteratur autem vel propter characterem, vel quia causa eius non iteratur. Rom. VI, 4: consepulti enim sumus cum illo per Baptismum in mortem, et cetera. Nunc autem Christus semel pro peccatis mortuus est, ut dicitur I Petr. III, 18. Thirdly, the Church shares the same symbols. They are Christ’s sacraments, of which baptism is the first and the entrance to the rest. Hence he says one baptism. Three reasons account for this unity. First, baptisms do not differ by reason of who administers them. No matter who performs the rites they possess an unvaried power because he who baptizes interiorly is one, namely, Christ. “He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining upon him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost” (Jn. 1:33). Second, baptism is one since it is conferred in the name of the one Triune God: “baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost” (Mt. 28:19). The third reason is that it cannot be repeated. The sacraments of penance, matrimony, the eucharist and last anointing may be repeated, but not baptism. “For it is impossible for those who were once illuminated,” by baptism, “have tasted also the heavenly gift and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, have moreover tasted the good word of God and the powers of the world to come, and are fallen away,” through sins, “to be renewed again to penance” (Heb. 6:4-6). It is not repeated, either by reason of the sacramental character [it imparts], or because its cause is not repeated: “For we are buried together with him by baptism into death; that, as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also may walk in newness of life” (Rom. 6:4). And Christ died but once as 1 Peter 3 (18) affirms. Quarto in Ecclesia est idem finis, qui est Deus. Filius enim ducit nos ad patrem. I Cor. XV, 24: cum tradiderit regnum Deo et patri, cum evacuaverit omnem principatum, et potestatem, et virtutem, oportet autem illum regnare, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc subiungit, dicens unus Deus, etc., Fourthly, the Church has the same goal, God. The Son leads us to the Father: “when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God and the Father; when he shall have brought to nought all principality and power and virtue” (1 Cor. 15:24). In reference to this the Apostle adds one God and Father of all:
ubi primo, ponit apostolus eius unitatem;
secundo eius dignitatem, ibi qui est super omnes, et cetera.
First, he mentions his unity.
Secondly, his dignity (4:6b),
Circa primum duo dicit: primum pertinet ad naturam divinam; unde dicit unus Deus. Deut. VI, 4: audi, Israel, dominus Deus tuus unus est. Aliud pertinet ad eius benevolentiam ad nos et ad pietatem; unde dicit et pater omnium. Is. LXIII, 16: tu, domine, pater noster, et redemptor noster. Mal. II, 10: numquid non pater unus omnium nostrum? Numquid non Deus creavit nos? Regarding the first he has two remarks. One pertains to the Divine Nature, he says there is one God: “Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord” (Deut. 6:4). The other has to do with his kindness to us and our piety; whence he says Father of all: “Thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer: from everlasting is thy name” (Is. 63:16); “Have we not all one father? Hath not one God created us?” (Mal. 2:10). Dignitatem autem eius commendat ex tribus. Ex altitudine divinitatis, cum dicit qui est super omnes. Ps. CXII, 4: super omnes gentes dominus, et cetera. Ex amplitudine eius potestatis, cum dicit per omnia. Ier. c. XXXIII, 24: caelum et terram ego impleo, et cetera. Ps. VIII, 8: omnia subiecisti sub pedibus, et cetera. Lc. X, 22: omnia mihi quippe tradita sunt, quippe quia omnia per ipsum facta sunt, Io. I, 3. Sed modo quo dicitur Sap. XI, 21: omnia in numero, et pondere, et mensura disposuisti. Ex largitate gratiae, cum dicit et in omnibus nobis, scilicet per gratiam. Ier. XIV, 9: tu autem in nobis es, domine, et cetera. He extols Gods dignity on three scores. The Divine Majesty who is above all: “The Lord is high above all nations; and his glory above the heavens” (Ps. 112:4). His power which extends through all [that exists]: “Do not I fill heaven and earth, saith the Lord?” (Jer. 23:24). “Thou bast subjected an things under his feet” (Ps. 8:8). “All things are delivered to me” (Lk. 10:22) since “all things were made by him” (Jn. 1:3). Wisdom 11 (21) indicates how this is accomplished: “Thou hast ordered all things in measure, and number, and weight. For great power always belonged to thee alone: and who shall resist the strength of thy arm?” Finally, there is the abundance of his grace in us all: “Thou, 0 Lord, art among us, and thy name is called upon by us” (Jer. 14:9). Sed primum appropriatur patri, qui est fontale principium divinitatis et omnes creaturas excellit. Secundum filio, qui est sapientia attingens a fine usque ad finem fortiter, Sap. VIII, 1. Tertium vero spiritui sancto, qui replet orbem terrarum, Sap. I, 7. Majesty is appropriated to the Father who is the source and principle in the Divinity, exceeding the whole of creation. Power is appropriated to the Son who is that wisdom which “reacheth from end to end mightily” (Wis. 8:1). Grace is appropriated to the Holy Spirit who “hath filled the whole world” (Wis. 1:7).”
7 ἑνὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ. 8 διὸ λέγει, ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. 9 τὸ δὲ ἀνέβη τί ἐστιν εἰ μὴ ὅτι καὶ κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα [μέρη] τῆς γῆς; 10 ὁ καταβὰς αὐτός ἐστιν καὶ ὁ ἀναβὰς ὑπεράνω πάντων τῶν οὐρανῶν, ἵνα πληρώσῃ τὰ πάντα. 7 But to every one of us is given grace, according to the measure of the giving of Christ. 8 Wherefore he saith: Ascending on high, he led captivity captive; he gave gifts to men. 9 Now, that he,aseended, what is it, but because be also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? 10 He that descended is the same also that ascended above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. Supra ostendit apostolus ecclesiasticam unitatem quantum ad id quod in Ecclesia est commune, hic idem ostendit quantum ad hoc quod singulis fidelibus membris Ecclesiae est proprium et speciale. Circa quod tria facit: Previously the Apostle dealt with ecclesial unity in the perspective of what is common within the Church (4:5), nowwhe manifests this same [unity] from the viewpoint of what is personal and specific to each of the faithful members of the Church. Concerning this he makes three points:
primo proponit distinctionem;
secundo inducit ad hoc auctoritatem, ibi propter quod dicit, etc.;
tertio ponit auctoritatis expositionem, ibi quod autem ascendit, et cetera.
First, he points out the fact of distinctions.
Secondly, he introduces a [Scriptural] authority for them (4:8).
Thirdly, he explains this authoritative quotation (4:9).
Dicit ergo: habemus in Ecclesia unum Deum, unam fidem, etc., sed tamen diversas gratias diversis particulariter collatas habemus, quia unicuique nostrum data est gratia, quasi dicat: nullus nostrum est qui non sit particeps divinae gratiae et communionis. Io. I, 16: de plenitudine eius omnes accepimus gratiam pro gratia. Sed certe ista gratia non est data omnibus uniformiter seu aequaliter, sed secundum mensuram donationis Christi, id est secundum quod Christus est dator, et eam singulis mensuravit. Rom. XII, 6: habentes donationes secundum gratiam quae data est nobis differentes. He states: We have in the Church one God, one faith, one baptism. Nonetheless, each of us has the diverse graces especially granted to him—to every one of us is given grace. As though he said: None of us lack a share in divine grace and communion, “of his fullness we all have received; and grace for grace” (Jn. 1:16). This grace, however, is certainly not bestowed on everyone uniformly and equally but according to the measure of the giving of Christ. Christ is the donor who metes out the grace to each, who have “different gifts according to the grace that is given us” (Rom. 12:6). Haec differentia non est ex fato, nec a casu, nec ex merito, sed ex donatione Christi, id est secundum quod Christus nobis commensuravit. Ipse enim solus recepit spiritum non ad mensuram, Io. III, 34, caeteri autem sancti ad mensuram recipiunt. Rom. XII, 3: unicuique sicut Deus divisit mensuram fidei. I Cor. III, 8: unusquisque propriam mercedem accipiet, et cetera. Matth. XXV, 15: unicuique secundum propriam virtutem, et cetera. Quia sicut in potestate Christi est dare vel non dare, ita dare tantum vel minus. The variation does not spring from fate or chance, nor from a difference of merit, but from the giving of Christ; that is, according as Christ allots it to us. Only he has received the Spirit without measure (cf. Jn. 3:34); the rest of the saints obtain it in a limited degree, “according as God hath divided to every one the measure of faith” (Rom. 12:3). “And every man shall receive his own reward, according to his own labor” (1 Cor. 3:8). Again, “to one he gave five talents, and to another two, and to another one, to every one according to his proper ability” (Mt. 25:15). just as it is in Christ’s power to give or not, so he can grant more or less. Sequitur propter quod dicit, et cetera. Hic ponit quamdam auctoritatem assumptam de Ps. LXVII, 19, et refertur ad hoc quod dixit secundum mensuram donationis Christi; ubi tria facit. Primo commemorat Christi ascensionem; secundo humani generis liberationem; tertio ponit donorum spiritualium collationem. Partes consequuntur se. Wherefore he saith (v. 8) introduces an authoritative text from Psalm 67 (19) suporting according to the measure of the giving of Christ. Three points are made. First, it speaks of Christ’s ascension; secondly, of mankind’s liberation; thirdly, of the bestowal of spiritual gifts. Each of these will follow in order. Ostendit ergo primum, dicens sic: propter quod, scilicet significandum, dicit, scilicet propheta David in Ps. LXVII, 19: ascendens Christus in altum, et cetera. Mich. II, 13: ascendit ante eos pandens iter, et cetera. Iob XXXIX, 18: in altum alas erigit, et cetera. Ascendens, inquam, sed non solus, quia captivam duxit captivitatem, eos scilicet quos Diabolus captivaverat. Humanum enim genus captivatum erat, et sancti in charitate decedentes, qui meruerant gloriam, in captivitate Diaboli detinebantur quasi captivi in Limbo. Is. V, 13: ductus est captivus populus meus, et cetera. Hanc ergo captivitatem Christus liberavit, et secum duxit in caelum. Is. XLIX, 24 s.: numquid tolletur a forti praeda, aut quod captum fuerit a robusto salvabitur, ac salvum poterit esse? Quia haec dicit dominus: equidem et captivitas a forti tolletur, et quod ablatum fuerit a robusto, salvabitur. He refers to the ascension saying: Wherefore to signify this the prophet David saith in Psalm 67: ascending on high... “For he shall go up that shall open the way before them. They shall divide and pass through the gate and shall come in by it: and their king shall pass before them, and the Lord at the head of them” (Mic. 2:13). Christ “setteth up his wings on high” (Job 39:18). He ascends, I say, but not alone. He led captivity captive, that is, those whom the devil had captured. For the human race was imprisoned; the saints who had died in love, and so merited eternal glory, were held like prisoners by the devil in limbo. “My people led away captive because they had not knowledge” (Is. 5:13). Christ liberated these prisoners and brought them with himself to heaven. “Shall the prey be taken from the strong? Or can that which was taken by the mighty be delivered? For thus saith the Lord: Yea verily. Even the captivity shall be taken away from the strong: and that which was taken by the mighty shall be delivered” (Is. 49:24-25). Sed certe hoc non verificatur solum quantum ad iam mortuos, sed etiam quantum ad viventes, qui captivi tenebantur sub peccato, quos, a peccato liberans, servos fecit iustitiae, ut dicitur Rom. VI, 18, et sic quodammodo eos in captivitatem duxit, non ad perniciem sed ad salutem. Lc. V, 10: ex hoc iam homines eris capiens. Indeed, this is not only true of those already dead; it also applies to the living. Held under sin’s bondage, Christ made men the slaves of justice in delivering them from sin, as Romans 6 (18) phrases it. Thus in some way he led men captive not unto destruction but salvation. “From henceforth thou shalt catch men” (Lk. 5:10). Non solum autem homines a Diaboli captivitate eripuit, et suae servituti subiecit, sed etiam eos spiritualibus bonis dotavit. Unde subditur dedit dona hominibus, scilicet gratiae et gloriae. Ps. LXXXIII, 12: gratiam et gloriam dabit dominus. II Petr. I, 4: per quem et pretiosa nobis promissa donavit, et cetera. Nec est contrarium quod in littera praecedenti dicitur accepit dona in hominibus, quia certe ipse dedit ut Deus et accepit ut homo in fidelibus, sicut in membris suis. Dedit in caelo sicut Deus, et accepit in terra secundum modum loquendi quo dicitur Matth. c. XXV, 40: quod uni ex minimis meis fecistis, mihi fecistis. Besides grasping men from a diabolical slavery and placing them in his own service, he has enriched them spiritually. Hence he adds he gave gifts of grace and glory to men. “For God loveth mercy and truth; the Lord will give grace and glory” (Ps. 83:12). “By whom he hath given us most great and precious promises, that by these you may be made partakers of the divine nature” (2 Pet. 1:4). This version [of Ps. 67:19] does not contradict the reading which has “Thou hast received gifts in men.” Clearly, he as God bestows the gifts which he as man receives in the faithful who are his members. In heaven be gives, since he is God, while on earth he accepts what is given in the manner Matthew 25 (40) describes: “As long as you did it to one of these my least brethren, you did it to me.” Deinde cum dicit quod autem ascendit, etc., exponit propositam auctoritatem, Next he comments on the authority:
et primo quantum ad ascensionem;
secundo quantum ad materiam donationis, ibi et ipse dedit, et cetera.
First, in reference to the ascension.
Secondly, regarding what is given men (4: 11)
Circa primum duo facit. He does two things concerning the first:
Primo ostendit quomodo descendit, ibi qui descendit;
secundo quomodo ascendit, ibi qui ascendit, et cetera.
First, he shows how he descended.
Secondly, how he ascended (4: 10).
Circa primum considerandum, quod cum Christus vere sit Deus, inconveniens videbatur quod sibi conveniret descendere, quia nihil est Deo sublimius. Et ideo ad hanc dubitationem excludendam subdit apostolus quod autem ascendit quid est, nisi quia et descendit primum, et cetera. Ac si diceret: ideo postea dixi quod ascendit, quia ipse primo descenderat, ut ascenderet: aliter enim ascendere non potuisset. In reflecting upon the first point, it appears improper for Christ, who is true God, to lower himself, since nothing is more eminent than God. To remove any doubts on this score the Apostle asserts, Now, that he ascended, what is it, but because he also descended first. As if he would say: For this reason do I first mention that he ascended and only afterward that he descended; he descended in order that he might ascend. For otherwise he could not have ascended. Quomodo autem descendit, subdit, dicens quia in inferiores partes terrae. Quod potest intelligi dupliciter. Uno modo ut per inferiores partes terrae intelligantur istae partes terrae, in quibus nos habitamus, quae dicuntur inferiores, eo quod sunt infra caelum et aerem. In has autem partes terrae dicitur descendisse filius Dei, non motu locali, sed assumptione inferioris et terrenae naturae, secundum illud Phil. II, 7: exinanivit semetipsum, et cetera. Alio modo potest intelligi de Inferno, qui etiam infra nos est. Illuc enim descendit dominus secundum animam, ut inde sanctos liberaret. Et sic videtur hoc eis convenire quod dixerat: captivam duxit captivitatem. Zach. IX, 11: tu quoque in sanguine testamenti tui eduxisti vinctos tuos de lacu, in quo non erat aqua. Apoc. X, 1: vidi alium Angelum fortem descendentem de caelo, et cetera. Ex. III, 7: vidi afflictionem populi mei qui est in Aegypto, etc.; et sequitur: et descendi liberare eum. How he descended is shown in into the lower parts of the earth, which can be interpreted in two ways. In one, the lower regions are understood as those parts of the earth we inhabit. It is lower than the heavens and the atmosphere. The Son of God came down to these sections of the earth, not by any local movement, but by assuming a lowly, terrestrial nature; according to that text of Philippians 2 (7): “He emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of men, and in habit found as a man.” In the second way it can be understood as referring to hell, which is even below us. He descended thither in his soul that he might free the saints from it. This seems to agree with the he led captivity captive above. “Thou also, by the blood of thy testament, hast sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein is no water” (Zach. 9:11). I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven” (Apoc. 10: 1 ) “I have seen the affliction of my people in Egypt, and I have heard their cry... And knowing their sorrow, I am come down to deliver them” (Ex. 3:7-8). Deinde cum dicit qui descendit, etc., manifestat eius ascensionem quantum ad tria. Primo quantum ad personam ascendentis, cum dicit qui descendit, ipse est qui ascendit, et cetera. In quo designatur unitas personae Dei et hominis. Descendit enim, sicut dictum est, filius Dei assumendo humanam naturam, ascendit autem filius hominis secundum humanam naturam ad vitae immortalis sublimitatem. Et sic est idem filius Dei qui descendit et filius hominis qui ascendit. Io. c. III, 13: nemo ascendit in caelum, nisi qui descendit de caelo filius hominis, qui est in caelo. Ubi notatur quod humiles, qui voluntarie descendunt, spiritualiter Deo sublimante ascendunt, quia qui se humiliat, exaltabitur, Lc. XIV, 11. Next (v. 10), three aspects of the ascension are discussed. First, He that descended in the same also that ascended indicates the person who ascends. It affirms the unity of person [in the two natures of Christ], the divine and the human. For he who descended, as was said, is the Son of God taking on human nature. He who ascends is the Son of man, raising human nature to the preeminence of immortal life. Thus the Son of God who descended and the Son of man who ascended are identical: “And no man hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended from heaven, the Son of man who is in heaven” (Jn. 3:13). Notice too how the humble who voluntarily lower themselves, spiritually ascend to the grandeur of God: “he that humbleth himself shall be exalted” (Lk. 14:11). Secundo ostendit terminum ascensionis, cum dicit super omnes caelos. Ps. LXVII, 34: qui ascendit super omnes caelos ad orientem. Nec solum intelligendum est quod ascenderit super omnes caelos corporales, sed etiam super omnem spiritualem creaturam. Supra c. I, 20: constituens illum ad dexteram suam in caelestibus super omnem principatum, et potestatem, et virtutem, et dominationem, et omne nomen quod nominatur, et cetera. Secondly, above all the heavens denotes the destination of the ascension. “He mounteth above the heaven of heavens, to the east” (Ps. 67:34). This should not be understood simply in reference to an ascension above the physical heavens, it also refers to every spiritual creature. God has set Christ “on his right band in the heavenly places. Above all principality and power and virtue and dominion and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come” (Eph. 1:20-21). Tertio ponit ascensionis fructum, cum dicit ut adimpleret omnia, id est omne genus hominum spiritualibus donis repleret. Ps. LXIV, 5: replebimur in bonis domus tuae. Eccli. XXIV, 26: a generationibus meis adimplemini. Vel adimpleret, id est ut ad effectum perduceret, omnia quae de ipso erant scripta. Lc. ult.: oportet impleri omnia quae scripta sunt in lege et prophetis et Psalmis de me. Thirdly, the fruitful outcome of the ascension is that he might fill all things, bestowing on every race of men the fullness of spiritual gifts. “We shall be filled with the good things of thy house” (Ps. 64:5); “Come over to me, all ye that desire me, and be filled with my fruits” (Ecclus. 24:26). Or, that he might fulfill, that is, put into effect all things written concerning himself: “all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses and in the prophets and in the psalms, concerning me” (Lk. 24:44).
11 καὶ αὐτὸς ἔδωκεν τοὺς μὲν ἀποστόλους, τοὺς δὲ προφήτας, τοὺς δὲ εὐαγγελιστάς, τοὺς δὲ ποιμένας καὶ διδασκάλους, 12 πρὸς τὸν καταρτισμὸν τῶν ἁγίων εἰς ἔργον διακονίας, εἰς οἰκοδομὴν τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 13 μέχρι καταντήσωμεν οἱ πάντες εἰς τὴν ἑνότητα τῆς πίστεως καὶ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰς ἄνδρα τέλειον, εἰς μέτρον ἡλικίας τοῦ πληρώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 11 And he gave some apostles, and some prophets, and other some evangelists, and other some pastors and doctors; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ; 13 Until we all meet into the unity of faith and of the knowlege of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the age of the fulness of Christ. Hic exponit apostolus quod supra dixerat de donatione donorum. Circa quod duo facit. Here the Apostle expounds what was mentioned earlier (4:9) about the bestowal of gifts. Concerning this he makes two points:
Primo ostendit quod dominus singulis fidelibus dedit donorum diversitatem;
secundo ostendit illorum donorum fructum et utilitatem, ibi ad consummationem sanctorum, et cetera.
First, he shows that the Lord has imparted a variety of gifts on each of the faithful.
Secondly, he indicates the utility and fruitfulness of these gifts (4:13).
Et quia per dona Christi diversi status et munera in Ecclesia designantur, considerandum est quod, inter dona Christi, primo ponit apostolos. Unde dicit et ipse dedit quosdam quidem apostolos. Lc. VI, 13: elegit ex ipsis quos et apostolos nominavit. I Cor. XII, 28: quosdam quidem posuit in Ecclesia: primum apostolos,
tertio doctores, quarto virtutes.
The many different states and functions in the Church are designated as the gifts of Christ. Consider how, among the gifts of Christ, the Apostles are conceded the first place: And he gave some Apostles. “And he chose twelve of them whom also he named apostles” (Lk. 6:13). “God indeed hath set some in the church; first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly doctors; after that miracles...” (1 Cor. 12:28). Apostoli primo loco ponuntur, quia ipsi privilegiati fuerunt in omnibus donis Christi. Habuerunt enim plenitudinem gratiae et sapientiae, quidam quantum ad revelationem divinorum mysteriorum. Lc. ult.: aperuit eis sensum ut intelligerent, et cetera. Mc. c. IV, 11: vobis datum est nosse mysterium regni Dei, et cetera. Io. XV, 15: omnia quae audivi a patre meo, nota feci vobis. Habuerunt etiam copiam eloquentiae ad annuntiandum Evangelium. Lc. XXI, 15: dabo vobis os et sapientiam, cui non poterunt resistere, et contradicere omnes adversarii vestri. Mc. ult.: euntes in mundum universum, praedicate, et cetera. Habuerunt etiam praerogativam auctoritatis et potentiae quantum ad curam dominici gregis. Io. ult.: pasce oves meas. I Cor. X: de potestate nostra quam dedit nobis Deus in aedificationem, non in destructionem vestram, et cetera. Apostles are put first because they had a privileged share in all of Christs gifts. They possessed a plenitude of grace and wisdom regarding the revelation of divine mysteries. Christ “opened their understanding that they might understand the scriptures” (Lk. 24:45). “To you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God” (Mk. 4:11). “Because all things, whatsoever I have heard of my Father, I have made known to you” (Jn. 15:15). They also possessed an ample ability to speak convincingly in order to proclaim the gospel. I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to resist and gainsay” (Lk. 21:15). “Go ye unto the whole world and preach the gospel to every creature” (Mk. 16:15). Moreover, they also had an exceptional authority and power for looking after the Lord’s flock. “Feed my sheep” (Jn. 21:17). “For if also I should boast somewhat more of our power, which the Lord hath given us unto edification and not for your destruction, I should not be ashamed” (2 Cor. 10: 8). Ideo apostolus subiungit hic tres gradus ecclesiasticos secundum participationem singulorum praemissorum. Nam quantum ad revelationem divinorum mysteriorum, subdit quosdam autem prophetas, qui praenuntiatores fuerunt incarnationis Christi, de quibus dicitur I Petr. I, 10: prophetae qui de futura in vobis gloria prophetaverunt. Matth. XI, 13: omnes enim prophetae, et lex usque ad Ioannem prophetaverunt. Sed apostoli prophetantes fuerunt post adventum Christi gaudia vitae futurae. Apoc. I, 3: beatus qui legit et qui audit verba prophetiae huius, et cetera. Item fuerunt exponentes antiquorum prophetarum prophetias. I Cor. XIV, 1: aemulamini spiritualia; magis autem ut prophetetis. Matth. XXV: ecce ego mitto ad vos prophetas et sapientes, et cetera. Therefore, the Apostle adds three ecclesiastical categories according as they share in each of the foregoing. Related to the revelation of divine mysteries he annexes and some prophets who foretold the incarnation of Christ. Of them 1 Peter 1 (10) declares: “Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and diligently searched, who prophesied of the glory to come in you.” “For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John” (Mt. 11:13). But after Christ came, the apostles became the prophets of the joy of the life to come. “Blessed is he that readeth and heareth the words of this prophecy, and keepeth those things which are written in it; for the time is at hand” (Apoc. 1:3). They also became the interpreters of what the ancient prophets had foretold. “Be zealous for spiritual gifts; but rather that you may prophesy” (1 Cor. 14:1). “Behold I send to you prophets and wise men and scribes; and some of them you will put to death” (Mt. 23:34). Quantum vero ad annuntiandum Evangelium, subdit alios vero Evangelistas, qui scilicet habent officium praedicandi Evangelium, vel etiam conscribendi, quamvis non essent de principalibus apostolis. Rom. X, 15: quam speciosi pedes evangelizantium pacem, et cetera. Is. XLI, 27: dabo Ierusalem Evangelistam. Relative to the proclamation of the gospel he adds some evangelists. They had the duty of preaching the good news, and even of writing it down although they were not among the principal apostles. “How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, of them that bring glad tidings of good things!” (Rom. 10:15). “To Jerusalem I will give an evangelist” (Is. 41:27). Quantum vero ad curam Ecclesiae subdit alios autem pastores, curam scilicet dominici gregis habentes. Et sub eodem addit et doctores, ad ostendendum quod proprium officium pastorum Ecclesiae est docere ea quae pertinent ad fidem et bonos mores. Dispensare autem temporalia non pertinet ad episcopos, qui sunt apostolorum successores, sed magis ad diaconos. Act. VI, 2: non est aequum nos derelinquere verbum Dei, et ministrare mensis. Tit. I, 9: amplectentem eum qui secundum doctrinam est, fidelem sermonem. Dicitur de episcopis Ier. III, 15: dabo vobis pastores iuxta cor meum, et pascent vos scientia et doctrina. In reference to the care of the Church he says some pastors who are responsible for the Lord’s flock. Under the same heading he adds and doctors to bring out how the pastor’s specific task in the Church is to instruct the people in what pertains to faith and good conduct. The administration of temporalities does not belong to bishops, who are the successors of the Apostles, but rather to deacons. “It is not reasonable that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables” (Ac. 6:2). “Embracing that faithful word which is according to doctrine, that he may be able to exhort in sound doctrine” (Tit. 1:9). The words of Jeremias 3 (15) apply to bishops: “I will give you pastors according to my own heart, and they shall feed you with knowledge and doctrine.” Deinde cum dicit ad consummationem sanctorum, etc., ostendit fructum praedictorum donorum seu officiorum. Et circa hoc duo facit, Next (v. 12), he discloses the fruitful results of these gifts or functions. Concerning this he does two things:
quia primo assignat fructum;
secundo ostendit qualiter fideles ad hunc fructum possent advenire, ibi ut iam non simus parvuli, et cetera.
First, he speaks of their fruit.
Secondly, he explains how the faithful may attain to this fruit (4:14).
Prima iterum in duas. The first section has two divisions also:
Primo proponit effectum proximum;
secundo ostendit fructum ultimum, ibi donec occurramus omnes, et cetera.
First, he sets down their immediate result.
Secondly, their ultimate fruit (4:13).
Effectus autem proximus praedictorum donorum seu officiorum, potest attendi quantum ad tria. Uno modo quantum ad ipsos qui sunt in officiis constituti, quibus ad hoc sunt collata dona spiritualia, ut ministrarent Deo et proximis. Et quantum ad hoc dicit in opus ministerii, per quod scilicet procuratur honor Dei, et salus proximorum. I Cor. IV, 1: sic nos existimet homo ut ministros Christi, et cetera. Is. LXI, 6: ministri Dei, dicetur vobis. The proximate effects of the above mentioned gifts or functions are threefold. First, consider those who are placed in these functions; spiritual gifts are communicated to them that they might be at the service of God and their fellow man. Thus he states for the work of the ministry which offers honor to God and salvation to one’s fellow men. “Let a man so account of us as of the ministers of Christ and the dispensers of the mysteries of God” (I Cor. 4:1). “You shall be called the priests of the Lord; to you it shall be said: Ye ministers of our God” (Is. 61:6). Alio modo quantum ad perfectionem iam credentium, cum dicit ad consummationem, id est perfectionem, sanctorum, id est eorum qui iam sunt sanctificati per fidem Christi. Etenim specialiter debent intendere praelati ad subditos suos, ut eos ad statum perfectionis perducant; unde et ipsi perfectiores sunt, ut dicit Dionysius in ecclesiastica hierarchia. Hebr. VI, 1: ad perfectionem feramur, et cetera. Is. X, 22-23: consummatio abbreviata inundabit iustitiam. Consummationem enim, et abbreviationem dominus Deus exercituum faciet, et cetera. Secondly, consider the perfection of those who already believe; so be says for the perfecting of the saints, that is, of those already sanctified through faith in Christ. Prelates must be especially anxious to lead those intrusted to them toward the state of perfection. This is why Dionysius claims, in his Ecclesiastica Hierarchia, that they are to be all the more perfect. ‘Wherefore, leaving the word of the beginning of Christ, let us go on to things more perfect; not laying again the foundation of penance from dead works and of faith towards God” (Heb. 6: 1). “The consumption abridged shall overflow with justice. For the Lord God of hosts shall make a consumption, and an abridgment in the midst of all the land” (Is. 10:22). Tertio quantum ad conversionem infidelium; et quantum ad hoc dicit in aedificationem corporis Christi, id est ut convertantur infideles, ex quibus aedificatur Ecclesia Christi, quae est corpus eius. I Cor. XIV, 3: ad aedificationem, et exhortationem, et consolationem. Et sequitur ibidem: nam maior est qui prophetat quam qui linguis loquitur, nisi forte interpretetur, ut Ecclesia aedificationem accipiat, et ibidem, omnia ad aedificationem fiant. A third [immediate effect] is the conversion of the unbelievers. About this he states for the edifying of the body of Christ. When the infidels are converted, Christ’s Church—which is his body—is built up. Whoever preaches “speaketh to men unto edification and exhortation and comfort” (1 Cor. 14:3). “For greater is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues; unless perhaps he interpret, that the church may receive edification... So you also, forasmuch as you are zealous of spirits, seek to abound unto the edifying of the church” (1 Cor. 14:5,12). Deinde cum dicit donec occurramus, etc., assignat fructum ultimum, et potest intelligi dupliciter. Uno modo de fructu simpliciter ultimo, qui erit in resurrectione sanctorum. Et, secundum hoc, duo declarantur. Primo quidem congregatio resurgentium et corporalis et spiritualis. Corporalis quidem erit congregatio in hoc, quod omnes sancti congregabuntur ad Christum. Matth. XXIV, 28: ubicumque fuerit corpus, illuc congregabuntur et aquilae. Et quantum ad hoc dicit donec occurramus omnes, etc., quasi dicat: usque ad hoc extenditur praedictum ministerium et consummatio sanctorum et aedificatio Ecclesiae, donec in resurrectione occurramus Christo. Matth. XXV, 6: ecce sponsus venit, exite obviam ei. Amos IV, 12: praeparare in occursum Dei tui, Israel, et cetera. Et etiam occurramus nobis invicem. I Thess. IV, 17: simul rapiemur cum illis in nubibus obviam Christo in aera. Phil. III, 11: si quo modo occurram ad resurrectionem, quae est ex mortuis. He goes on (v. 13) to discuss the ultimate fruit [of the Church’s preaching] which can be understood in two ways. One sees it as touching on the absolutely ultimate effect: the resurrection of the saints. In this perspective two facts are asserted. First is the spiritual and corporeal convergence [congregatio] of all who have risen. The physical convergence will consist in this, that all the saints will be drawn together toward Christ: “Wheresoever the body shall be, there shall the eagles also be gathered together” (Mt. 24:28). Concerning this he says until we all meet, as if to say: The above ministry, the perfecting of the saints, and the edifying of the Church will continue until we all meet Christ in the resurrection. “Behold, the bridegroom cometh. Go ye forth to meet him” (Mt. 25:6). “Be prepared to meet thy God, O Israel” (Am. 4:12). We shall meet one another also: “We who are alive, who are left, shall be taken up together with them [those who have died] in the clouds to meet Christ” (1 Thess. 4:16). “If by any means I may attain to the resurrection which is from the dead” (Phil. 3: 11). Spiritualis autem congregatio attenditur quantum ad meritum, quod est secundum eamdem fidem, et quantum ad hoc dicit in unitatem fidei. Supra eodem: unus dominus, una fides. Item supra in eodem: solliciti servare unitatem spiritus, et cetera. Et quantum ad praemium, quod est secundum Dei perfectam visionem et cognitionem, de qua I Cor. XIII, 12: tunc cognoscam sicut et cognitus sum. Et quantum ad hoc dicit et agnitionis filii Dei. Ier. XXXI, 34: omnes enim cognoscent me. The spiritual convergence, however, is seen in relation to our merits, which is according to the same faith; regarding this he says into the unity of faith. There is only “one Lord, one faith” (Eph. 4:5). Again he said earlier: “Careful to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace” (Eph. 4:3). The knowledge of the Son of God is the reward, it consists in the perfect vision and knowledge of God of which 1 Corinthians 13 (12) speaks: “Then shall I know even as I am known.” “And they shall teach no more every man his neigbbour, and every man his brother, saying: Know the Lord; for all shall know me from the least of them even to the greatest” (Jer. 31:34). Secundo declarat praedictum fructum quantum ad perfectionem resurgentium. Et primo ponit ipsam perfectionem, cum dicit in virum perfectum. Ubi non est intelligendum, sicut quidam intellexerunt, quod scilicet foeminae mutentur in sexum virilem in resurrectione, quia uterque sexus permanebit non quidem ad commixtionem sexuum, quae tunc de caetero non erit, secundum illud Matth. XXII, 30: in resurrectione enim non nubent, neque nubentur, sed sunt sicut Angeli, sed ad perfectionem naturae et gloriae Dei, qui talem naturam condidit. Dicit ergo virum perfectum, ad designandum omnimodam perfectionem illius status. I Cor. XIII, 10: cum venerit quod perfectum est, evacuabitur quod ex parte est. Et propter hoc vir magis sumitur secundum quod dividitur contra puerum, quam secundum quod dividitur contra foeminam. Secondly, he discusses the aforementioned fruit in respect to the perfection of those who rise. He relates first of all the perfection itself when he says unto a perfect man. This should not be understood as though women will be changed into men at the resurrection—some have misread it in such a fashion. Both sexes will remain, though sexual intercourse will no longer occur, as our Lord indicates in Matthew 22 (30): “For in the resurrection they shall neither marry nor be married, but shall be as the angels of God in heaven.” [They will remain as a witness] to the perfection of nature, and for the glory of God who created such a nature. The perfect man designates the complete and total perfection of that state. “When that which is perfect is come, that which is in part shall be done away” (1 Cor. 13:10). Thus man is used here rather in contradistinction to boy than as the opposite of woman. Secundo ostendit exemplar huius perfectionis, cum dicit in mensuram aetatis plenitudinis Christi. Ubi considerandum est, quod corpus Christi verum est exemplar corporis mystici: utrumque enim constat ex pluribus membris in unum collectis. Corpus autem Christi fuit perductum ad plenam aetatem virilem, scilicet triginta trium annorum, in qua mortuus fuit. Huiusmodi ergo aetatis plenitudini conformabitur aetas sanctorum resurgentium, in quibus nulla erit imperfectio, nec defectus senectutis. Phil. III, 21: reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, configuratum corpori claritatis suae. He describes, in the second place, the exemplar of this perfection when he says unto the measure of the age of the fullness of Christ. Consider how the true physical body of Christ is the exemplar of his mystical body. Both are made up of many members joined into a unified whole. Now the physical body of Christ grew to the mature and robust age of thirty-three years before he died. Therefore, the age of the risen saints, who will experience neither imperfection nor the failings of old age, will correspond to that mature age. “He will reform the body of our lowness, made like to the body of his glory” (Phil. 3:21). Alio modo potest intelligi de fructu ultimo praesentis vitae, in qua quidem sibi occurrent omnes fideles ad unam fidem et agnitionem veritatis. Io. X, 16: alias oves habeo, quae non sunt de hoc ovili, et cetera. In qua perficitur etiam corpus Christi mysticum spirituali perfectione, ad similitudinem corporis Christi veri. Et secundum hoc totum corpus Ecclesiae dicitur corpus virile, secundum illam similitudinem qua utitur apostolus Gal. IV, 1: quanto tempore haeres parvulus est, nihil differt a servo, et cetera. In another way [this passage, v. 13] can be understood as referring to the ultimate fruit [of the Churchs ministry] in the present life. This will happen when all the faithful come to her in the unity of faith and the knowledge of the truth. “And other sheep I have that are not of this fold; them also I must bring. And they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold and one shepherd” (Jn. 10:16). In this the mystical body is perfected spiritually in a manner similar to [the physical perfection of] Chrises natural body. In this perspective, the whole body of the Church is termed a manly body, following the metaphor used by the Apostle in Galatians 4 (1): “Now, I say: As long as the heir is a child, he differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all.”
14 ἵνα μηκέτι ὦμεν νήπιοι, κλυδωνιζόμενοι καὶ περιφερόμενοι παντὶ ἀνέμῳ τῆς διδασκαλίας ἐν τῇ κυβείᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐν πανουργίᾳ πρὸς τὴν μεθοδείαν τῆς πλάνης, 15 ἀληθεύοντες δὲ ἐν ἀγάπῃ αὐξήσωμεν εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα, ὅς ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλή, Χριστός, 16 ἐξ οὗ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα συναρμολογούμενον καὶ συμβιβαζόμενον διὰ πάσης ἁφῆς τῆς ἐπιχορηγίας κατ' ἐνέργειαν ἐν μέτρῳ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου μέρους τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ σώματος ποιεῖται εἰς οἰκοδομὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ. 14 That henceforth we be no more children, tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the wickedness of men, by cunning craftiness by which they lie in wait to deceive; 15 But, doing the truth in charity, we may in all things grow up in him who is the head, even Christ; 16 From whom the whole body, being compacted and fitly joined together, by what every joint supplieth, according to the operation ‘in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body, unto the edifying of itself in charity. Posita donorum spiritualium diversitate et fructu eorum, hic ostendit apostolus quomodo ad fructum illum perveniamus. Circa quod duo facit. Having spoken of the diversity of spiritual gifts and their fruit (4:12), now the Apostle describes bow we attain to that fruit. Concerning this he does two things:
Primo duo impedimenta removet;
secundo modum veniendi docet, ibi veritatem facientes, et cetera.
First, he removes two obstacles.
Secondly, he teaches the way of gaining access to them (4:15).
Dicit ergo: bene dictum est, quod hic est fructus ultimus istorum donorum, quod scilicet occurramus domino in virum perfectum, etc., ergo oportet nos videre ut iam non simus parvuli, sed certe viri perfecti; quia quamdiu aliquis est puer, non est perfectus vir. Oportet ergo quod deserat pueritiam, qui domino debet occurrere. Sic faciebat apostolus. I Cor. XIII, 11: quando autem factus sum vir, evacuavi quae erant parvuli. Conditio autem pueri est, quod non est fixus vel determinatus in aliquo, sed credit omni verbo. Si ergo volumus exhibere nos ut viros perfectos, oportet quod deseramus cogitationem fluctuantem, id est instabilem. Et hoc est quod dicit fluctuantes. I Cor. XIV, v. 20: nolite pueri effici sensibus, sed malitia parvuli estote. Dicuntur autem fluctuantes a fluctu, quia tales ad modum fluctus non sunt firmi in fide. Iac. I, 6: qui enim haesitat, similis est fluctui maris, qui a vento movetur et circumfertur. Nunc autem necesse est nos stabiles esse et non fluctuare. It was stated well, he says, that the ultimate fruit of these gifts is for us to meet the Lord as a “Perfect man unto the measure of the age of Christ.” We are obliged henceforth to cease being children and become mature men; for as long as a person is a boy he is not a perfect man. Whoever is to meet the Lord must leave his childhood behind. The Apostle did just that: “When I became a man, I put away the things of a child” (1 Cor. 13:11). It is a quality of the child never to be fixed or determinate in anything, he rather believes whatever is told him. To act like grown men we have to abandon a fickle oscillation and instability in our judgments. “Do not become children mentally; in malice be children but in your mind be mature” (1 Cor. 14:20). Those who waver are called such from the word “wave”; like a wave tossed to and fro they are not firm in the faith. “He that wavereth is like a wave of the sea, which is moved and carried about by the wind” (Jas. 1:6). But now it is imperative for us to stand firm and not fluctuate. Et quia ventus est prava doctrina, de qua merito dicitur Prov. XXV, 23: ventus Aquilo dissipat pluvias. Matth. VII, 25: descendit pluvia, venerunt flumina, flaverunt venti, et irruerunt in domum illam, et cecidit, et fuit ruina eius magna ideo dicit et non circumferamur omni vento doctrinae, etc.; quasi dicat: nulla doctrina perversa perflante ad commotionem cordis et ruinam spiritualis aedificii debemus moveri, quia non est bona doctrina; quod patet ex tribus. Evil teachings are like the wind Proverbs 25 (23) speaks of with merit: “The north wind brings forth rain.” “And the rain fell, and the floods came and the winds blew; and they beat upon that house. And it fell; and great was the fall thereof” (Mt. 7:27). Hence he warns against being carried about with every wind of doctrine. As though he said: We must not be shaken by these wicked doctrines that buff about seeking to agitate hearts and ruin spiritual accomplishments. Three qualities demonstrate that it is not good doctrine. Primo ex eius principio, quod est in nequitia hominum; ideo non est bona doctrina, sed falsa et nequam, quam dogmatizat aliquis ad perditionem animarum, ut obtineat principatum, sicut doctrina Arrii nequissimi, qui crepuit medius, ut de ipso possit exponi illud Eccli. XXXI, 29: testimonium nequitiae eius verum est. Item, talis doctrina perversa est quod patet.
secundo, ex eius processu, qui est astutia, quia cum dolo, id est unum intendit et aliud simulat; propter quod apostolus dicit II Cor. XI, 3: timeo ne sicut serpens Evam seduxit astutia sua: ita ut corrumpantur sensus vestri et excidant a simplicitate, quae est in Christo Iesu.
tertio patet hoc idem ex effectu, quia effectus talis doctrinae est ad circumventionem erroris, non ad denarios vel alia temporalia acquirenda, sed ad seminandos errores seducunt et circumveniunt tales doctores; de quibus dicitur II Tim. III, 13: mali homines et seductores proficient in peius errantes, et in errorem alios mittentes.
First, its source is from the wickedness of men. Not being sound doctrine, but false and wicked, someone will concoct dogmas out of it in order to wield dominion over others, even though souls are lost. Such were the teachings of that most wicked Arius whose abdomen burst asunder [at his death]. He could be made the subject of a discourse on Ecclesiasticus 31 (29) “The testimony of his wickedness is true.” Second, its methods are by cunning craftiness to mean one thing and pretend to hold some other opinion. On this account the Apostle wrote the Corinthians: “I fear lest, as the serpent seduced Eve by his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted and fall from the simplicity that is in Christ” (2 Cor. 11:3). Third, this is also evident from its effects, for such doctrine lies in wait to deceive. Its teachers seduce and lie in wait, not to rob money or temporal goods, but to spread errors. “Evil men and seducers shall grow worse and worse; erring, and driving into error” (2 Tim. 3:13). Deinde cum dicit veritatem autem facientes, etc., ostensis impedimentis per quae a fructu donorum spiritualium impeditur quis, hic ostendit qualiter ad fructum debitum pervenitur. Et arguit sic: statim dictum est quod si volumus ad spiritualium donorum fructum pervenire, oportet ut iam non simus parvuli, et cetera. Sed tamdiu sumus parvuli, quamdiu virilem statum non attingimus, nec crescimus: ergo nobis necessarium est, ut crescamus. Et hoc est quod dicit veritatem autem facientes, et cetera. Duo ergo facit. Having pointed out the impediments [of immaturity and erroneous doctrine] which prevent one from acquiring the fruit of spiritual gifts, he discloses here how that fruit can be attained. He argues this way: It was said just now that to obtain the fruit of these spiritual gifts we must stop being children and grow up into mature adults. As long as we are childish we have not reached a mature state, neither do we grow. Hence, it is necessary for us to grow up. This is what be says about doing the truth in charity where he makes two points:
Primo ostendit in quo debemus crescere;
secundo per quem, ibi in illo per omnia, et cetera.
First, in what areas we ought to grow up.
Secondly, through whom [we are to grow] (4:15b).
Dicit ergo quantum ad primum veritatem facientes crescamus, et hoc in duobus, scilicet in bono opere et forma boni operis, quae duo sunt veritas et charitas. Veritas autem quandoque dicitur omne opus bonum, ut Tob. I, 2: in captivitate tamen positus viam veritatis non deseruit. Faciamus ergo veritatem, scilicet omne opus bonum, vel veritatem doctrinae: quia non sufficere nobis debet audire vel docere veritatem, sed oportet facere; propter hoc dicebat apostolus I Tim. IV, 16: hoc enim faciens, et teipsum salvum facies, et eos qui te audiunt. Estote ergo factores, etc., ut dicitur Iac. I, 22; quia factores iustificabuntur, ut habetur Rom. c. II, 13. Et hoc si fiat in charitate, quae est forma boni operis. I Cor. XVI, 13 s.: viriliter agite, et confortetur cor vestrum, et omnia opera vestra in charitate fiant: quia certe aliter nihil valerent. I Cor. XIII, 3: si tradidero corpus meum, ita ut ardeam, charitatem autem non habuero, nihil mihi prodest. With respect to the first he states doing the truth in charity we may grow up in good works and the form of good works, which two are truth and charity. Any good work is at times referred to as truth, for instance, Tobias 1 (2): “Even in his captivity he forsook not the way of truth.” Let us, therefore, do the truth, namely, every good work. Or, put true doctrine into practice since it is not enough simply to hear or teach the truth, it must be acted on as well. Thus the Apostle counsels Timothy: “Take heed to thyself and to doctrine; be earnest in them. For in doing this thou shalt both save thyself and them that hear thee” (1 Tim. 4:16). “Be ye doers of the word and not hearers only” (Jas. 1:22) since “doers shall be justified” (Rom. 2:13). That is, if they act out of charity, the form of good works. “Do manfully and be strengthened. Let all your actions be done in charity” (1 Cor. 16:13-14); otherwise they will be useless: “If I should distribute all my goods to feed the poor, and if I should deliver my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing” (1 Cor. 13:3). Sed quia in via Dei non progredi, est regredi, ideo subdit apostolus ut crescamus in illo, etc., ubi tria facit. Because not to make progress in the approach to God is itself a retrogression, the Apostle adds that we may grow up in him, (v. 15b) where be states three points by explaining:
Primo ostendit auctorem nostri augmenti;
secundo eius veritatem;
tertio modum augmenti. Secunda, ibi ex quo totum corpus. Tertia, ibi secundum operationem in mensuram uniuscuiusque membri.
First, the author of our development.
Secondly, the truth about him (4:16a).
Thirdly, the manner of the development (4:16b).
Dicit ergo crescamus in illo, scilicet in Christo, de quo I Petr. II, 2: in eo crescatis in salutem. In illo, inquam, qui est caput nostrum Christus et in Ecclesia, quae est corpus ipsius, ut dicitur Col. I, 24. Crescamus, inquam, non in possessionibus, sicut dicitur Iob I, 10: possessio eius crevit in terra, sed in spiritualibus. Nec in uno tantum, sed per omnia, id est in omni bono, fructificantes et crescentes. I Cor. X, 31: omnia in gloriam Dei facite, et cetera. Et ibi sequitur: sicut et ego per omnia omnibus placeo. De hoc commendat Corinthios apostolus, dicens I Cor. XI, 2: laudo vos, fratres, quod per omnia mei memores estis, et sicut tradidi vobis, omnia praecepta mea tenetis. He asks that we may grow up in him, namely, in Christ, of whom 1 Peter 2 (2 ) declares: “In him may you grow unto salvation.” In him, I repeat, who is the head, Christ, and in the Church which is his body (cf. Col. 1:24). Let us increase, not in wealth as was said of Job that “his possession hath increased on the earth” (Job 1:10), but in spiritual goods. Nor in one area only, but in all things, that is, being fruitful and increasing in every good. “Whatsoever else you do, do all to the glory of God... As I also in all things please all men” (1 Cor. 10:31, 33). The Apostle commends the Corinthians on this score: “Now, I praise you, brethren, that in all things you are mindful of me and keep my ordinances as I have delivered them to you” (1 Cor. 11:2). Consequenter cum dicit ex quo totum corpus, etc., ostendit veritatem Christi per quem crescere debeamus. Ubi sciendum est, quod corpus naturale tria habet, scilicet compactionem membrorum ad invicem, ligationem per nervos et mutuam subministrationem. I Cor. XII, 16 s.: si dixerit pes: quoniam non sum manus, non sum de corpore; num ideo non est de corpore? Et si dixerit auris: quoniam non sum oculus, non sum de corpore, et cetera. Si totum corpus est odoratus, ubi auditus? Spiritualiter ergo, sicut unum corpus efficitur ex multis his tribus modis, scilicet per compactionem seu adunationem, per ligationem et per mutuam operationem et subventionem: ita et omnia, quae sunt a capite corporali, scilicet compactio, nervorum ligatio, ad opus motio, fluunt a capite nostro Christo in corpore Ecclesiae. Next (v. 16b), he speaks about the truth of Christ through whom we ought to grow. Three points concerning an organic body are to be kept in mind: its organs are interrelated, they are bound together by tendons, each member serves the rest. “If the foot should say: because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? And if the ear should say: because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? If the whole body were the eye, where would be the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where would be the smelling?” (1 Cor. 12:15-17). Therefore, one body is composed of many members in these three ways: through its structured whole or unity, through its connective bindings, and through its reciprocal actions and assistance, just as all these actions of interrelating organs, the connecting of tendons, and movements take their initiative from the body’s head, so the spiritual counterparts of these flow from Christ, our head, into his body, the Church. Et, primo, compactio per fidem; unde dicit ex quo, scilicet Christo, qui est caput nostrum, ut modo dictum est, totum corpus compactum est, id est, coadunatum. Ps. CXLVI, 2: dispersiones Israel congregabit. Abac. II, 5: congregabit ad se omnes gentes, et coacervabit ad se omnes populos. De hoc dicitur Col. II, 19: caput ex quo totum corpus per nexus et coniunctiones subministratum et constructum crescit in augmentum Dei. First, there is a structured unity through faith. Whence he says from Christ who is our head, as was already mentioned, the whole body, being compacted is joined together in a unity. “He will gather together the dispersed of Israel” (Ps. 146:2). “He will gather together unto him all nations, and heap together unto him all people” (Hab. 2:5). Christ is “the head, from which the whole body, by joints and bands, being supplied with nourishment and compacted, groweth unto the increase of God” (Col. 2:19). Secundo, fluit a Christo capite in corpus Ecclesiae suae mysticum connexio et colligatio, quia oportet adunata aliquo nexu vel vinculo necti, vel colligari. Et propter hoc dicit et connexum per omnem iuncturam subministrationis, id est per fidem et charitatem, quae connectunt et coniungunt membra corporis mystici ad mutuam subministrationem. Eccli. XXXIX, 39: omnia opera domini bona, et omne opus hora sua subministrabit. Unde ipse apostolus, confidens de ista mutua subministratione quae est inter membra Ecclesiae per divinam coniunctionem, dicebat Phil. I, 19: scio enim, quia hoc proveniet in salutem per vestram orationem et subministrationem spiritus Iesu Christi. Second, a connecting and binding force emanates from Christ, the head, into his body, the Church, since whatever is united must be held together or bound by some nexus or bond. On this account he says fitly joined together, by what every joint supplieth, that is, through the faith and charity which unite and knit the members of the mystical body to one another for their mutual support. “All the works of the Lord are good: and he will furnish every work in due time” (Ecclus. 39:39). Thus the Apostle himself, confident of this mutual being-of-service which reigns among the members of the Church due to the divine unifying action, had said: “I know that this shall happen to me unto salvation, through your prayer and the assistance of the Spirit of Jesus Christ” (Phil. 1:19). Tertio, a capite Christo in membris, ut augmententur spiritualiter, influitur virtus actualiter operandi. Unde dicit secundum mensuram uniuscuiusque membri, augmentum corporis facit; quasi dicat: non solum a capite nostro Christo est membrorum Ecclesiae compactio per fidem, nec sola connexio, vel colligatio per mutuam subministrationem charitatis, sed certe ab ipso est actualis membrorum operatio sive ad opus motio, secundum mensuram et competentiam cuiuslibet membri. Unde dicit, quod facit augmentum corporis secundum operationem et mensuram uniuscuiusque membri, debite mensurati; quia non solum per fidem corpus mysticum compaginatur, nec solum per charitatis subministrationem connectentem augetur corpus; sed per actualem compositionem ab unoquoque membro egredientem, secundum mensuram gratiae sibi datae, et actualem motionem ad operationem, quam Deus facit in nobis. Unde Is. XXVI, 12: omnia opera nostra operatus es in nobis. Idem vero Deus, qui operatur omnia in omnibus, ut dicitur I Cor. XII, 6. Et haec expositio concordat glossatori. Third, from Christ the head there is infused into his members the power to act in order that they may grow spiritually. For this reason he states according to the operation in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body. As if he said: Not only is the structured unity of the members of the Church through faith, and their connection or being joined together through the mutual service of charity, from Christ the head. Indeed, from him comes the actual operation or movements of the members needed for action, and this according to the measure and competency of each member. Thus he asserts that Christ accomplishes the increase of the body according to the operation and in the due measure of every part. Therefore, the body not only grows through the faith which compacts it into a structured whole and through charity’s mutual assistance, but also through the actual binding force which flows out from each member according to the degree of grace given him; and also through the actual impulse to act which God effects in us. “Thou hast wrought all our works for us” (Is. 26:12). He is the “same God who worketh all in all” (1 Cor. 12:6). This interpretation accords with that of the Glossator. Sed ad quid augmentat Deus unumquodque membrum? Ut corpus aedificet. Supra II, 21: in quo omnis aedificatio constructa crescit in templum sanctum in domino, in quo et vos coaedificamini, et cetera. Unde I Cor. III, 9: Dei aedificatio estis. Et haec omnia fiunt in charitate, quia, ut dicitur I Cor. c. VIII, 1: charitas aedificat. Vel in charitate facit Deus haec omnia, id est ex mera dilectione. Ier. XXXIII, 3: in charitate perpetua dilexi te, ideo attraxi te miserans. Rursusque: aedificabo, et aedificaberis. Hoc est ergo quod dicit in aedificationem sui in charitate. But why does God make each member grow? To build up the body. “In whom all the building, being framed together, groweth up into an holy temple in the Lord. In whom you also are built together into an habitation of God in the Spirit” (Eph. 2:21-22). So 1 Corinthians 3 (9) affirms that “you are God’s building.” All this occurs in the charity of which it is said that “charity edifieth” (1 Cor. 8:1). Or, in charity refers to the purely gratuitous love with which God accomplishes all this. “Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore have I drawn thee, taking pity on thee. And I will build thee again, and thou shalt be built” (Jer. 31:3-4). This is what he states in unto the edifying of itself in charity.
17 τοῦτο οὖν λέγω καὶ μαρτύρομαι ἐν κυρίῳ, μηκέτι ὑμᾶς περιπατεῖν καθὼς καὶ τὰ ἔθνη περιπατεῖ ἐν ματαιότητι τοῦ νοὸς αὐτῶν, 18 ἐσκοτωμένοι τῇ διανοίᾳ ὄντες, ἀπηλλοτριωμένοι τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ θεοῦ, διὰ τὴν ἄγνοιαν τὴν οὖσαν ἐν αὐτοῖς, διὰ τὴν πώρωσιν τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, 19 οἵτινες ἀπηλγηκότες ἑαυτοὺς παρέδωκαν τῇ ἀσελγείᾳ εἰς ἐργασίαν ἀκαθαρσίας πάσης ἐν πλεονεξίᾳ. 17 This then I say and testify in the Lord: that henceforward you walk not as also the Gentiles walk in the vanity of their mind, 18 Having their understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them because of the blindness of their hearts, 19 Who, despairing, have given themselves up to lasciviousness unto the working of all uncleanness, unto covetousness. Supra monuit apostolus Ephesios ut manerent in ecclesiastica unitate, describendo modum eius et formam, in hac parte docet eos viam per quam possint manere in ecclesiastica unitate. Et circa hoc duo facit. The Apostle previously admonished the Ephesians to persevere in ecclesial unity by describing to them its quality and pattern (4: 1 ). In the part that follows he teaches them the way to remain within the Church’s unity. Regarding this he does two things:
Primo proponit praecepta, per quae possunt manere in ecclesiastica unitate;
secundo ostendit potestatem hanc ad implenda praecepta in fine epistolae, ibi de caetero, fratres, confortamini, et cetera.
Prima in duas. The first section has two parts:
Primo proponit praecepta ad omnes;
secundo pertinentia ad singulos gradus Ecclesiae, ibi mulieres viris suis subditae sint, et cetera.
First, he sets down precepts for everyone.
Secondly, he adds certain ones pertaining to particular classes within the Church (5:22).
Prima in duas. The first contains two divisions:
Primo ponit quaedam praecepta generalia ad quae reducuntur omnia alia;
secundo ponit specialia, ibi propter quod deponentes mendacium, et cetera.
First, he expresses certain general precepts to which all the others can be reduced.
Secondly, he treats of particular ones (4:25).
Prima iterum in duas, quia cum intentio apostoli sit eos revocare a vetere consuetudine ad novam Christi doctrinam, Again, the first section has two parts. Since the Apostles’ intention is to draw them away from their old customs to embrace Christ’s new teaching:
primo ostendit doctrinam Christi esse contrariam antiquae perversitati gentilitatis;
secundo inducit eos, ut eam deponant et eam, quae Christi est assumant, ibi deponite vos secundum pristinam, et cetera.
First, he demonstrates how the doctrine of Christ is just the opposite of the old pagan perversity.
Secondly, he offers them incentives to leave it behind and adopt the way of Christ (4:22).
Prima in duas, The first of these has two sections:
quia primo describit conversationem gentilium;
secundo ostendit, quod ei contrariatur doctrina Christi, ibi vos autem non ita, et cetera.
First, he describes the pagans’way of life.
Secondly, he shows that Christ’s teaching is contrary to it (4:20).
Prima in tres. The first part has three divisions:
Primo hortatur eos, ut declinent conversationem gentilium;
secundo describit eam quantum ad interiorem animum, ibi tenebris obscuratum, etc.;
tertio quantum ad exteriorem modum, ibi qui desperantes, et cetera.
First, he exhorts them to reject the pagan way of life.
Secondly, he describes it in reference to the pagan’s inner mind (4:18),.
Thirdly, he does so in reference to his external way of acting (4:19).
Dicit ergo: ad hoc quod possitis implere ea, quae dicta sunt, dico, id est non obsecro, ut prius, sed dico, et testificor, hoc quod dixi. Gal. V, 3: testificor autem omni homini rursum circumcidenti se, quoniam debitor est universae legis faciendae. II Tim. IV, 1: testificor coram Deo et Christo Iesu, et cetera. Et quid? Ut iam, scilicet tempore fidei et conversionis ad Christum, quia iam vos mundi estis, Io. XIII, 10, non ambuletis, id est vivatis. Gal. V, 25: si spiritu vivimus, spiritu et ambulemus, et cetera. Et hoc sicut et gentes ambulant. I Cor. XII, 2: scitis, quoniam cum gentes essetis, ad simulacra muta prout ducebamini euntes, et cetera. Non sic igitur ambuletis. Prov. I, 15: fili mi, ne ambules cum eis, prohibe pedem tuum a semitis eorum, et cetera. That you will be able to carry out, he says, what I have spoken of above, I say, not beseeching you as previously, rather I say and testify to what I have asserted. I testify again to every man circumcising himself that he is a debtor to the whole law” (Gal. 5:3). “1 charge thee, before God and Jesus Christ, who shall judge the living and the dead...” (2 Tim. 4:1). And what [does he bear witness to here]? That henceforward, from the moment you believed and were converted to Christ, since you “are [now] clean” (Jn. 13:10), you walk not as also the Gentiles walk. To walk here means to live: “If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit” (Gal. 5:25). This should not be as the Gentiles walk: “You know that, when you were heathens, you went to dumb idols according as you were led” (1 Cor. 12:2). You must not walk in such a manner: “My son, walk not with them: restrain thy foot from their paths” (Prov.1:15). Consequenter cum dicit in vanitate sensus sui, reddit causam huius prohibitionis. Ubi notandum est, quod cum ambulare spiritualiter sit proficere, secundum illud Is. c. XXVI, 7: rectus callis iusti ad ambulandum, et cetera. Gen. XVII, 1: ambula coram me, et esto perfectus, dicitur Abrahae, ad hoc ergo ut homo iuste ambulet, id est spiritualiter proficiat, oportet tria, quae in ipso sunt, regulari et ordinari. In homine enim est ratio iudicans de particularibus agendis; item, intellectus universalium principiorum, qui est synderesis;
tertio, lex divina seu Deus. Quandocumque ergo aliquis secundum ista tria sibi invicem ordinata dirigitur, ita quod actio ordinetur secundum iudicium rationis, et haec, scilicet ratio, iudicet secundum intellectum rectum, vel synderesim, et haec, scilicet synderesis, ordinetur secundum legem divinam, tunc actio est bona et meritoria.
Then, in saying in the vanity of their mind, he gives the reason for his prohibition. Note that to walk spiritually is to make progress. “The path of the just is right to walk in” (Is. 26:27), and to Abraham it was said: “Walk before me, and be perfect” (Gen. 17:1). There are three norms immanent in man by which he must be guided and regulated if he is to walk justly and make spiritual progress. In man, one of these is the reason which judges about what is to be done in concrete circumstances. Another is the understanding of universal principles, called synderesis; and thirdly, there is the divine law or God. Actions are good and meritorious when the person is guided by these three in their proper interrelations; namely, when the action is in accord with the judgment of reason, and this reason judges according to true understanding, or synderesis; and this synderesis is, in turn, directed by the divine law. Sed vita gentilium non est talis, imo deficit in praedictis tribus; quia, primo, deficit a ratione iudicante, quia ambulant in vanitate sensus sui. Sensus autem est vis apprehensiva, per quam iudicamus singularia. Unde aliquis homo rectus dicitur quando bene iudicat de agendis. Sed sensus iste quandoque est rectus, quandoque est vanus. Rectus dicitur, quando debita regula regitur, qua venit ad debitum finem; vanus autem quando, indebita regula ductus, non venit ad debitum finem. Sap. c. XIII, 1: vani sunt omnes homines in quibus non subest scientia Dei, et cetera. Rom. I, 21: evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et cetera. Ier. II, v. 5: ambulaverunt post vanitates suas, et vani facti sunt. The life of the Gentiles did not resemble this, it was lacking these three. First of all, rational judgment was missing since they walked in the vanity of their mind. Mind here is the power to apprehend [vis apprehensiva] through which we judge about individual objects. Hence, a man is called upright when he judges correctly about what should be done. But this mind is sometimes upright, and at other times vain. It is termed upright when, guided by appropriate norms, it attains to the proper end; it is vain when, led by the wrong norms, it does not achieve the proper end. “All men are vain, in whom there is not the knowledge of God” (Wis. 13:1), “because they became vain in their thoughts” (Rom. 1:21) “and walked after vanity and are become vain” (Jer. 2:5). Quare? Quia certe ratio istorum in agendis non dirigebatur ab intellectu illuminato, sed erroneo. Et hoc est quod ait tenebris obscuratum habentes intellectum. Rom. I, 21: obscuratum est insipiens cor eorum. Ps. LXXXI, 5: nescierunt, neque intellexerunt, in tenebris ambulant. Et ratio est, quia tales non sunt participes divini luminis, seu legis divinae illuminantis et regulantis; propter quod subdit alienati a vita Dei, id est a Deo, qui est vita animae. Io. XIV, 6: ego sum via, veritas, et vita. Why? Obviously because in performing such acts their reason is not guided by an enlightened understanding, but an erroneous one. This is what he says about them having their understanding darkened. “Their foolish heart was darkened” (Rom. 1:21), and “they have not known nor understood: they walk on in darkness” (Ps. 81:5). This is traceable to their not sharing in the divine light, or not being enlightened and directed by the divine law. Thus he adds alienated from the life of God, from God who is the life of the soul. I am the way, and the truth, and the life” (Jn. 14:6). Vel, a vita Dei, id est a charitate et gratia spirituali, qua anima vivit formaliter. Rom. VI, 23: gratia autem Dei vita aeterna. Isti autem erant sine spe vitae aeternae, quia ponebant mortalitatem animae contra fidem et spem. Sap. II, 22: nescierunt sacramenta Dei, neque speraverunt mercedem iustitiae, neque iudicaverunt honorem animarum sanctarum, et cetera. Vel a vita Dei, id est a vita sancte vivendi, quae est per fidem. Gal. II, 20: vivo ego, iam non ego, et cetera. Iustus autem ex fide vivit, ut dicitur Rom. I, 17. Vel quae est per charitatem. I Io. III, 14: nos scimus, quia translati sumus de morte ad vitam, quoniam diligimus fratres, et cetera. Non sic autem isti, sed magis alienati. Or, from the life of God may mean from charity and spiritual grace by which the soul lives formally [a supernatural life]. “The grace of God is life everlasting” (Rom. 6:23). Existing without an expectation of eternal life, they held for a mortality of the soul contrary to faith and hope. “And they knew not the secrets of God, nor hoped for the wages of justice, nor esteemed the honour of holy souls” (Wis. 2:22). Or again, from the life of God might indicate an existence estranged from that holy living which comes through faith: I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me” (Gal. 2:20). “The just man liveth by faith” (Rom. 1: 17). Or, the life which comes through charity: “We know that we have passed from death to life, because we love the brethren” (1 Jn. 3:14). [The pagans] were not likethis; instead, they were alienated. Modum autem huius alienationis tangit, scilicet per ignorantiam non stellarum vel cursus siderum, sed naturae divinae, I Cor. c. XV, 33: ignorantiam quidem Dei quidam habent, quia certe tunc solum in Iudaea notus erat Deus, sed modo, ut dicitur Act. XVII, v. 30: tempora huius ignorantiae despiciens Deus, nunc annuntiat hominibus, ut omnes ubique poenitentiam agant, et cetera. Huius autem ignorantiae Deus non erat causa quantum de se erat, ut dicitur Rom. I, v. 19: Deus enim illis revelavit, sed certe causa erat illis propter caecitatem cordis ipsorum. Et vere dicit caecitatem eo quod ex creaturis non poterant venire in notitiam creatoris, quia, ut dicitur Sap. II, 21, excaecavit eos malitia eorum; et sequitur: et nescierunt sacramenta Dei, neque mercedem speraverunt iustitiae. He briefly discusses the quality of this alienation, it is through the ignorance that is in them, not of stars or the movement of the constellations, but of the Divine Nature. “Some have not the knowledge of God” (1 Cor. 15:34), since in former times God was known only among the Jews. But “God, indeed having winked at the times of this ignorance, now declareth unto men that all should everywhere do penance” (Ac. 17:30). God, insofar as he himself was concerned, was not the cause of this ignorance since “That which is known of God is manifest in them. For God hath manifested it unto them” (Rom. 1: 19). Certainly the cause was themselves due to the blindness of their hearts. He describes it well as blindness since from created reality they could not attain to a knowledge of the Creator. “For their own malice blinded them. And they knew not the secrets of God, nor hoped for the wages of justice” (Wis. 2:21-22). Et hoc est quod sequitur qui desperantes, etc., ubi ostendit apostolus quales erant in exteriori conversatione, quoniam sine spe, et hoc quia alienati a vita. Iob VII, v. 16: desperavi, nequaquam ultra iam vivam, et cetera. Ier. XVIII, 12: desperavimus, post cogitationes enim nostras ibimus, et unusquisque post pravitatem cordis sui malefaciemus. Et hoc est quod sequitur tradiderunt semetipsos impudicitiae, et cetera. Et hoc legi potest dupliciter, vel separatim, ut dicatur in avaritia, quia avari erant. Rom. I, 29: repletos omni iniquitate et malitia, fornicatione, avaritia. Hebr. XIII, 5: sint mores sine avaritia, etc., quia, ut dicitur Eccli. X, 9: avaro nihil est scelestius. Propter quod Hab. c. II, 9: vae qui congregat avaritiam malam domui suae, et cetera. Then the Apostle goes on (v. 19) to portray how their exterior manner of life was once they lost hope, a loss due to their alientation from life. “I have done with hope. I shall now live no longer” (Job 7:16). “And they said: We have no hopes; for we will go after our own thoughts and we will do everyone according to the perverseness of his evil heart” (Jer. 18:12). This is what follows in that they have given themselves up to lasciviousness unto the working of all uncleanness, unto covetousness. The text can be read in two ways. Unto covetousness may be taken as a separate vice meaning they were avaricious: “Being filled with all iniquity, malice, fornication, avarice...” (Rom. 1:29). “Let your manners be without covetousness, contented with such things as you have” (Heb. 13:5). For “nothing is more wicked than the covetous man” (Ecclus. 10:9). Thus Habacuc 2 (9): “Woe to him that gathereth together an evil covetousness to his house that his nest may be on high, and thinketh he may be delivered out of the hand of evil.” Potest etiam legi coniunctim cum praecedentibus, ut dicatur in avaritia, id est avare, ita ut sit modificans praecedentia. Et secundum hoc aggravat eorum vitam tripliciter; quia, primo, peccaverunt non ex passione, sed potius ex electione, unde dicit tradiderunt semetipsos impudicitiae; quasi dicat: non passionibus, vel infirmitate peccaverunt, sed semetipsos tradiderunt, et cetera. Iudith VII, 15: sponte tradamus nos omnes populo Holofernis, et cetera. II Cor. XII, 21: non egerunt poenitentiam super immunditia quam gesserunt, et cetera. Unto covetousness might also be joined with what goes before, meaning “covetously” and modify the preceding. In that case their life was weighted down with a triple burden. First, they did not sin from passion but by choice, thus he says they have given themselves up to lasciviousness. As though he had said: Instead of sinning through passion or weakness they just sold themselves over to it: “Assemble ye all that are in the city, that we may of our own accord yield ourselves all up to the people of Holofernes” (Jdt. 7:15). “They have not done penance for the uncleanness, and fornication, and lasciviousness, that they have committed” (2 Cor. 12:21). Secundo, ex actuali effrenatione. II Petr. II, v. 10: post carnem in concupiscentiam immunditiae ambulant, et cetera. Et ideo dicit in operationem omnis immunditiae. Ez. XIV, 3: isti posuerunt immunditias suas in cordibus suis, et cetera.
tertio, aggravatur eorum peccatum ex continuatione, quia incessanter peccabant. Os. IV, v. 10: fornicati sunt, et non cessaverunt, quoniam dominum reliquerunt. Unde dicit in avaritiam, id est ardenter, et appetitu continuo, et insatiabili. II Petr. II, 14: oculos habentes plenos adulterii et incessabilis delicti, pellicientes animas instabiles, cor exercitatum in avaritia habentes, maledictionis filii, et cetera.
Secondly, [their sins were aggravated] from the complete lack of restraint; they “walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness and despise government” (2 Pet. 2:10). Therefore, he adds unto the working of all uncleaness; “these men have placed their uncleannesses in their hearts, and have set up before their face the stumbling-block of their iniquity” (Ez. 14:3). Thirdly, their sin was greater from its continuance, for they sinned incessantly. “They have committed fornication and have not ceased: because they have forsaken the Lord in not observing his law” (Os. 4:10). Whence he states unto covetousness, that is, [they sinned] ardently, with a constant and insatiable appetite for more. “Having eyes full of adultery and of sin that ceaseth not; alluring unstable souls; having their heart exercised with covetousness; children of malediction. Leaving the right way they have gone astray” (2 Pet. 2:14-15).
20 ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐχ οὕτως ἐμάθετε τὸν Χριστόν, 21 εἴ γε αὐτὸν ἠκούσατε καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἐδιδάχθητε, καθώς ἐστιν ἀλήθεια ἐν τῷ Ἰησοῦ, 22 ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς κατὰ τὴν προτέραν ἀναστροφὴν τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν φθειρόμενον κατὰ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ἀπάτης, 23 ἀνανεοῦσθαι δὲ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν, 24 καὶ ἐνδύσασθαι τὸν καινὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν κατὰ θεὸν κτισθέντα ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ὁσιότητι τῆς ἀληθείας. 20 But you have not so learned Christ; 21 If so be that you have heard him and have been taught in him, as the truth is in Jesus. 22 To put off, according to the former way of life, the old man, who is corrupted according to the desire of error, 23 And be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 24 And put on the new man, who according to God is created in justice and holiness of truth. Ostensa perversitate gentilis conversationis, hic ostendit apostolus quod doctrina Christi totaliter contraria est isti conversationi et statui. Et quia pervertentes quidam doctrinam Christi dixerunt non esse aliam vitam post istam, sed animam mori cum corpore, ut animalia, ideo apostolus ostendit, Having shown the depravity of the Gentile’s conduct (4:17), the Apostle points out now that Christ’s teaching is completely contrary to such a way of life and condition. Because some men who distorted Christian doctrine held there is no life after the present one, but that man’s soul, like the rest of the animals, dies with his body, the Apostle makes clear:
primo doctrinam Christi contrariam esse vitae et statui praecedenti;
secundo ostendit conditiones debitas doctrinae Christi, ibi deponite vos, et cetera.
First, that Christ’s teaching is contrary to their former life and condition.
Secondly, the requisites of Christ’s teaching (4:22).
Dicit ergo: ita dictum est, quod illi desperantes, etc., vos autem non ita didicistis Christum, scilicet esse imitandum. Quomodo ergo? Ipsi enim vos a Deo didicistis ut diligatis invicem. II Thess. II, 15: itaque, fratres, state et tenete traditiones quas credidistis. Et quomodo tenebimus? I Thess. c. II, 13: quoniam cum accepissetis a nobis verbum auditus Dei, accepistis illud non ut verbum hominum, sed sicut est vere, verbum Dei, et cetera. Col. II, 7: radicati et superaedificati in ipso, et confirmati in fide, sicut didicistis abundantes in illo in gratiarum actione. Thus he affirms: It was said that they, despairing, gave themselves up to lust, But you have not learned that Christ is to be so imitated. How should he be? “You yourselves have been taught by God that you must love one another” (1 Thess. 4:9). “Therefore, brethren, stand fast; and hold the traditions which you have learned” (2 Thess. 2:14 ). And how shall we retain them? “When you had received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but, as it is indeed, the word of God, who worketh in you that have believed” (1 Thess. 2:13). Therefore, “Rooted and built up in him and confirmed in the faith, as also you have learned; abounding in him in thanksgiving” (Col. 2:7). Et hoc certe, si tamen illum audistis, quia auditus deservit disciplinae. Si, pro quia. Quia haec est Annuntiatio quam audistis, ut dicitur I Io. I, 5. Et hoc quantum ad praedicationem fidei. Eccli. XXIV, 30: qui audit me, non confundetur. Prov. XV, 31: auris quae audit increpationes vitae, in medio sapientium commorabitur, et cetera. Et in illo edocti estis, scilicet quomodo pertinentia ad fidem sunt custodienda et adimplenda. Matth. ult.: fecerunt sicut erant edocti, et cetera. Et hoc sicut est veritas in Iesu, quasi dicat: si audivistis fidem Christi praedicari et quomodo praedicata debeant adimpleri, estis edocti, sicut Iesus, de quo praedicatur vobis, qui est veritas. Vos autem non ita, scilicet oportet ambulare, sicut aliqui desperantes. This certainly will happen if you have heard him, for hearing is the servant of instruction. If here is the equivalent of “because.” “And this is the declaration which you have heard, as 1 John 1 (5) expresses it in reference to the proclamation of the faith. “He that harkeneth to me shall not be confounded” (Ecclus. 24:30). And “the ear that heareth the reproofs of life shall abide in the midst of the wise. He that rejecteth instruction despiseth his own soul: but he that yieldeth to reproof possesseth understanding” (Prov. 15:3132). If also you have been taught in him how what pertains to faith must be kept and fulfilled. “They did as they were taught” (Mt. 28:15), as the truth is in Jesus. As though he said: If you have heard the faith of Christ preached and how this faith must be put into practice, you have been taught what Jesus is like, he is himself the truth which is imparted to you. You must not, therefore, behave as those who despair. Sed quomodo? Subdit deponite vos, et cetera. Quae quidem littera potest legi dupliciter. Uno modo, ut dicatur deponere, et tunc construitur cum praecedentibus sic: ita est veritas in qua edocti estis in Iesu, deponere vos, et cetera. Si autem dicatur deponite, quae littera communius habetur, dicemus quod quia contraria est et vita et doctrina gentilium, vitae et doctrinae Iesu, in qua edocti estis, restat ut deponatis, et cetera. How should they live? He adds to put off, according to the former way of life, the old man. The passage has two variant readings. One is the infinitive, to put off; then it would be construed with what preceded to read: The truth about which you were instructed in Jesus was to put off the old man. The more common reading has an imperative, put ye off; in this case the signification is: Since the life and teachings of the Gentiles are contrary to those of Jesus, in which you have been taught, the only alternative is that you discard the old man. Duo ergo facit. Quia cum primo extirpanda sint vitia quam inserantur virtutes, Hence he makes two points here since vices must first be eradicated before virtues can be cultivated:
primo docet eos statum pristinae ac veteris conversationis deponere;
secundo novum statum Iesu assumere, ibi renovamini autem spiritu, et cetera. Dicit ergo: deponite, et cetera.
First, he instructs them to put aside their former condition, their old way of living.
Secondly, how they must take on a new way of life [characteristic] of Jesus (4:23).
Ubi tria sunt consideranda. Primo quid intelligatur per veterem hominem. Dicunt aliqui, quod hic homo vetus exterior, novus vero dicitur interior. Sed dicendum est quod homo vetus dicitur tam interior quam exterior, qui subiicitur vetustati quantum ad animam per peccatum et quantum ad corpus, quia membra corporis sunt arma peccati. Et sic, subiectus homo peccato secundum animam et corpus, dicitur vetus homo, secundum quod illa vetusta sunt, quae sunt in via corruptionis, vel in ipso corrumpi; quia quod antiquatur et senescit, prope interitum est, ut dicitur ad Hebr. VIII, 13. Et sic homo subiectus peccato dicitur vetus, quia est in via corruptionis; propter quod subdit qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris. Nam unumquodque corrumpitur, cum recedit ab ordine naturae suae. Natura autem hominis est, ut desiderium eius tendat ad id quod est secundum rationem. Perfectio autem et bonum rationis est veritas. Quando ergo ratio tendit ad errorem, et desiderium ex hoc errore corrumpitur, tunc vetus homo dicitur. Three considerations follow. First, what does the old man mean? Some hold that the old man is external and the new man interior. But it must be said that the old man is both interior and exterior; he is a person who is enslaved by a senility in his soul, due to sin, and in his body whose members provide the tools for sin. Thus a man enslaved to sin in soul and body is an old man. He is already on the way to corruption, or is actually beginning to decay since “that which decayeth and groweth old is near its end” (Heb. 8:13). And so a man subjected to sin is termed an old man because he is on the way to corruption. On this account he goes on, corrupted according to the desire of error. Anything will corrupt when it deviates from the order of its inner being. Man’s nature longs for what accords with reason; and truth is reason’s perfection and good. Hence, when someone’s reason sways toward error, and his desire is corrupted from this error, he is referred to as an old man. Dicit autem secundum desideria, scilicet mala. Rom. XIII, 14: carnis curam ne feceritis in desideriis. I Tim. VI, 9: desideria multa, et nociva, et inutilia, quae mergunt hominem in interitum et perditionem, et cetera. Quia autem haec desideria in quibusdam trahuntur ex infirmitate, in quibusdam vero ex malitia, sicut in illis qui dicunt Deum providentiam non habere, ideo dicit erroris; quia in talibus sic errantibus corrumpitur intellectus et affectus. Vel secundum desideria erroris, id est quae homines faciunt errare, secundum illud Sap. II, 21: haec cogitaverunt et erraverunt, et cetera. Prov. XIV, 8: imprudentia stultorum errans. This, he says, is according to evil desire. “Make not provision for the flesh in its concupiscences” (Rom. 13:14). “Many [are the] unprofitable and hurtful desires which drown men into destruction and perdition7 (1 Tim. 6:9). Some people are lured into these cravings through their own weakness. Malice will draw others to them, as it does those who say that God does not have a providential care [of the universe]. Therefore he adds of error because the mind and affections of those who maliciously err become corrupted. Possibly the desire of error refers to whatever makes men err, according to Wisdom 2 (21): “These things they thought, and were deceived: for their own malice blinded them,” and in Proverbs 14 (8): “The imprudence of fools erreth.” Sed quomodo deponendus sit, docet apostolus, dicens Col. III, 9: expoliantes vos veterem hominem cum actibus suis, et cetera. Non ergo substantialiter debet deponi vel expoliari, sed solum quoad opera mala, vel conversationem. I Petr. II, 12: conversationem vestram inter gentes habentes bonam. I Tim. IV, 12: exemplum esto fidelium in verbo et conversatione. In Colossians 3 (9) the Apostle indicates how to leave the old man behind: “Stripping yourselves of the old man with his deeds.” The substance of human nature is not to be rejected or despoiled, but only wicked actions and conduct. “Have your manner of life good among the Gentiles” (1 Pet. 2:12); “Be thou an example of the faithful, in word, in conduct, in charity, in faith, in chastity” (1 Tim. 4:12). Deinde cum dicit renovamini, etc., ostendit, quod debemus novum statum induere. Circa quod tria facit. Next (v. 23), he indicates the new condition they are to take on. In doing three things concerning this, he shows:
Primo ostendit per quid consequi possumus hanc novitatem;
secundo in quo haec novitas consistat;
tertio quae sit.
First, through what means we can obtain this newness.
Secondly, in whom this newness resides (4:24a).
Thirdly, what the newness is (4:24b).
Quantum ad primum dicit renovamini spiritu, et cetera. Ubi notandum est quod licet spiritus multipliciter dicatur in homine, tamen triplex spiritus invenitur, scilicet spiritus sanctus, I Cor. c. III, 16: nescitis quod templum Dei estis, et spiritus Dei habitat in vobis? Item, spiritus rationalis, Gal. V, 17: caro concupiscit adversus spiritum. Item, spiritus phantasticus. Os. IX, 7: scitote Israel stultum prophetam, insanum virum, spiritualem, id est phantasticum. Regarding the first he says be renewed in the spirit of your mind. Notice that although spirit is frequently said to be in man, nevertheless three spirits are discernible in him. One is the Holy Spirit: “Know you not that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?” (1 Cor. 3:16). Another is his spiritual reason: “For the flesh lusteth against the spirit; and the spirit against the flesh” (Gal. 5:17). Finally, there is man’s imaginative spirit: “Know ye, 0 Israel, that the prophet was foolish, the man was mad, and spiritual” (Os. 9:7 ), that is, his imagination went wild. Hoc ergo quod dicit spiritu mentis, sumitur pro spiritu sancto. Dicit autem causam renovationis esse spiritum sanctum, qui habitat in mente nostra. Gal. IV, 6: misit Deus spiritum filii sui in corda, et cetera. Ps. CIII, v. 30: emitte spiritum tuum, et creabuntur, et cetera. Vel potest accipi spiritus pro spiritu rationali, et tunc spiritus idem est quod mens nostra, et est simile huic quod dicitur Col. II, v. 11: in expoliatione corporis carnis, id est corporis, quae est caro; ita hic spiritu mentis, id est spiritu, qui est mens; hoc autem dicit, quia in nobis est alius spiritus, qui non est mens, qui scilicet est communis nobis et brutis. Therefore, the spirit of your mind may point to the Holy Spirit. He then states that the cause of renewal is the Holy Spirit who dwells in our rational spirit: “God hath sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts” (Gal. 4:6). “Send forth thy Spirit, and they shall be created: and thou shalt renew the face of the earth” (Ps. 103:30). Or spirit could refer to the rational spirit and would be identical with our mind, similar to the expression in Colossians 2 (11): “In despoiling of the body of the flesh,” that is, the body which the flesh is. Likewise here, in the spirit of your mind would refer to the spirit which the mind is. He would qualify it in this way since there is another spirit within us, differing from the mind, and which is common to both us and the beasts. Dicit autem renovamini spiritu mentis, quia illud quod non est corruptum est novum, nec renovatione indiget. Nam si Adam corruptus non fuisset, renovatione non indiguisset, nec nos etiam. Sed quia corruptus fuit, renovatione indiguit et eius posteriores. Et ideo oportet renovari nos in praesenti secundum animam, et in futuro secundum corpus, quando corruptibile hoc induet incorruptionem, et mortale immortalitatem, ut dicitur I Cor. XV, 53. Dicit ergo renovamini spiritu, hic scilicet, quia nisi in praesenti spiritus renovetur, numquam corpus eius innovabitur. Vel potest exponi spiritu mentis, id est mente vestra spirituali facta; et in idem redit. However, he states be renewed in the spirit of your mind; what is not spoiled keeps its freshness and does not require a renewal. If Adam had not become tainted neither he nor ourselves would need a renovation. Yet, once he was corrupted, both he and his offspring are in need of a renovation. In the present life we must be renewed in soul; our body will be in the future when “this corruptible must put on incorruption; and this mortal must put on immortality” (1 Cor. 15:52). Hence he says be renewed in the spirit since, unless the spirit is renewed in this life, the body will never be renewed. Or, in the spirit of your mind can be interpreted as in your mind which was made spiritual and will return to the same. In quo autem haec renovatio consistat, quantum ad secundum, subdit cum dicit et induite novum hominem, et cetera. Hic advertendum est quod sicut uniuscuiusque rei primum vetustatis principium fuit Adam, per quem peccatum in omnes intravit, ita principium primum novitatis et renovationis Christus est; quia sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, ita et in Christo omnes vivificabuntur. Unde Gal. ult.: in Christo Iesu neque circumcisio, neque praeputium aliquid valet, sed nova creatura. Induimini ergo dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, Rom. c. XIII, 14. And put on the new man discloses in whom this renewal takes place. Adam introduced sin into all men, and thus became for everything the primary source of oldness. Likewise, the primary source of newness and renovation is Christ. In Adam all die and in Christ all will be brought back to life. “For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but a new creature” (Gal. 6:15). Therefore, “Put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom. 13:14). Quae autem sit renovatio ostendit, cum dicit qui secundum Deum creatus est, et cetera. Hoc autem potest intelligi tripliciter. Uno modo sic, ut ly qui, referatur ad spiritum, id est: spiritus, qui est mens nostra, creatus est a Deo, scilicet in originali iustitia, scilicet in sui novitate; vel recreatus nova creatione, ut esset iustus. Supra II, 10: creati in Christo Iesu in operibus bonis. Vel ly qui, potest referri ad novum hominem, scilicet Christum. Et tunc construetur sic: qui creatus est, id est formatus in utero virginis secundum Deum, id est non semine humano, sed spiritu sancto. Vel creatus est secundum esse gratiae et plenitudinis, et hoc in iustitia, quoad homines, et sanctitate, quoad Deum, et hoc veritatis, non falsitatis. Lc. I, 75: in sanctitate et iustitia. Vel ut sanctitas sit in corde, veritas in ore, iustitia in opere. Who, according to God, is created in justice and holiness of truth makes known what the renovation is. It admits of a triple explanation. If the who refers to [man’s] spirit, it would mean: The spirit, which our mind is, was created by God in the freshness of original justice; or, by a second creative act was renewed to be just again: “Created in Christ Jesus in good works” (Eph. 2:10). Or, the who might have reference to the new man, Christ. Then the text could be construed as: Who is created, that is, formed in the Virgin’s womb according to God by the Holy Spirit and not human seed. Or, he was created according to an existence of grace, as well as a fullness in justice toward men and a holiness before God that was not fictitious but of truth: “In holiness and justice before him” (Lk. 1:75). It could rather mean that holiness is in his heart, truth on his tongue, and justice in his actions.
25 διὸ ἀποθέμενοι τὸ ψεῦδος λαλεῖτε ἀλήθειαν ἕκαστος μετὰ τοῦ πλησίον αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἐσμὲν ἀλλήλων μέλη. 26 ὀργίζεσθε καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε: ὁ ἥλιος μὴ ἐπιδυέτω ἐπὶ [τῷ] παροργισμῷ ὑμῶν, 27 μηδὲ δίδοτε τόπον τῷ διαβόλῳ. 25 Wherefore, putting away lying, speak ye the truth, every man with his neighbour; for we are members one of another. 26 Be angry, and sin not. Let not the sun go down upon your anger. 27 Give not place to the devil. Supra posita generali monitione, ut novitatem induerent, hic apostolus ponit praecepta specialia. Circa quod duo facit. Having set down above the general admonition to put on a newness of life (4:17), now the Apostle determines on the particular precepts. Concerning this he does two things:
Primo inhibet eis peccata interiora corrumpentia spiritum;
secundo peccata exteriora, quae corrumpunt carnem, ibi fornicatio autem, et cetera.
First, he restrains them from committing interior sins which corrupt the spirit.
Secondly, he prohibits exterior sins which corrupt the flesh (5:3).
Prima in duas. The first has two divisions:
Primo prohibet peccata, quae in deordinatione propria consistunt;
secundo peccata, quae consistunt in deordinatione alterius, ibi omnis sermo malus, et cetera.
First, he forbids sins which consist in one’s personal deordination.
Secondly, then sins which consist in the deordination of others (4:29).
Prima iterum in tres, The first section again is divided into three parts since he forbids:
quia primo prohibet peccatum corrumpens rationalem;
secundo peccatum deordinans irascibilem, ibi irascimini, et nolite peccare, etc.;
tertio peccatum pertinens ad concupiscibilem, ibi qui furabatur, et cetera.
Circa primum tria facit. Primo quia unum istorum prohibet; secundo inducit ad aliud; tertio rationem assignat. Prohibet ergo illud primo quod ad veterem hominem pertinet, ita ut ista littera sit expositiva huius, quod praedixerat: induite novum hominem, ad quem induendum primo prohibet mendacium, quia per hoc peccatum oris corrumpitur veritas rationis. Unde dicit propter quod, scilicet novum hominem induendum, sitis supple, deponentes mendacium, quia, ut dicitur in Ps. V, 7: perdes omnes qui loquuntur mendacium, scilicet perniciosum. Regarding the first of these he does three things. First, he forbids one of them; then he urges its opposite [virtue]; thirdly, he gives his reason. Hence, he first prohibits what is characteristic of the old man, thereby expounding what he said above (v. 24): “Put on the new man.” To accomplish this he first bans lying because through this sin of the tongue the truth of reason is corrupted. Wherefore to put on the new man you should be putting away lying, for “Thou [O Lord] wilt destroy all that speak a lie” (Ps. 5:7) maliciously. Et postea inducit ad novitatem, dicens Zac. c. VIII, 16: loquimini veritatem unusquisque cum proximo suo. Et quare? Quoniam sumus invicem membra. Membra enim se invicem diligunt et se iuvant mutuo in veritate. Rom. XII, 5: unum corpus sumus in Christo, singuli autem alter alterius membra. Sequitur irascimini, et cetera. Then he urges them on to newness of life, saying with Zacharias (8:16) speak ye the truth, every man with his neighbor. And why? Because we are members of one another. For members are to love and mutually assist one another in truth. “We, being many, are one body in Christ; and every one members one of another” (Rom. 12:5). Ubi prohibet peccatum, corrumpens irascibilem. Circa quod tria facit. When forbidding sins destructive of the order in the irascible emotions, be makes three points:
Primo ponit monitionem;
secundo eam exponit, ibi sol non occidat, etc.;
tertio rationem reddit, ibi nolite locum, et cetera.
First, he gives a warning.
Secondly, he explains.what he means (4:26b).
Thirdly, he gives the reason for his concern (4:27).
Monitionem autem ponit, cum dicit irascimini, et cetera. Quod potest exponi dupliciter, quia duplex est species irae, quaedam bona, quaedam mala. Mala quidem quando inordinate tendit in vindictam, scilicet contra iustitiam; bona vero quando in vindictam debitam, quando scilicet quis irascitur quando oportet, cum quibus, et quantum oportet. Et de utraque potest exponi. Si de mala, sic est sensus: non praecipit, sed permittit; quasi dicat: si sic est, quod motus irae insurgat, quod humanum est, nolite peccare, id est nolite perducere ad effectum per consensum. I Cor. X, 13: tentatio vos non apprehendat nisi humana. Quia certe, qui aliter irascitur fratri suo, reus erit iudicio, ut dicitur Matth. V, 22. De hac ira monebat Ioseph fratres suos Gen. XLV, 24: ne irascimini in via. He gives his warning when he says Be angry, and sin not. This is susceptible of two interpretations; for there are two types of anger, a good one and an evil one. Anger is evil when, contrary to justice, it strives inordinately for revenge. It is good when it seeks a just vindication, namely, when the person is vexed at the time, with whom, and to the degree that, he should be. The [above warning] is applicable to both. If it concerns evil anger, the sense is that he does not command it but permits it. As though he said: Should it happen that anger wells up within you—which is human enough—do not sin. You must not be led on to perform [what the inordinate passion craves] through consenting to it. “Let no temptation take hold on you, but such as is human” (1 Cor. 10:13). For, without doubt, whoever is angered against his brother in any other way “shall be in danger of the judgment” (Mt. 5:22). Joseph counselled his brothers against such anger: “Be not angry in the way” (Gen. 45:24). Si autem exponatur de bona, sic tenetur non solum permissive, ut primo, sed imperative, irascimini, scilicet contra peccata vestra, quoniam duplex est vindicta, quam homo appetit. Una de seipso peccante, et sic poenitentia est quaedam vindicta, quam homo facit et capit de seipso. Et haec est bona ira, et de hac dicitur imperative irascimini, scilicet contra peccata vestra, et nolite peccare, scilicet de caetero, nec talia committere, contra quae iterum oporteat irasci. If it is interpreted concerning righteous anger it is not simply permitted, like the first, but imperative. Be angry against your sins, for man desires a twofold vindication. One regarding himself when he sins, so that penance becomes a certain type of vindication which man inflicts and receives in himself. Such a wrath is good, and with respect to it the imperative is used: be angry against your sins, and sin not any more, nor commit those types of sin with which you must again be exasperated. Modo credunt aliqui quod homo secure possit sibi ipsi irasci propter peccata sua, sed non proximo suo propter sua; sed non est ita: sicut enim contra seipsum quis irascitur propter peccata propria, ita proximo suo propter sua; ergo irascimini contra vitia aliena, et hoc cum zelo. Num. XXV, 11: Phinees avertit iram meam a filiis Israel, quia zelo meo commotus est contra eos. Sic Helias III Reg. XIX, 10: zelo zelatus sum pro domino Deo exercituum, quia dereliquerunt pactum domini filii Israel, et cetera. Et nolite peccare praeveniendo rationem, sed potius sequendo. Iac. I, 19: sit autem omnis homo velox ad audiendum, tardus autem ad loquendum, et tardus ad iram, et cetera. Now, some are doubtless of the opinion that a man can be mad at himself for his own sins safely, but that this does not hold true concerning his neighbors and their sins. This is false; a man can be mad at himself for his own sins, and at his fellow man because of his sins. Therefore, zealously be angry at other people’s offenses. “Phinees hath turned away my wrath from the children of Israel because he was moved with my zeal against them” (Num. 25:11). And Elias said: ‘With zeal have I been zealous for the Lord God of Hosts: for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant” (3 Kg. 19:10). By following the dictates of reason, rather than acting before [reason has had time to reflect], you sin not. “Let every man be swift to hear, but slow to speak, and slow to anger” (Jas. 1:19). Sequitur sol non occidat, et cetera. Ubi exponit quod dixerat, et, secundum tres praedictas expositiones, potest tripliciter exponi, quia si de mala ira, tunc sic: sol, etc., id est: non persistatis in ira concepta sed ante solis occasum deponatis, quia licet permittatur motus, propter fragilitatem, non permittitur mora. In Let not the sun go down upon your anger he explains what he had said, and the explanation can be interpreted according to the three above expositions. If it concerns evil anger, then he would be saying: Do not nurture seeds of wrath, cast them off before sunset; for although the first impulses of temper are excusable, due to human frailty, it is illicit to dwell on them. Si de bona, et hoc contra peccata propria, tunc sic: sol, id est Christus, Mal. IV, 2: orietur vobis timentibus nomen meum sol iustitiae, etc., non occidat super iracundiam vestram, id est super peccata vestra, pro quibus iterum oporteat vos irasci, et vosmetipsos punire. Si contra peccata aliena, sic accipitur sol, scilicet rationis. Eccle. XII, 1: memento creatoris tui in diebus iuventutis tuae, antequam veniat tempus afflictionis, et appropinquent anni, de quibus dicas: non mihi placent, antequam tenebrescat sol, et cetera. Sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram, id est non obtenebretur dictamen rationis. Iob V, 2: virum stultum interficit iracundia. In reference to good anger, as it is directed against one’s personal sins, the sun is Christ. “Unto you that fear my name the sun of justice shall arise” (Mal. 4:2) Let not it go down upon your anger, that is, on your sins, on account of which you must be angered again and punish yourselves. When the sins of others are in question the sun refers to reason. “Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth, before the time of affliction come, and the years draw nigh of which thou shalt say: They please me not; before the sun... is darkened” (Eccl. 12:1). The sun should not set on your anger, that is, the dictates of reason must not be clouded over. “Anger indeed killeth the foolish” (Job 5:2). Sequitur nolite locum dare Diabolo, ubi assignat rationem monitionis. Diabolus enim habet locum in nobis per peccatum, vel per consensum. Io. XIII, 2: cum Diabolus iam misisset in cor, ut traderet eum Iudas, et cetera. Et sequitur ibid., quod post buccellam introivit in eum Satanas. Nunc autem huiusmodi passiones multum inclinant ad consensum et maxime quando pervertunt iudicium rationis, et hoc specialiter facit ira, quae consistit in accensione sanguinis, quae quidem ratione velocitatis sui motus praecedit iudicium rationis. Et quia, sic nobis perturbatis, Diabolus incipit locum habere in nobis, ideo dicit nolite locum dare Diabolo, quasi dicat: non perseveretis in ira, quia per hoc datis locum Diabolo, quia totus Diabolus iracundus est. Ps. XVII, 48: liberator meus de inimicis meis iracundis. Intrat autem hominem cum furore et ira. Apoc. XII, 12: descendit Diabolus ad vos, habens iram magnam. Hoc autem non potest facere saltem in anima, quamdiu homo iustus est. Haec autem iustitia per iram amittitur, quia ira viri iustitiam Dei non operatur, ut dicitur Iac. I, 20. Si ergo non vultis locum dare Diabolo, saltem in anima, sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram. Eccle. XI, 10: aufer iram a corde tuo. The reason for the warning is indicated in Give not place to the devil. The devil gains entrance to us either through sin or consent to it. “The devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, to betray him” (Jn. 13:2), after which it says: “After the morsel, Satan entered into him” (ibid. 27). Passions of this kind easily pull one’s consent [toward their desires], especially when they have biased the judgment of reason. Anger particularly does this since it involves the rapid, raising of blood, the speed of whose movement precedes any rational judgment. Excited like this, the devil wins a foothold within us; thus he says give not place to the devil. You ought not to persist, he seems to say, in your ill temper, for you will only invite the demon who is himself continually angered. God is “my deliverer from my infuriated enemies” (Ps. 17:48 ). “The devil is come down unto you, having great wrath” (Apoc. 12:12). He cannot accomplish this, at least in the soul of a just man. But this justice is forfeited through anger: “For the anger of man worketh not the justice of God” (Jas. 1:20). If you do not want to give Satan a place, at least in your soul, do not let the sun set on your wrath. “Remove anger from thy heart” (Eccl. 11:10).
28 ὁ κλέπτων μηκέτι κλεπτέτω, μᾶλλον δὲ κοπιάτω ἐργαζόμενος ταῖς [ἰδίαισ] χερσὶν τὸ ἀγαθόν, ἵνα ἔχῃ μεταδιδόναι τῷ χρείαν ἔχοντι. 29 πᾶς λόγος σαπρὸς ἐκ τοῦ στόματος ὑμῶν μὴ ἐκπορευέσθω, ἀλλὰ εἴ τις ἀγαθὸς πρὸς οἰκοδομὴν τῆς χρείας, ἵνα δῷ χάριν τοῖς ἀκούουσιν. 28 He that stole, let him now steal no more; but rather let him labor, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have something to give to him that suffereth need. 29 Let no evil speech proceed from your mouth; but that which is good, to the edification of faith, that it may administer grace to the hearers. Exclusa supra vetustate hominis quantum ad vim rationalem et irascibilem, hic prohibet eam quantum ad concupiscibilem provenientem ex rerum inordinata concupiscentia. Circa quod duo facit. Having banned the age old corruption in man’s rational and irascible powers (4:25), here he proscribes it in regard to the concupiscible emotions when they desire temporal goods inordinately. Concerning this he does two things:
Primo prohibet concupiscibilis vetustatem;
secundo hortatur ad eius novitatem, ibi magis autem laboret, et cetera.
First, he prohibits the old ways of these emotions.
Secondly, he exhorts the Ephesians to renew them (4:28b).
Ad vetustatem autem concupiscibilis pertinet furtum, quod provenit ex corrupto et inordinato appetitu rei temporalis. Ideo dicit qui furabatur, iam non furetur, etc., quasi dicat: qui habebat concupiscibilem corruptam et vetustam ex corrupto appetitu rerum temporalium, iam non furetur, scilicet si vult concupiscibilem renovare, quia, ut dicitur Eccli. V, 17: super furem confusio; propter hoc dicitur Ex. XX, 15: non furtum facies. Stealing pertains to the concupiscible appetite’s old ways; it arises from a corrupted and inordinate desire for a temporal object. Therefore he says He that stole, let him now steal no more, as if to say: Whoever has old and corrupted concupiscible emotions due to a contaminating desire for transitory goods, let him not steal any more if he wants to renew them. For “confusion is upon a thief” (Ecclus. 5:17), so that Exodus 20 (15) asserts: “Thou shalt not steal.” Et quia aliquis posset se excusare prae paupertate, ideo dicit magis autem laboret, et cetera. Sicut ipse fecit apostolus, ut dicitur Act. XX, 33: argentum et aurum nullius concupivi, aut vestem, vos ipsi scitis, quoniam ad ea quae mihi opus erant, et his qui mecum sunt, ministraverunt manus istae. Item II Thess. III, 78: ipsi enim scitis quemadmodum oporteat vos imitari nos, quoniam non inquieti fuimus inter vos, neque gratis panem manducavimus ab aliquo, sed in labore et fatigatione, nocte ac die laborantes, ne quem vestrum gravaremus, et cetera. Since someone might excuse himself by reason of his poverty, he says rather let him labor, working with his hands. The Apostle himself practiced this: “For such things as were needful for me and them that are with me, these hands have furnished” (Ac. 20:34). “For you yourselves know how you ought to imitate us: for we were not disorderly among you; neither did we eat any man’s bread for nothing, but in labor and in toil we worked night and day, lest we should be chargeable to any of you” (2 Thess. 3:7-8). Unde notandum est, quod opus manuale ad tria inducitur. Primo ad necessitatem victus acquirendam. Gen. III, 19: in sudore vultus tui vesceris pane tuo. Et ideo qui non habet unde licite vivat, tenetur manibus laborare. II Thess. III, 10: si quis non vult operari, non manducet; quasi dicat: sicut qui non comedit in necessitate peccat, ita et si non laborat. Et sic ponitur hic ad excludendum furtum. Quandoque vero inducitur contra otium, quia multa mala docuit otiositas, Eccli. XXXIII, v. 29. Et ideo qui habent vitam otiosam, tenentur manibus laborare. II Thess. III, 11 s.: audivimus quosdam inter vos ambulare in quiete nihil operantes, sed curiose agentes. His autem, qui huiusmodi sunt, denuntiamus et obsecramus in domino Iesu Christo, ut cum silentio operantes suum panem manducent. Quandoque enim inducitur ad carnis macerationem et domationem. Unde ponitur inter alia opera continentiae II Cor. VI, 5: in laboribus, in vigiliis, in ieiuniis, et cetera. Notice that three motives for manual labor are given. Primarily, it is to obtain necessary food: “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread” (Gen. 3:19). Therefore, anyone who does not lawfully have the where-with-all to live is bound to work with his hands. “If any man will not work, neither let him eat,” (2 Thess. 3:10) seems to affirm: just as he who does not eat when necessity demands it sins, so likewise he who does not work when necessary. This is put here to exclude stealing. Sometimes, however, work is urged in order to dispel idleness since “Idleness hath taught much evil” (Ecclus. 33:29). Hence, those who lead an idle life are bound to work with their hands: “For we have heard there are some among you who walk disorderly; working not at all, but curiously meddling. Now we charge them that are such and beseech them by the Lord Jesus Christ that, working with silence, they would eat their own bread” (2 Thess. 3:11-12). At other times work is recommended to discipline and control the flesh. In this sense it is included among the acts of continence, as in 2 Corinthians 6 (5): “In labours, in watchings, in fastings.” Triplex ergo est ratio iniungendi laborem corporalem; sed prima omnibus necessaria est, et hoc de necessitate praecepti, quia aliis modis potest excludi otium, similiter et lascivia carnis potest alio modo domari et refrenari, et sufficit quomodocumque fiat. Three reasons exist, therefore, for engaging in physical labor. The first is necessary for everyone, and is so by a necessity of precept, while idleness can be avoided in other ways and the immoral tendencies of the flesh can be controlled and checked by other means. It is sufficient if these latter are accomplished in some way. Sequitur quod bonum est, quod dupliciter potest intelligi. Vel in vi accusativi, et sic construetur: magis autem laboret operando manibus, et quidem non illicita, sed quod bonum est. Gal. ult.: bonum autem facientes, non deficiamus. Is. I, 16 s.: quiescite agere perverse, discite bene facere. Vel potest intelligi in vi nominativi: laboret, etc., quod bonum est, quasi haec sit ratio quare laborandum est; quasi dicat: non solum est necessarium laborare, immo etiam bonum est laborare, ut laborans possit vivere, et ut habeat unde tribuat necessitatem patienti. Eccli. XXIX, 2: foenerare proximo tuo in tempore necessitatis illius, et cetera. Which is good follows and can be understood in two ways. If it has the accusative force it could be rendered: Rather let him labor by the work of his hands, not at what is unlawful, but at whatever is honest. “And in doing good, let us not fail. For in due time we shall reap, not failing” (Gal. 6:9). “Cease to do perversely. Learn to do well” (Is. 1:16-17). Or it can be taken with a nominative force: Rather let him labor by the work of his hands which is good. This is the reason why they should work, as though he said: Not only is it necessary to work, it is even good to work that he who does can live and that he may have something to give to him that suffereth need. “Lend to thy neighbour in the time of his need” (Ecclus. 29:2). Deinde cum dicit omnis sermo malus, etc., ponit pertinentia ad veterem hominem in deordinatione ad alium; et facit duo: When he states Let no evil speech proceed from your mouth (v. 29) he begins to discuss what the old man does in relation to other men. He makes two points:
quia primo prohibet vetustatem, et inducit novitatem;
secundo inducit exemplum, in principio V cap., ibi estote ergo, et cetera.
First, be prohibits the old and encourages the new.
Secondly, he provides an example for imitation at the beginning of Chapter Five (5:1).
Ad proximum autem potest quis male se habere dupliciter. Uno modo laedendo eum verbis malis; alio modo malis exemplis. Primo prohibet primum;
secundo secundum, ibi et nolite contristare, et cetera. Prima iterum in duas.
A person may be wrongly disposed toward his neighbor in two ways. In one way, he may hurt him through evil words; in another, he may harm him through bad example. First he forbids the former, secondly the latter (4:30). The first of these also has two sections:
Primo prohibet vetustatem;
secundo inducit ad novitatem, ibi sed si quis, et cetera.
First, he bans the old.
Secondly, he urges them toward the new (4:29b)
Dicit ergo omnis sermo malus, et cetera. Sermo oris praetendit et annuntiat quae sunt in anima, quia voces sunt earum, quae sunt in anima, passionum notae. Ille est bonus sermo, qui indicat bonam dispositionem interiorem, malus vero qui malam. Thus he says Let no evil speech proceed from your mouth. A word from the mouth exteriorizes or expresses whatever is on the mind since spoken words are signs of what occurs in the soul. A good word is one which indicates good interior dispositions, while an evil word externalizes evil dispositions. Tripliciter autem homo ordinatur interius, scilicet ad se, ut scilicet omnia sint rationi subiecta; ad Deum, ut ratio sit ei subdita; ad proximum, quando diligit eum ut seipsum. Est ergo quandoque sermo malus, quando indicat hominem inordinatum in se, et hic est sermo falsus eius, qui aliud loquitur et aliud intendit: et similiter sermo inutilis et vanus. Item, est sermo malus qui indicat hominem inordinatum contra Deum: sicut periuria, blasphemiae, et huiusmodi. Item, etiam est sermo malus, quando est contra proximum suum: sicut iniuriae, doli, et fallaciae. Et ideo dicit omnis sermo malus ex ore vestro non procedat. Omnis non vero aequipollet huic signo, nullus. Sap. I, 11: custodite ergo vos a murmuratione, quae nihil prodest, et a detractione parcite linguae, quia sermo obscurus in vacuum non ibit; quia certe Deum non praeterit omnis cogitatus et non abscondit se ab eo ullus sermo, ut dicitur Eccli. XLII, 20. Nunc autem deponite et vos omnia, iram, indignationem, malitiam, blasphemiam, turpem sermonem de ore vestro, Col. III. Man should possess a threefold inner relationship; namely, to himself, that all his powers are subject to reason; to God, so that his reason submits to him; and to his fellow man when he loves him as himself. Hence a word is evil when it shows that a man is not properly related within himself. This is the false word by which he means one thing and says another; futile and vain talk also belong to this category. Again, there are wicked words which indicate that a man is not related properly to God, such as perjury, blasphemy and the like. Finally, there is also evil talk which is against one’s neighbor, such as injurious, deceitful, and fraudulent words. Therefore does he say Let no evil speech proceed from your mouth. “No” is equivalent to “none.” “Keep yourselves therefore from murmuring which profiteth nothing, and refrain your tongue from detraction: for an obscure speech shall not go for nought” (Wis. 1:11). For God will certainly not forget any thought, “and no word can hide itself from him” as Ecclesiasticus 42 (20) remarks. “But now put away also any anger, indignation, malice, blasphemy, or filthy speech out of your mouth” (Col. 3:8). Sequitur sed si quis bonus est, et cetera. Inducit ad novitatem, quia sermo bonus benedicendus est pro loco et tempore. Prov. c. XV, 23: sermo opportunus est optimus. Si quis ergo loquitur, quasi sermones Dei, I Petr. c. IV, 11. Et ad quid? Subdit ad aedificationem fidei, id est ut corroboretur fides in cordibus infirmorum. I Cor. XIV, 26: omnia ad aedificationem fiant. With that which is good he encourages them on toward newness because a good word, spoken at the right time and place, is blessed. “A word in due time is best” (Prov. 15:23). “If any man speak, let him speak as the words of God” (1 Pet. 4:11). And what for? He adds to the edification of faith in order, that is, for faith to be strengthened in the hearts of the weak: “Let all things be done to edification” (1 Cor. 14:26). Et hoc ut det gratiam audientibus, scilicet si talis bonus sermo sit probatus, vel talis sermo est conferens: quia frequenter homo ex bono sermone et per virtutem boni sermonis auditi, compunctus disponitur ad gratiam. Act. X, 44: adhuc loquente Petro verba haec, cecidit spiritus sanctus super omnes qui audiebant verbum. Sic loquebatur dominus, de quo dicitur Lc. IV, 22: mirabantur ex verbis gratiae, quae procedebant de ore ipsius. Eccle. X, 12: verba oris sapientis gratia. If it may administer grace to the hearers such a word is proven good and it is profitable. For frequently a man repents and is disposed for grace from hearing a good sermon and through the power it conveys. “While Peter was yet speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on all them that heard the word” (Ac. 10:44). Our Lord spoke in this fashion; Luke 4 (22) recounts: “They wondered at the words of grace that proceeded from his mouth.” “The words of the mouth of a wise man are grace” (Eccl. 10:12).
30 καὶ μὴ λυπεῖτε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον τοῦ θεοῦ, ἐν ᾧ ἐσφραγίσθητε εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως. 31 πᾶσα πικρία καὶ θυμὸς καὶ ὀργὴ καὶ κραυγὴ καὶ βλασφημία ἀρθήτω ἀφ' ὑμῶν σὺν πάσῃ κακίᾳ. 32 γίνεσθε [δὲ] εἰς ἀλλήλους χρηστοί, εὔσπλαγχνοι, χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς καθὼς καὶ ὁ θεὸς ἐν Χριστῷ ἐχαρίσατο ὑμῖν. 30 And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God; whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption. 31 Let all bitterness and anger and indignation and clamour and blasphemy be put away from you, with all malice. 32 And be ye kind one to another; merciful, forgiving one another, even as God hath forgiven you in Christ. Supra monuit apostolus abstinere a verbis malis et nocivis, hic monet abstinere a verbis et factis turbativis seu contristativis proximorum. Circa quod duo facit. Previously the Apostle warned the Ephesians to abstain from wicked and injurious words (4:29). Here he advises them against words or actions which would upset or sadden other men. Regarding this he does two things:
Primo prohibet quod pertinet ad vetustatem;
secundo persuadet quod pertinet ad novitatem, ibi estote autem invicem benigni, et cetera.
First, be prohibits what is old.
Secondly, he encourages what pertains to the new (4:32).
Prima iterum in duas, Again the first part has two subdivisions:
quia primo prohibet quod ad vetustatem pertinet in generali;
secundo in speciali, ibi omnis amaritudo, et cetera.
First, he forbids what is old in general.
Secondly, he gets down to specific vices (4:31)
Dicit ergo nolite contristare spiritum, et cetera. Contra: spiritus sanctus est Deus, in quo non cadit passio aliqua, nec tristitia. Respondeo. Spiritus sanctus dicitur contristari, quando contristatur ille, in quo est spiritus sanctus. Lc. X, 16: qui vos spernit, me spernit. Is. LXIII, 10: ipsi autem ad iracundiam provocaverunt eum, et afflixerunt spiritum sanctum eius, et conversus est eis in inimicum. There might be an objection to his saying grieve not the Holy Spirit of God. The Holy Sprit is God in whom there can be no emotion or sorrow. I reply that the Holy Spirit is said to be grieved when that person is saddened in whom the Spirit dwells. “He that despiseth you, despiseth me” (Lk. 10:16). “But they provoked to wrath and afflicted the spirit of his Holy One: and he was turned to be their enemy” (Is. 63:10). Vel dicendum est quod est metaphorica locutio. Sicut enim Deus dicitur irasci propter similitudinem effectus, ita etiam dicitur contristari; quia sicut quando aliquis contristatur recedit a contristante, ita spiritus sanctus a peccante. Et sic est sensus nolite contristare spiritum sanctum Dei, id est nolite eum fugare, vel expellere per peccatum. Sap. I, 5: spiritus sanctus enim disciplinae effugiet fictum, et auferet se a cogitationibus, quae sunt sine intellectu, et corripietur a superveniente iniquitate. Or, it could be called a metaphorical expression. Just as God is said to be angry on account of the similarity of what he does [to the results of human anger], so he could also be said to be grieved. When some person is saddened he withdraws from whoever is depressing him, likewise does the Holy Spirit withdraw from one who is sinning. Thus the meaning of grieve not the Holy Spirit is: do not chase him away or reject him through sin. “For the Holy Spirit of discipline will flee from the deceitful, and will withdraw himself from thoughts that are without understanding: and he shall not abide when iniquity cometh in” (Wis. 1:5). Igitur non est contristandus spiritus sanctus, et hoc propter beneficium signi salutaris. Ideo subiungit in quo signati estis, id est reformati estis, et ab aliis distincti. Qui autem habebit hoc signum secum, habebit vitam aeternam. Ideo ergo est custodiendus et nullo modo contristandus, quia sine eo non est vita aeterna. II Cor. I, 22: qui signavit nos Deus, et dedit nobis pignus spiritus. Et quando? In die redemptionis, id est Baptismi. Io. III, 5: nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et spiritu sancto, et cetera. Act. I, 5: vos autem baptizabimini spiritu sancto, non post multos hos dies. Dicit autem redemptionis, quia in Baptismo fit homo particeps redemptionis factae per Christum. Therefore, the Holy Spirit must not be saddened, and this on account of the blessing of his saving seal. Thus he adds whereby you are sealed, that is, you are reformed and set apart from others. Whoever possesses this seal shall enjoy eternal life. For this reason he must be held on to and in no way grieved since without him there is no life everlasting. “God also hath sealed us and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts” (2 Cor. 1:22). Men did this happen? In the day of redemption, that is, of baptism. “Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” (Jn. 3:5). “You shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence” (Ac. 1:5). He says redemption since in baptism a man becomes a sharer in the redemption accomplished by Christ. Sequitur omnis amaritudo, et cetera. Ubi ostendit in speciali quae pertinent ad vetustatem. Quandoque enim homo contristat amicum suum ex ira, aliquando ex industria. Sed in ira est triplex gradus, quia aliquando retinetur et manet solum in corde, sicut qui tantum interius irascitur. Aliquando vero exprimitur in voce, sine tamen contumeliae prolatione, sicut qui dicit racha. Aliquando fit etiam addita contumeliae prolatione, sicut qui dicit fatue. Primo ergo ponit quod pertinet ad iram cordis;
secundo quod pertinet ad inordinatam prolationem;
tertio quod pertinet ad contumeliam.
In what follows (v. 31) he discloses what specifically belongs to the old man. For at times a man will sadden his friend out of anger, at other times on set purpose. Anger, however, has three degrees. Sometimes it is constrained and remains within the heart, as when someone is only inwardly mad. On other occasions it is expressed verbally, although not in a contemptuous way, as when someone says “Raca” (cf. Mt. 5:22). At still another time contempt may be present in the verbal expression as in “You cursed fool!” Hence he first writes down what pertains to anger of the heart; second what is proper to its inordinate expression; and third what has reference to contempt. In ira autem cordis ista se consequuntur. Primo, quod ira est effectus tristitiae, et haec in sacra Scriptura dicitur amaritudo. I Reg. c. I, 10: cum esset Anna amaro animo, et oraret Deum flens, et cetera. Et ideo dicit omnis amaritudo, etc., quae est per memoriam iniuriae praeteritae. Eccli. XXI, 15: non est sensus ubi abundat amaritudo. Secundo, quod statim appetit vindictam; ideo dicit et ira, quae est appetitus vindictae. Iac. I, 20: ira enim viri Dei iustitiam non operatur. Tertio, quod iratus indignum reputat, quod ei parcat, et indignum esse, quod sine punitione transeat; ideo sequitur et indignatio. In anger of the heart the following succeed one another. Firstly, anger is the result of sorrow, which Sacred Scripture refers to as bitterness: “As Anna had her heart full of bitterness, she prayed to the Lord, shedding many tears” (1 Kg. 1:10). Thus he says all bitterness which arises from the memory of past injuries. For “there is no understanding where there is bitterness” (Ecclus. 21:15). Secondly, it immediately desires revenge; hence he says and anger which is a craving for revenge. “For the anger of man worketh not the justice of God” (Jas. 1:20). Thirdly, an angered person imagines whatever offends him is an insult, and he is indignant if it passes without punishment. Therefore, and indignation follows. Sed quantum ad inordinatam prolationem sic est clamor. Is. V, 7: expectavi ut faceret iudicium, et ecce iniquitas, et iustitiam, et ecce clamor. Ideo dicit et clamor. Similiter et blasphemia est vel contra Deum, vel contra sanctos. Lev. XXIV, 16: quicumque blasphemaverit nomen domini, morte moriatur. Ideo dicit et blasphemia. Et addit tollatur a vobis cum omni malitia, scilicet operis. I Petr. c. II, 2: deponentes omnem malitiam, et omnem dolum et simulationem. Noise has to do with the inordinate expression of anger. “And I looked that he should do judgment, and behold, iniquity: and do justice, and behold, a cry” (Is. 5:7). Hence he says and clamour. In a similar way, blasphemy is either against God or against his saints. Yet “he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, dying let him die” (Lev. 24:16). Thus he says and blasphemy. And he adds that these be put away from you, with all malice of action. Reject “all malice and all guile and dissimulations” (1 Pet. 2:1). Deinde cum dicit estote autem, etc., ponit pertinentia ad novitatem contrariam passionibus praemissis: contra amaritudinem, benignitatem. Unde dicit estote autem invicem benigni. Quia benignus est spiritus sapientiae, et cetera. Contra iram, misericordiam; unde dicit misericordes. Lc. VI, 36: estote ergo misericordes, sicut et pater vester misericors est. Contra indignationem, condonationem; unde dicit donantes invicem, et cetera. Col. III, 13: donantes vobismetipsis si quis adversus aliquem habet querelam, sicut et dominus donavit nobis, ita et vos. Rom. c. VIII, 32: qui etiam proprio filio suo non pepercit; et paulo post sequitur: quomodo non etiam cum illo nobis omnia donavit? Next, when he says be ye kind one to another he determines what pertains to the new man which is contrary to the above mentioned passions. Opposed to bitterness is kindness; so he says be ye kind one to another since “the spirit of wisdom is benevolent” (Wis. 1:6). Mercy is contrary to anger, thus he mentions merciful: “Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful” (Lk. 6:36). Opposed to indignation is a pardoning attitude; whence he says forgiving one another even as God hath forgiven you in Christ. “Forgiving one another, if any have a complaint against another. Even as he Lord hath forgiven you, so do you also” (Col. 3:13). “He that spared not even his own Son,” and shortly afterwards, “how hath he not alos, with him, given us all things?” (Rom. 8:32).